CWD Infection Studies in Two Species of Non-Human Primates
Bruce Chesebro Laboratory of Persistent Virus Diseases, Rocky Mountain Laboratories, Hamilton, Montana USA 59840.
CWD is a TSE/prion disease present in wild and domestic cervid populations of North America. CWD from cervids might possibly spread to humans who hunt and eat these species and to domestic animals such as cattle, sheep or horses sharing the same habitat. Therefore, it is important to understand the potential for spread of CWD to other species. Laboratory experiments have shown that CWD does not cause disease in transgenic mice expressing human PrP, suggesting that humans and other primates might be resistant to this infection. However, earlier data from the laboratory of Richard Marsh found that squirrel monkeys could be infected by intracerebral CWD inoculation. We recently followed up this work extending it to studies of two primate species, squirrel monkeys and Cynomolgus macaques. We also compared intracerebral and oral routes of infection. To search for possible CWD variant strains we analyzed 8 different CWD pools obtained from wild or domestic elk, mule deer and white-tailed deer. The results of these experiments will be presented.http://www.istitutoveneto.it/prion_09/Abstracts_09.pdf
J Virol. 2005 November; 79(21): 13794–13796. doi: 10.1128/JVI.79.21.13794-13796.2005. PMCID: PMC1262585
Copyright © 2005, American Society for Microbiology
Interspecies Transmission of Chronic Wasting Disease Prions to Squirrel Monkeys (Saimiri sciureus)
Richard F. Marsh,1† Anthony E. Kincaid,2 Richard A. Bessen,3 and Jason C. Bartz4* Department of Animal Health and Biomedical Sciences, University of Wisconsin, Madison 53706,1 Department of Physical Therapy,2 Department of Medical Microbiology and Immunology, Creighton University, Omaha, Nebraska 68178,4 Department of Veterinary Molecular Biology, Montana State University, Bozeman, Montana 597183 *Corresponding author. Mailing address: Department of Medical Microbiology and Immunology, Creighton University, 2500 California Plaza, Omaha, NE 68178. Phone: (402) 280-1811. Fax: (402) 280-1875. E-mail: mhtml:%7B33B38F65-8D2E-434D-8F9B-8BDCD77D3066%7Dmid://00000263/!x-usc:mailto:email@example.com
. †Deceased. Received May 3, 2005; Accepted August 10, 2005. This article has been cited by other articles in PMC. Top AbstractChronic wasting disease (CWD) is an emerging prion disease of deer and elk. The risk of CWD transmission to humans following exposure to CWD-infected tissues is unknown. To assess the susceptibility of nonhuman primates to CWD, two squirrel monkeys were inoculated with brain tissue from a CWD-infected mule deer. The CWD-inoculated squirrel monkeys developed a progressive neurodegenerative disease and were euthanized at 31 and 34 months postinfection. Brain tissue from the CWD-infected squirrel monkeys contained the abnormal isoform of the prion protein, PrP-res, and displayed spongiform degeneration. This is the first reported transmission of CWD to primates.http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?artid=1262585
THE ENVIRONMENT AS A RESERVOIR OF PRION INFECTIVITY
Aiken, Judd1,2, Chris Johnson4, Debbie McKenzie1,3 and Joel Pedersen5 1 Centre for Prions and Protein Folding Diseases, 2 Department of Agriculture, Food and Nutritional Sciences, 3 Department of Biological Sciences, University of Alberta, Edmonton, Alberta Canada, 4 National Wildlife Health Center, Madison, WI and 5 Department of Soil Sciences, University of Wisconsin, Madison
An environmental reservoir of prion infectivity has long been known to be a source of infection of sheep scrapie and likely plays an even more important role in the transmission of chronic wasting disease (CWD) in elk, deer and moose. Prion infectivity is extremely resistant to degradation, resulting in an environmental persistence of infectious agent. CWD is a contagious disease of free-ranging cervids. Infected deer and elk release infectious agent into the environment from body fluids and from diseased animal carcasses. The rapid expansion of CWD in North America represents a significant and continued environmental risk not only to cervids but to other species as well. Our work has demonstrated that prion protein, including PrPCWD, binds avidly to soil and soil components. Significantly, prion/soil binding enhances disease transmission suggesting that the soils, once contaminated with infectious prions, plays a critical role in maintaining and perpetuating prion infections.
III International Symposium on THE NEW PRION BIOLOGY: BASIC SCIENCE, DIAGNOSIS AND THERAPY 2 - 4 APRIL 2009, VENEZIA (ITALY)http://www.istitutoveneto.it/prion_09/Abstracts_09.pdf
ADAPTATION OF CHRONIC WASTING DISEASE (CWD) INTO HAMSTERS, EVIDENCE OF A WISCONSIN STRAIN OF CWD
Chad Johnson1, Judd Aiken2,3,4 and Debbie McKenzie4,5 1 Department of Comparative Biosciences, University of Wisconsin, Madison WI, USA 53706 2 Department of Agriculture, Food and Nutritional Sciences, 3 Alberta Veterinary Research Institute, 4.Center for Prions and Protein Folding Diseases, 5 Department of Biological Sciences, University of Alberta, Edmonton AB, Canada T6G 2P5 The identification and characterization of prion strains is increasingly important for the diagnosis and biological definition of these infectious pathogens. Although well-established in scrapie and, more recently, in BSE, comparatively little is known about the possibility of prion strains in chronic wasting disease (CWD), a disease affecting free ranging and captive cervids, primarily in North America. We have identified prion protein variants in the white-tailed deer population and demonstrated that Prnp genotype affects the susceptibility/disease progression of white-tailed deer to CWD agent. The existence of cervid prion protein variants raises the likelihood of distinct CWD strains. Small rodent models are a useful means of identifying prion strains. We intracerebrally inoculated hamsters with brain homogenates and phosphotungstate concentrated preparations from CWD positive hunter-harvested (Wisconsin CWD endemic area) and experimentally infected deer of known Prnp genotypes. These transmission studies resulted in clinical presentation in primary passage of concentrated CWD prions. Subclinical infection was established with the other primary passages based on the detection of PrPCWD in the brains of hamsters and the successful disease transmission upon second passage. Second and third passage data, when compared to transmission studies using different CWD inocula (Raymond et al., 2007) indicate that the CWD agent present in the Wisconsin white-tailed deer population is different than the strain(s) present in elk, mule-deer and white-tailed deer from the western United States endemic region.http://www.istitutoveneto.it/prion_09/Abstracts_09.pdf
RECALLS AND FIELD CORRECTIONS: FOODS CLASS II
a) Elk Meat, Elk Tenderloin, Frozen in plastic vacuum packaging. Each package is approximately 2 lbs., and each case is approximately 16 lbs.; Item number 755125, Recall # F-129-9;
b) Elk Meat, Elk Trim, Frozen; Item number 755155, Recall # F-130-9;
c) Elk Meat, French Rack, Chilled. Item number 755132, Recall # F-131-9;
d) Elk Meat, Nude Denver Leg. Item number 755122, Recall # F-132-9;
e) Elk Meat, New York Strip Steak, Chilled. Item number 755128, Recall # F-133-9;
f) Elk Meat, Flank Steak Frozen. Item number 755131, Recall # F-134-9;
Elk Meats with production dates of December 29, 30, and 31
Recalling Firm: Sierra Meats, Reno, NV, by telephone on January 29, 2009 and press release on February 9, 2009.
Manufacturer: Noah's Ark Holding, LLC, Dawson, MN. Firm initiated recall is ongoing.
Elk products contain meat derived from an elk confirmed to have Chronic Wasting Disease (CWD).
VOLUME OF PRODUCT IN COMMERCE
NV, CA, TX, CO, NY, UT, FL, OK
Monday, February 09, 2009
Exotic Meats USA Announces Urgent Statewide Recall of Elk Tenderloin Because It May Contain Meat Derived From An Elk Confirmed To Have CWD
Cross-sequence transmission of sporadic Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease creates a new prion strain
Date: August 25, 2007 at 12:42 pm PST
our results raise the possibility that CJD cases classified as VV1 may include cases caused by iatrogenic transmission of sCJD-MM1 prions or food-borne infection by type 1 prions from animals, e.g., chronic wasting disease prions in cervid. In fact, two CJD-VV1 patients who hunted deer or consumed venison have been reported (40, 41). The results of the present study emphasize the need for traceback studies and careful re-examination of the biochemical properties of sCJD-VV1 prions.http://www.jbc.org/
Clearly, it is premature to draw firm conclusions about CWD passing naturally into humans, cattle and sheep, but the present results suggest that CWD transmissions to humans would be as limited by PrP incompatibility as transmissions of BSE or sheep scrapie to humans. Although there is no evidence that sheep scrapie has affected humans, it is likely that BSE has caused variant CJD in 74 people (definite and probable variant CJD cases to date according to the UK CJD Surveillance Unit). Given the presumably large number of people exposed to BSE infectivity, the susceptibility of humans may still be very low compared with cattle, which would be consistent with the relatively inefficient conversion of human PrP-sen by PrPBSE. Nonetheless, since humans have apparently been infected by BSE, it would seem prudent to take reasonable measures to limit exposure of humans (as well as sheep and cattle) to CWD infectivity as has been recommended for other animal TSEs.
From: TSS (216-119-163-189.ipset45.wt.net) Subject: CWD aka MAD DEER/ELK TO HUMANS ??? Date: September 30, 2002 at 7:06 am PST
From: "Belay, Ermias" To: Cc: "Race, Richard (NIH)" ; ; "Belay, Ermias" Sent: Monday, September 30, 2002 9:22 AM Subject: RE: TO CDC AND NIH - PUB MED- 3 MORE DEATHS - CWD - YOUNG HUNTERS
Dear Sir/Madam, In the Archives of Neurology you quoted (the abstract of which was attached to your email), we did not say CWD in humans will present like variant CJD.
That assumption would be wrong. I encourage you to read the whole article and call me if you have questions or need more clarification (phone: 404-639-3091). Also, we do not claim that "no-one has ever been infected with prion disease from eating venison." Our conclusion stating that we found no strong evidence of CWD transmission to humans in the article you quoted or in any other forum is limited to the patients we investigated.
Ermias Belay, M.D. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention
-----Original Message----- From: Sent: Sunday, September 29, 2002 10:15 AM To: [log in to unmask]">[log in to unmask]; [log in to unmask]">[log in to unmask]; [log in to unmask]">[log in to unmask] Subject: TO CDC AND NIH - PUB MED- 3 MORE DEATHS - CWD - YOUNG HUNTERS
Sunday, November 10, 2002 6:26 PM ......snip........end..............TSS
full text ;http://chronic-wasting-disease.blogspot.com/2009/02/exotic-meats-usa-announces-urgent.html
Wednesday, March 18, 2009 Noah's Ark Holding, LLC, Dawson, MN RECALL Elk products contain meat derived from an elk confirmed to have CWD NV, CA, TX, CO, NY, UT, FL, OK RECALLS AND FIELD CORRECTIONS: FOODS CLASS IIhttp://chronic-wasting-disease.blogspot.com/2009/03/noahs-ark-holding-llc-dawson-mn-recall.html
Thursday, March 19, 2009
Chronic Wasting Disease Prions in Elk Antler Velvet (Nutritional Supplements and CJD)http://chronic-wasting-disease.blogspot.com/2009/03/chronic-wasting-disease-prions-in-elk.html
Wednesday, March 18, 2009
Detection of CWD Prions in Urine and Saliva of Deer by Transgenic Mouse Bioassayhttp://chronic-wasting-disease.blogspot.com/2009/03/detection-of-cwd-prions-in-urine-and.html
Thursday, March 26, 2009
HB 4214 - Texas: Relating to the business of taxidermy; providing penalties AND HELP PREVENT CWDhttp://chronic-wasting-disease.blogspot.com/2009/03/hb-4214-texas-relating-to-business-of.html
Tuesday, January 27, 2009 Chronic Wasting Disease found in a farmed elk from Olmsted County ST. PAUL, Minn. FOR IMMEDIATE RELEASE: Monday, January 26, 2009http://chronic-wasting-disease.blogspot.com/2009/01/chronic-wasting-disease-found-in-farmed.html
Saturday, January 24, 2009
Research Project: Detection of TSE Agents in Livestock, Wildlife, Agricultural Products, and the Environment Location: 2008 Annual Reporthttp://bse-atypical.blogspot.com/2009/01/research-project-detection-of-tse.html
Monday, January 05, 2009
CWD, GAME FARMS, BAITING, AND POLITICShttp://chronic-wasting-disease.blogspot.com/2009/01/cwd-game-farms-baiting-and-politics.html
2008 CWD Laboratory Testing for Wild White-tailed Deerhttp://www.michigan.gov/emergingdiseases/0,1607,7-186-25806-202922--,00.html
Wednesday, January 07, 2009
CWD to tighten taxidermy rules Hunters need to understand regulationshttp://chronic-wasting-disease.blogspot.com/2009/01/cwd-to-tighten-taxidermy-rules-hunters.html
Thursday, December 25, 2008 Lions and Prions and Deer Demisehttp://chronic-wasting-disease.blogspot.com/2008/12/lions-and-prions-and-deer-demise.html
Creutzfeldt Jakob Diseasehttp://creutzfeldt-jakob-disease.blogspot.com/
USA PRION UNIT BLOGhttp://prionunitusaupdate2008.blogspot.com/
Sunday, April 20, 2008 Progress Report from the National Prion Disease Pathology Surveillance Center April 3, 2008
Atypical forms of BSE have emerged which, although rare, appear to be more virulent than the classical BSE that causes vCJD.
see full text ;http://prionunitusaupdate2008.blogspot.com/2008/04/progress-report-from-national-prion.html
CJD TEXAS (cjd clusters)http://cjdtexas.blogspot.com/
USA WRITTEN CJD QUESTIONNAIRE ???http://cjdquestionnaire.blogspot.com/
In short, a great deal of further work will need to be done before the phenotypic features and prevalence of atypical BSE are understood. More than a single strain may have been present from the beginning of the epidemic, but this possibility has been overlooked by virtue of the absence of widespread Western blot confirmatory testing of positive screening test results; or these new phenotypes may be found, at least in part, to result from infections at an older age by a typical BSE agent, rather than neonatal infections with new "strains" of BSE. Neither alternative has yet been investigated.http://www.cdc.gov/ncidod/EID/vol12no12/06-0965.htm
A New Prionopathy OR more of the same old BSe and sporadic CJDhttp://creutzfeldt-jakob-disease.blogspot.com/2008/08/new-prionopathy-or-more-of-same-old-bse.html
Communicated by: Terry S. Singeltary Sr.
[In submitting these data, Terry S. Singeltary Sr. draws attention to the steady increase in the "type unknown" category, which, according to their definition, comprises cases in which vCJD could be excluded. The total of 26 cases for the current year (2007) is disturbing, possibly symptomatic of the circulation of novel agents. Characterization of these agents should be given a high priority. - Mod.CP]http://pro-med.blogspot.com/2007/11/proahedr-prion-disease-update-2007-07.htmlhttp://www.promedmail.org/pls/askus/f?p=2400:1001:6833194127530602005::NO::F2400_P1001_BACK_PAGE,F2400_P1001_PUB_MAIL_ID:1010,39963
There is a growing number of human CJD cases, and they were presented last week in San Francisco by Luigi Gambatti(?) from his CJD surveillance collection.
He estimates that it may be up to 14 or 15 persons which display selectively SPRPSC and practically no detected RPRPSC proteins.http://www.fda.gov/ohrms/dockets/ac/06/transcripts/1006-4240t1.htmhttp://www.fda.gov/ohrms/dockets/ac/06/transcripts/2006-4240t1.pdf
sporadic Fatal Familial Insomniahttp://sporadicffi.blogspot.com/
JOURNAL OF NEUROLOGY
MARCH 26, 2003
RE-Monitoring the occurrence of emerging forms of Creutzfeldt-Jakob
disease in the United States
Email Terry S. Singeltary:mhtml:%7B33B38F65-8D2E-434D-8F9B-8BDCD77D3066%7Dmid://00000263/!x-usc:mailto:firstname.lastname@example.org
I lost my mother to hvCJD (Heidenhain Variant CJD). I would like to comment on the CDC's attempts to monitor the occurrence of emerging forms of CJD. Asante, Collinge et al  have reported that BSE transmission to the 129-methionine genotype can lead to an alternate phenotype that is indistinguishable from type 2 PrPSc, the commonest sporadic CJD. However, CJD and all human TSEs are not reportable nationally. CJD and all human TSEs must be made reportable in every state and internationally. I hope that the CDC does not continue to expect us to still believe that the 85%+ of all CJD cases which are sporadic are all spontaneous, without route/source. We have many TSEs in the USA in both animal and man. CWD in deer/elk is spreading rapidly and CWD does transmit to mink, ferret, cattle, and squirrel monkey by intracerebral inoculation. With the known incubation periods in other TSEs, oral transmission studies of CWD may take much longer. Every victim/family of CJD/TSEs should be asked about route and source of this agent. To prolong this will only spread the agent and needlessly expose others. In light of the findings of Asante and Collinge et al, there should be drastic measures to safeguard the medical and surgical arena from sporadic CJDs and all human TSEs. I only ponder how many sporadic CJDs in the USA are type 2 PrPSc?http://www.neurology.org/cgi/eletters/60/2/176#535
The Lancet Infectious Diseases, Volume 3, Issue 8, Page 463, August 2003doi:10.1016/S1473-3099(03)00715-1Cite or Link Using DOI
Tracking spongiform encephalopathies in North America
“My name is Terry S Singeltary Sr, and I live in Bacliff, Texas. I lost my mom to hvCJD (Heidenhain variant CJD) and have been searching for answers ever since. What I have found is that we have not been told the truth. CWD in deer and elk is a small portion of a much bigger problem.”
49-year-old Singeltary is one of a number of people who have remained largely unsatisfied after being told that a close relative died from a rapidly progressive dementia compatible with spontaneous Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (CJD). So he decided to gather hundreds of documents on transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (TSE) and realised that if Britons could get variant CJD from bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE), Americans might get a similar disorder from chronic wasting disease (CWD)—the relative of mad cow disease seen among deer and elk in the USA. Although his feverish ........
THE PATHOLOGICAL PROTEIN
Hardcover, 304 pages plus photos and illustrations. ISBN 0-387-95508-9
BY Philip Yam
CHAPTER 14 LAYING ODDS
Answering critics like Terry Singeltary, who feels that the U.S. under- counts CJD, Schonberger conceded that the current surveillance system has errors but stated that most of the errors will be confined to the older population.
Diagnosis and Reporting of Creutzfeldt-Jakob Disease Singeltary, Sr et al. JAMA.2001; 285: 733-734. Vol. 285 No. 6, February 14, 2001 JAMA
Diagnosis and Reporting of Creutzfeldt-Jakob Disease
To the Editor: In their Research Letter, Dr Gibbons and colleagues1 reported that the annual US death rate due to Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (CJD) has been stable since 1985. These estimates, however, are based only on reported cases, and do not include misdiagnosed or preclinical cases. It seems to me that misdiagnosis alone would drastically change these figures. An unknown number of persons with a diagnosis of Alzheimer disease in fact may have CJD, although only a small number of these patients receive the postmortem examination necessary to make this diagnosis. Furthermore, only a few states have made CJD reportable. Human and animal transmissible spongiform encephalopathies should be reportable nationwide and internationally.
Terry S. Singeltary, Sr Bacliff, Tex
1. Gibbons RV, Holman RC, Belay ED, Schonberger LB. Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease in the United States: 1979-1998. JAMA. 2000;284:2322-2323. FREE FULL TEXT
2 January 2000 British Medical Journal U.S. Scientist should be concerned with a CJD epidemic in the U.S., as well
15 November 1999 British Medical Journal vCJD in the USA * BSE in U.S.
Labels: CJD, CWD, ENVIRONMENT, novel prion strains, PRIMATES