Wednesday, September 17, 2014


Game and Fish Continues CWD Sampling
Wyoming Game & Fish Department sent this bulletin at 09/15/2014 03:16 PM MDT




Contact: Mark Zornes or Lucy Wold, 307-875-3223


GREEN RIVER – It has been two years since Chronic Wasting Disease (CWD), a fatal neurological disease of deer, elk, and moose was discovered in deer hunt area 132. Workers in the Green River Game and Fish Region are continuing disease surveillance in southwest Wyoming and are asking hunters for their assistance in the surveillance efforts.


Green River Wildlife Management Coordinator Mark Zornes said the occurrence of CWD in Green River is not a huge surprise, as it has been documented in Utah near the Wyoming border, about 40 miles to the south.


“Green River region personnel will be collecting samples through hunter field checks and at check stations,” Zornes said. “Deer hunters are also encouraged to bring their deer heads to the Green River Regional Office located at 351 Astle Avenue in Green River so that the lymph nodes may be removed for sampling. Game and Fish personnel collect and analyze more than 4,000 CWD samples annually throughout the state. The sampling process only takes a few minutes. Hunters can call ahead to make sure someone is at the office to take a sample by calling 875-3223.”


Chronic Wasting Disease is not known to be a disease of humans. Nonetheless, to avoid risk, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention recommends that people avoid eating meat from deer and elk that look sick or that test positive for CWD.


There are no methods that have been proven effective in stopping the expansion of CWD, although a number of things have been tried in other states. Recent research in Wisconsin and Colorado has shown that large-scale culling of animals is ineffective in stopping the spread of the disease or reducing its prevalence. Currently, the Wyoming Game and Fish Department is monitoring the disease, conducting various research projects to understand more about CWD, and educating the public on the presence of the disease and what it means for wildlife and people. The department is committed to using the best available science to manage this disease in a manner that makes sense for the wildlife and people of Wyoming.


For more information about CWD in Wyoming, visit the WGFD website at:


For more information about CWD in North America, visit the CWD Alliance website at:


 Photo Credit: Lucy Wold, WGFD, CWD sampling at Kemmerer Check Station





Mateus-Pinilla Jan Novakofski PII: S0167-5877(13)00289-4 DOI:


Reference: PREVET 3436 To appear in: PREVET


Received date: 11-12-2012 Revised date: 11-9-2013 Accepted date: 14-9-2013


Please cite this article as: Manjerovic, M.B., Green, M.L., Mateus-Pinilla, N., Novakofski, J.,


*** The importance of localized culling in stabilizing chronic wasting disease prevalence in white-tailed deer populations ***


Preventive Veterinary Medicine (2013), This is a PDF file of an unedited manuscript that has been accepted for publication. As a service to our customers we are providing this early version of the manuscript. The manuscript will undergo copyediting, typesetting, and review of the resulting proof before it is published in its final form. Please note that during the production process errors may be discovered which could affect the content, and all legal disclaimers that apply to the journal pertain.


Page 1 of 27


Accepted Manuscript


The importance of localized culling in stabilizing chronic wasting disease prevalence in white-tailed deer populations


Mary Beth Manjerovic1,2, Michelle L. Green1,2, Nohra Mateus-Pinilla1, and Jan Novakofski2


1Illinois Natural History Survey, University of Illinois Urbana-Champaign, 1816 S. Oak Street, Champaign, IL, 61820, USA


2Department of Animal Sciences, Illinois Natural History Survey, University of Illinois Urbana-Champaign, 1503 S. Maryland Drive, Urbana, IL, 61801, USA


Corresponding author: Nohra Mateus-Pinilla Phone: 1-217-333-6856 Fax: 1-217-244-0802 Email:


Correspondence address: Illinois Natural History Survey University of Illinois Urbana-Champaign 1816 S. Oak Street Champaign, IL, 61820, USA


Page 2 of 27 Accepted Manuscript




Strategies to contain the spread of disease often are developed with incomplete knowledge of the possible outcomes but are intended to minimize the risks associated with delaying control. Culling of game species by government agencies is one approach to control disease in wild populations but is unpopular with hunters and wildlife enthusiasts, politically unpalatable, and erodes public support for agencies responsible for wildlife management. We addressed the functional differences between hunting and government culling programs for managing chronic wasting disease (CWD) in white39 tailed deer by comparing prevalence over a 10-year period in Illinois and Wisconsin. We found similar prevalence in both states when management emphasized culling but an increase in CWD after Wisconsin switched from culling to a hunter-harvest focused management strategy.


*** Despite its unpopularity among hunters, localized culling is a disease management strategy that can maintain low disease prevalence without affecting recreational deer harvest.


Keywords: culling, prion, chronic wasting disease, white-tailed deer, wildlife, prevalence, disease management






North American cervids [mule deer (Odocoileus hemionus), elk (Cervus elaphus), moose (Alces alces), and white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus)] are popular game animals making them economically and recreationally valuable species. Free-living cervids are susceptible to chronic wasting disease (CWD) (Miller et al. 2000; Spraker et al. 1997), a contagious and fatal prion disease with no cure or treatment (Williams et al., 2002). To date, CWD has been identified in free-ranging cervid populations in 17 states and two Canadian provinces ( CWD is spread in free-living animals through contact with bodily secretions or infectious agents persisting in contaminated environments (Mathiason et al., 2009, 2006; Walter et al., 2011; Williams et al., 2002). Such transmissibility results in a self-sustaining CWD epizootic with prevalence increasing slowly over time (Miller et al., 2000; Miller and Conner, 2005; Saunders et al., 2012; Williams et al., 2002). Furthermore, the environmental load of infectious prions increases with the number of infectious animals making CWD exceedingly difficult to eliminate from free-ranging populations once established (Almberg et al., 2011; Gross and Miller, 2001). CWD models suggest substantial declines in cervid populations with high prevalence and highlight the importance of long-term, sustained management programs in controlling CWD (Gross and Miller, 2001; Mateus-Pinilla et al., 2013; Wasserberg et al., 2009). ...




4. Discussion


Although culling is a widespread strategy for wildlife disease management and for control of invasive ani-mal species (Carstensen et al., 2011; Heberlein, 2004;Woodroffe, 1999), based on the results of our study the effectiveness of using public hunting rather than government culling is questionable. Reduction in local deer densities by IDNR contributed to a stable prevalence of ∼1% over the last 10 years. Because culling in Illinois always occurs in areas with CWD, no experimental control area exists to statistically address the effect of not culling. How-ever, comparison of prevalence in northern Illinois with publically available data for southern Wisconsin allows usto infer the association between different approaches to disease management and reduced CWD control in geo-graphically similar areas. From 2003 to 2007, WDNR had a government culling program similar to Illinois and com-parable CWD prevalence of 1%. In 2007, public pressure resulted in a severe reduction of Wisconsin’s culling pro-gram. In the following 5 years, while Wisconsin relied primarily on public hunting to reduce deer populations and control CWD, there was a steady increase in prevalence to a current level of almost 5%. The rise in prevalence of CWD in Wisconsin suggests that this disease cannot be contained effectively through hunter harvest alone. Over the same time period, the comparison of prevalence to Illinois suggests that culling effectively maintained low CWD prevalence.


Over the 10 years of this study, the primary factor included in this study that changed between the two states was management. While it is possible that the difference seen in prevalence between states is a reflection of differences in factors that affect disease transmission (e.g. forest cover) (Storm et al., 2013) or persistence of prions in the environment (e.g. clay, (Walter et al., 2011)), these fac-tors did not explain the temporal differences we observed.We have no reason to suspect that forest cover and soil composition would change over the time of this study. The single factor of those examined in this study that we have identified that has changed in WI was the cessation of the sharpshooting program in 2007, a time point that coincides with the inflection in WI prevalence. Furthermore, it is esti-mated that for every 1% increase in clay, a 3.9% increase in CWD prevalence is expected (Walter et al., 2011). This information suggests expectations of higher prevalence in IL because of higher clay content compared to WI.


Relying on hunter harvest alone may be less effective at maintaining low CWD prevalence because, unlike government culling, there is no practical approach to concentrate hunter effort specifically in high risk CWD areas. Hunters take deer from a much larger area and do not target specific locales of high disease prevalence. In addition, animals often were located in areas where hunter harvest was not allowed and government culling represented the only avenue of control in those areas. Although hunter harvest was limited in the effect it had on CWD prevalence, hunter harvested deer were the primary mechanism for disease surveillance and serve a valuable role in early detection.Hunter surveillance and public reports of animals exhibit-ing clinical signs of CWD were used to find new positive locations. Once identified, the IDNR then focused culling efforts on these areas. Thus, the collaborative partnership between stakeholders and state agency personnel resulted in an effective control mechanism that incorporated early detection with localized disease management.


The use of government culling as a management strategy instead of increased public hunting has been criticized because of the perceived reduction in hunter opportunity (Holsman et al., 2010). Based on annual Illinois hunter harvest records, we found the Illinois disease management program has not had a negative effect on regional hunter harvest in northern Illinois. The number of deer harvested by hunters was greater in the 10 years since management began compared to the 10 years prior to disease management. While this may reflect additional hunting seasons that were created specifically to reduce herds in high risk areas, the increase in hunter harvest follows the same positive trajectory throughout the entire state of Illinois including areas where these additional seasons were not opened. At a smaller scale, two of the four Illinois counties that had the longest CWD management have seen a reduction in hunter harvest, while two counties with the same length of management did not have a reduction in hunter harvest. Therefore, the impact of government culling on hunter opportunity is related to both the spatial scale at which harvest is measured and the spatial scale of the culling program. In Illinois, the state agency management program based on local culling likely has achieved the goal of preventing an increase in CWD without a consistent reduction of hunter opportunity at a local scale while also maintaining overall hunter opportunity at a larger scale throughout the state.


It is generally recognized that there are costs associated with either controlling wildlife disease or allowing the dis-ease to run its course. Although not addressed by this study,it is likely the relative costs of these strategies are important in state agency management decisions. Public opinions are also important to wildlife management decisions because they can influence agency funding and support for management decisions. In the case of diseases such as CWD, the perceived threat of human health risks may influence public opinion of management decisions (Holsman et al.,2010). Because public perception of disease is tied to direct experiences (Camerer and Kunreuther, 1989), the absence of known associations of CWD with human neurological conditions (Belay et al., 2004) resulted in low perceived risk from consuming or handling infected tissues (Angerset al., 2006). This low risk perception may have translated into poor support for wildlife disease management.


Consideration of costs in wildlife disease management is further complicated by the potential of high future costs should new information indicate greater human health risks. Without disease management, CWD is likely to spread faster or farther. Increasing CWD prevalence or distribution in the present would make future disease control more difficult and expensive. According to models,an increase in CWD prevalence from 1 to 5% doubles the time required to have a 50% chance of eliminating the disease (Gross and Miller, 2001). Because complete eradication is unlikely, data driven management policies to contain disease spread are necessary for public support and economically justified to maintain herd health andfuture recreational opportunities (Gross and Miller, 2001;Saunders et al., 2012).


Previous disease models have provided inconsistent management recommendations because of a lack of empirical data on the role of density in transmission (Gross and Miller, 2001; Schauber and Woolf, 2003; Wasserberg et al.,2009). A recent CWD model suggested focused culling is a more effective strategy for reducing CWD transmission compared to reducing overall deer numbers (Storm et al.,2013). Models suggest local culling is effective because cervid social group interactions are complex and variations in contact rates influence transmission (Habib et al., 2011;Potapov et al., 2013; Storm et al., 2013). Mateus-Pinillaet al. (2013) examined results of culling and concluded that frequent and continued culling is necessary to minimize CWD prevalence. The complexity of CWD transmission highlights the importance of standard reporting of CWD prevalence across states. We expect reliable data on this problem will significantly influence policy and CWD management decisions. Our comparison between states in this study includes the longest sustained government culling program for wildlife disease in large mammals and is a unique opportunity to validate and improve models for disease control. We conclude that localized culling can maintain a low CWD prevalence in deer without compromising hunter harvest opportunities.


see full text ;




Q93. If Chronic Wasting Disease was found in an area where you deer hunt in Maryland and regulations were implemented to prohibit the removal of whole deer carcasses from the area, do you agree or disagree that you would stop deer hunting in that area?


Strongly agree


20 26 33 32


Percent who strongly or moderately agree they would stop deer hunting given the following conditions.


30 39 49 44


Q93. If Chronic Wasting Disease was found in an area where you deer hunt in Maryland and regulations were implemented to prohibit the removal of whole deer carcasses from the area



Hunters’ Attitudes Toward CWD and Management Efforts in Hampshire County 65 Note: Graph shows results obtained from seven questions. Each item was asked about individually.
















0 20 40 60 80 100


Q87. The presence of Chronic Wasting Disease in Hampshire County


Q91. The ban on baiting and feeding deer in Hampshire County


Q88. Because you are concerned the deer you harvest or the meat you consume might be infected with Chronic Wasting Disease


Q92. The carcass transportation restrictions for Hampshire County


Q89. Because you feel you cannot be sure the deer you harvest in Hampshire County is not infected with Chronic Wasting Disease


Q90. Because you are concerned you might get Chronic Wasting Disease from deer in Hampshire County


Q93. The presence of the West Virginia Division of Natural Resources at checking stations in Hampshire County Percent (n=259)


Percent who indicated that the following strongly or moderately influenced their decision to deer hunt less or stop deer hunting in Hampshire County since 2004. (Among those whose deer hunting participation in Hampshire County since 2004 decreased or stopped.)





Submitted by Katie M. Lyon Department of Human Dimensions of Natural Resources In partial fulfillment of the requirements For the Degree of Master of Science Colorado State University Fort Collins, Colorado Spring 2011






Bivariate analysis


Across the entire sample, 27% of respondents indicated that they would stop hunting because of CWD (Table I). All five independent variables were statistically significant predictors of stopping hunting in the state and thus provide evidence to support the first hypothesis. The greater the prevalence of CWD in the state the more likely hunters were to quit. At the lowest hypothetical prevalence level, 13% indicated that they would no longer hunt in the state. When prevalence reached 50% statewide, 52% said that they would stop hunting. The difference in these distributions was statistically significant (χ2 = 3,338.46, p < .001, r = .37).


If CWD were to cause human death, respondents were significantly more likely to stop hunting in the state (χ2 = 1,187.99, p < .001, r = .25). Forty-three percent indicated that they would quit hunting in the hypothetical scenarios where a hunter had died due to CWD; only 19% said they would stop in the “no human death” scenarios. When hunters’ perceived extreme risks associated with CWD, 46% would stop hunting in the state. By comparison, 19% would quit hunting when they perceived no CWD related risks (χ2 = 600.27, p < .001, r = .17).


Whether or not CWD had been detected in the state and the respondents’ state of residency were also significant predictors of hunters’ behavioral intentions. Individuals who had hunted in states that did not have CWD were slightly more likely (30%) to stop hunting than those who had hunted in a CWD state (25%). Nonresidents (29%) were slightly more likely to quit than residents (24%). These relationships, however, were not strong for either the presence of CWD in a state or residency (r = -.05 in both cases).




The significant 3-way interaction quit hunting * perceived risk * resident, for example, indicated that nonresidents of the state who perceived greater risk were more likely to quit hunting deer in the state. In the 4-way interaction, stopping hunting increased: (a) when prevalence increased, (b) a human death attributable to CWD had occurred, and (c) if CWD had been detected in the state. Under the worst case scenario (i.e., 50% prevalence statewide, human death, a non-CWD state), 64% of the respondents would stop hunting in the state (Table 3.3). If the prevalence of CWD was 50% statewide, a human death had occurred, and the disease had been detected in the state, 60% would quit hunting. Consistent with past research, if CWD is concentrated in a single area at relatively low prevalence levels, few hunters would quit the activity.




Interactions among the predictors were hypothesized to increase the potential for stopping hunting in the state. Multivariate analysis confirmed that the decision to stop hunting interacted with all five predictors and suggested that combinations of these predictors increase the probability of quitting. The 4-way interaction, for example, revealed that 60% or more of our respondents would stop hunting if CWD prevalence ever reached 50% statewide and a human death attributable to CWD had occurred. These findings support our second hypothesis and have implications for management, theory, and research.



Human Dimensions of Wildlife, 9:211–231, 2004 Copyright © Taylor & Francis Inc. ISSN: 1087–1209 print / 1533-158X online DOI: 10.1080/10871200490479990


Hunters’ Behavior and Acceptance of Management Actions Related to Chronic Wasting Disease in Eight States


MARK D. NEEDHAM JERRY J. VASKE MICHAEL J. MANFREDO Department of Natural Resource Recreation and Tourism Human Dimensions in Natural Resources Unit Colorado State University Fort Collins, Colorado, USA


The impacts of chronic wasting disease (CWD) on hunters’ behavior and beliefs about acceptable management actions are not clearly understood. This article presents findings from an initial phase of a multi-stage, multi-state effort to address these knowledge gaps. Data were obtained from mail surveys (n = 659) of resident and nonresident deer hunters in eight states and elk hunters in three states. Hunters were presented with hypothetical situations of increasing:


(1) CWD prevalence (all eight states), and


(2) human health risks (two states).


Logistic regression equations estimated that at current prevalence levels in some states, 3% (residents) to 5% (nonresidents) of hunters would stop hunting deer/elk in their state.


If 50% of the deer or elk across the state were infected, approximately 42% (residents) and 54% (nonresidents) would stop hunting deer/elk in their state.


In hypothetical situations where a hunter died from CWD at this prevalence level, the percentage was 68%.


Potential for conflict indices (PCI) showed that as prevalence and human health risks increased, acceptability of testing and lethal management increased and acceptability of allowing CWD to take its natural course decreased.




Hunters’ Responses to CWD in Eight States 219




Descriptive and Bivariate Findings


In total, 5% of the hunters reported that they would stop hunting deer/elk in the state if 10% of the deer or elk in zone A and 0% in the rest of the state (zones B and C) were infected with CWD (Table 1). This prevalence level is consistent with current conditions in parts of some states (e.g., Colorado, Wyoming). The percentage of respondents that would stop hunting deer/elk in the state increased as prevalence and distribution increased. For example, if CWD prevalence was 50% in zone A, 30% in zone B, and 10% in zone C, 32% of hunters would stop hunting deer/elk in the state. If 50% of the deer or elk across the entire state were infected, 49% of hunters reported that they would stop hunting deer/elk in the state.2 Across all eight states, a similar proportion of respondents hunted most often in zone A (30%), B (33%), or C (37%) in 2002.




Results, however, suggest more serious potential ramifications of CWD. Research has shown that although it is unlikely to occur, CWD can reach higher prevalence levels in deer and elk populations (Gross & Miller, 2001; Miller et al., 2000; Williams & Young, 1980) and the potential for human susceptibility to CWD may exist (Belay et al., 2004; Raymond et al., 2000). If CWD prevalence among deer or elk ever increases to 50% across a state, 49% of hunters will stop hunting deer/elk in the state. Based on the findings from South Dakota and Wisconsin, 60% to 68% of hunters will stop hunting deer/elk in their state if this Hunters’ Responses to CWD in Eight States 227 prevalence level exists and CWD is shown to be transmissible to humans or cause human death. Even at current prevalence levels (e.g., 10%) in parts of some states (e.g., Colorado, Wyoming), 16% to 20% of hunters will stop hunting deer/ elk in their state if CWD affects humans or causes human death.


These findings suggest that if CWD prevalence increases dramatically, deer and/or elk hunting participation will substantially decrease in several states. If high levels of prevalence are combined with threats to human health, the decline could be even greater. This could have compounding and catastrophic effects on revenues for wildlife agencies, financial and logistical support for wildlife programs, management and control of deer and elk populations, public support for wildlife agencies and their ability to manage wildlife resources, the preservation of cultural and family traditions, and the economic viability of rural communities that are dependent on hunting revenues. Findings also suggested that nonresident hunters are more likely than residents to stop hunting deer/elk in the state as CWD conditions worsen. Declining numbers of nonresidents could significantly reduce agency revenue from license sales because they often pay much higher fees for hunting licenses. Taken together, these consequences of a decline in hunting participation due to CWD suggest the need for agencies and other stakeholders to engage in long-term and proactive management planning efforts for addressing the disease.


Although most of the CWD conditions manipulated in this study (i.e., high CWD prevalence, human health risks) are extremely unlikely, increased testing of harvested deer and elk (i.e., postmortem samples), advancements in lymphoid and tonsillar biopsy techniques for testing live animals (i.e., antemortem sampling), and in-vitro laboratory experiments of CWD in human cells may provide a more realistic assessment of current and future CWD prevalence levels and possible risks to human health associated with the disease (Raymond et al., 2000; Sigurdson et al., 1999; Wild, Spraker, Sigurdson, O’Rourke, & Miller, 2002; Wolfe et al., 2002).




Keywords chronic wasting disease, hunting, risk behavior, wildlife management, potential for conflict index


This article is based on a project of the Human Dimensions Committee of the Western Association of Fish and Wildlife Agencies (WAFWA). The authors thank Chris Burkett (Wyoming Game and Fish Department), Dana Dolsen (Utah Division of Wildlife Resources), Jacquie Ermer (North Dakota Game and Fish Department), Larry Gigliotti (South Dakota Department of Game, Fish and Parks), Ty Gray (Arizona Game and Fish Department), Larry Kruckenberg (Wyoming Game and Fish Department), Bruce Morrison (Nebraska Game and Parks Commission), Peter Newman (Colorado State University), Jordan Petchenik (Wisconsin Department of Natural Resources), Duane Shroufe (Arizona Game and Fish Department), Linda Sikorowski (Colorado Division of Wildlife), and Tara Teel (Colorado State University) for their assistance.


Address correspondence to Mark D. Needham, Department of Natural Resource Recreation and Tourism, Human Dimensions in Natural Resources Unit, Colorado State University, Fort Collins, Colorado 80523-1480, USA. E-mail:



Friday, September 27, 2013


*** Uptake of Prions into Plants


Presentation Abstract





Friday, August 09, 2013


*** CWD TSE prion, plants, vegetables, and the potential for environmental contamination



Friday, September 05, 2014


*** CFIA CWD and Grain Screenings due to potential risk factor of spreading via contamination of grain, oil seeds, etc.



Chronic Wasting Disease Ecology and Epidemiology of Mule Deer and White-tailed Deer in Wyoming


Dr. Brant Schumaker of the University of Wyoming reported that the effects of high chronic wasting disease (CWD) prevalence in free-ranging deer populations are unknown. In south-central Wyoming, CWD prevalence exceeds 50% in hunter harvested deer. We hypothesized that 1) vital rates are depressed by CWD and the finite rate of population growth (λ) is subsequently lowered, 2) CWD alters normal deer behavior during preclinical and clinical disease, and 3) genetic differences associated with CWD incubation periods drives natural selection to favor less susceptible deer. To test these hypotheses, we radio-collared white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) and mule deer (Odocoileus hemionus) and monitored them to determine a) survival probability, pregnancy rates, and annual recruitment, b) cause of death, c) home range area and habitat use, d) migration patterns, e) dispersal behavior, and f) genetic variation in incubation period based on CWD-status. Deer were tested for CWD using tonsil tissue collected by biopsy at capture and immunohistochemistry. White-tailed deer positive for CWD were 4.5 times more likely to die annually compared to CWD-negative deer. High CWD prevalence depressed survival of young females and resulted in an unsustainable white-tailed deer population (λ < 1.0); however, when female harvest was eliminated, the population became stable (λ =1.0). Female CWD-positive white-tailed deer maintain locally high CWD incidence as they migrated less and occupied smaller home ranges compared to other deer. Male CWD-positive white-tailed deer migrated at the highest proportion and likely contributed to spread of CWD to disparate populations. In the last nine years, mule deer genetically associated with prolonged incubation periods to CWD have increased in frequency in the population. However, it is still unknown whether or not this change will counteract the negative impacts of CWD on the population. The white-tailed deer population is adversely affected by high CWD prevalence; however, implementing management techniques to increase annual survival of females may maintain deer populations. The impact of CWD on mule deer populations is currently unknown; however, the present study is in its final stages with results to be completed in the near future.



Chronic Wasting Disease Found in Deer Hunt Area 97 Near Muddy Gap 8/18/2014


LANDER - Chronic Wasting Disease (CWD), a fatal neurological disease of deer, elk and moose, has been discovered in deer hunt area 97, near Muddy Gap. Chronic Wasting Disease has been previously discovered in several areas bordering hunt area 97.


A mule deer doe from hunt area 97 was confirmed CWD positive by the Wyoming Game and Fish Department’s wildlife disease laboratory in Laramie on August 3, 2014. The animal was dispatched by wardens after being reported as acting strangely west of Muddy Gap. Hunt area 97 borders deer CWD endemic areas 87 and 89 to the east. Hunt area 89 became positive in 2002 and 87 in 2007.


After a review of available scientific data, the World Health Organization in December 1999 stated, “There is currently no evidence that CWD in cervidae (deer and elk) is transmitted to humans.” In 2004, Dr. Ermias Belay of the Center for Disease Control said, “The lack of evidence of a link between CWD transmission and unusual cases of CJD, [Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease, a human prion disease] despite several epidemiological investigations, suggest that the risk, if any, of transmission of CWD to humans is low.” Nonetheless to avoid risk, both organizations say parts or products from any animal that looks sick and/or tests positive for CWD should not be eaten.


Game and Fish personnel will continue to collect samples through hunter field checks, and at CWD sampling stations during the 2014 hunting season.


For more information on chronic wasting disease and regulations on transportation and disposal of carcasses please visit the Game and Fish website at:


(Contact: Rene Schell (307) 332-2688)





*** We conclude that TSE infectivity is likely to survive burial for long time periods with minimal loss of infectivity and limited movement from the original burial site. However PMCA results have shown that there is the potential for rainwater to elute TSE related material from soil which could lead to the contamination of a wider area. These experiments reinforce the importance of risk assessment when disposing of TSE risk materials.


*** The results show that even highly diluted PrPSc can bind efficiently to polypropylene, stainless steel, glass, wood and stone and propagate the conversion of normal prion protein. For in vivo experiments, hamsters were ic injected with implants incubated in 1% 263K-infected brain homogenate. Hamsters, inoculated with 263K-contaminated implants of all groups, developed typical signs of prion disease, whereas control animals inoculated with non-contaminated materials did not.








Conclusions. To our knowledge, this is the first established experimental model of CWD in TgSB3985. We found evidence for co-existence or divergence of two CWD strains adapted to Tga20 mice and their replication in TgSB3985 mice. Finally, we observed phenotypic differences between cervid-derived CWD and CWD/Tg20 strains upon propagation in TgSB3985 mice. Further studies are underway to characterize these strains.


We conclude that TSE infectivity is likely to survive burial for long time periods with minimal loss of infectivity and limited movement from the original burial site. However PMCA results have shown that there is the potential for rainwater to elute TSE related material from soil which could lead to the contamination of a wider area. These experiments reinforce the importance of risk assessment when disposing of TSE risk materials.


The results show that even highly diluted PrPSc can bind efficiently to polypropylene, stainless steel, glass, wood and stone and propagate the conversion of normal prion protein. For in vivo experiments, hamsters were ic injected with implants incubated in 1% 263K-infected brain homogenate. Hamsters, inoculated with 263K-contaminated implants of all groups, developed typical signs of prion disease, whereas control animals inoculated with non-contaminated materials did not.


Our data establish that meadow voles are permissive to CWD via peripheral exposure route, suggesting they could serve as an environmental reservoir for CWD. Additionally, our data are consistent with the hypothesis that at least two strains of CWD circulate in naturally-infected cervid populations and provide evidence that meadow voles are a useful tool for CWD strain typing.


Conclusion. CWD prions are shed in saliva and urine of infected deer as early as 3 months post infection and throughout the subsequent >1.5 year course of infection. In current work we are examining the relationship of prionemia to excretion and the impact of excreted prion binding to surfaces and particulates in the environment.


Conclusion. CWD prions (as inferred by prion seeding activity by RT-QuIC) are shed in urine of infected deer as early as 6 months post inoculation and throughout the subsequent disease course. Further studies are in progress refining the real-time urinary prion assay sensitivity and we are examining more closely the excretion time frame, magnitude, and sample variables in relationship to inoculation route and prionemia in naturally and experimentally CWD-infected cervids.


Conclusions. Our results suggested that the odds of infection for CWD is likely controlled by areas that congregate deer thus increasing direct transmission (deer-to-deer interactions) or indirect transmission (deer-to-environment) by sharing or depositing infectious prion proteins in these preferred habitats. Epidemiology of CWD in the eastern U.S. is likely controlled by separate factors than found in the Midwestern and endemic areas for CWD and can assist in performing more efficient surveillance efforts for the region.


Conclusions. During the pre-symptomatic stage of CWD infection and throughout the course of disease deer may be shedding multiple LD50 doses per day in their saliva. CWD prion shedding through saliva and excreta may account for the unprecedented spread of this prion disease in nature.


see full text and more ;


Monday, June 23, 2014






*** Infectious agent of sheep scrapie may persist in the environment for at least 16 years***


Gudmundur Georgsson1, Sigurdur Sigurdarson2 and Paul Brown3



New studies on the heat resistance of hamster-adapted scrapie agent: Threshold survival after ashing at 600°C suggests an inorganic template of replication



Prion Infected Meat-and-Bone Meal Is Still Infectious after Biodiesel Production



Detection of protease-resistant cervid prion protein in water from a CWD-endemic area



A Quantitative Assessment of the Amount of Prion Diverted to Category 1 Materials and Wastewater During Processing



Rapid assessment of bovine spongiform encephalopathy prion inactivation by heat treatment in yellow grease produced in the industrial manufacturing process of meat and bone meals





Survival and Limited Spread of TSE Infectivity after Burial




Survival and Limited Spread of TSE Infectivity after Burial


Karen Fernie, Allister Smith and Robert A. Somerville The Roslin Institute and R(D)SVS; University of Edinburgh; Roslin, Scotland UK


Scrapie and chronic wasting disease probably spread via environmental routes, and there are also concerns about BSE infection remaining in the environment after carcass burial or waste 3disposal. In two demonstration experiments we are determining survival and migration of TSE infectivity when buried for up to five years, as an uncontained point source or within bovine heads. Firstly boluses of TSE infected mouse brain were buried in lysimeters containing either sandy or clay soil. Migration from the boluses is being assessed from soil cores taken over time. With the exception of a very small amount of infectivity found 25 cm from the bolus in sandy soil after 12 months, no other infectivity has been detected up to three years. Secondly, ten bovine heads were spiked with TSE infected mouse brain and buried in the two soil types. Pairs of heads have been exhumed annually and assessed for infectivity within and around them. After one year and after two years, infectivity was detected in most intracranial samples and in some of the soil samples taken from immediately surrounding the heads. The infectivity assays for the samples in and around the heads exhumed at years three and four are underway. These data show that TSE infectivity can survive burial for long periods but migrates slowly. Risk assessments should take into account the likely long survival rate when infected material has been buried.


The authors gratefully acknowledge funding from DEFRA.




Chronic Wasting Disease closes in on Yellowstone


By Ralph Maughan On May 17, 2013



Friday, November 16, 2012


Yellowstone elk herds feeding grounds, or future killing grounds from CWD



Saturday, May 25, 2013


Wyoming Game and Fish Commission Alkali Creek Feedground #39126 Singeltary comment submission



Dense concentrations of elk at feedgrounds facilitate the transmission of diseases and increase their prevalence. Free-ranging elk herds have a CWD prevalence of approximately 1-3% in the core Colorado-Wyoming area where the disease is endemic. Captive elk herds, whose densities more closely match those of feedground elk, have shown rates of CWD prevalence between 17- 59%. Many states now ban the artificial feeding of deer because scientific evidence suggests that such feeding elevates the risk of CWD transmission. High concentrations of animals, close contact between animals, and the contaminated environments that result from these conditions, all contribute to the increased transmission of CWD and other diseases.



Wednesday, April 30, 2014


WYOMING Mule Deer Found Dead Near Rawlins Tests Positive for CWD



Wednesday, October 24, 2012


WYOMING Deer Hunt Area 132 Near Green River Added to CWD List



Wednesday, November 16, 2011


Chronic wasting disease found in Big Horn basin deer Wyoming's deer hunt area 165



Monday, November 14, 2011


WYOMING Creutzfeldt Jakob Disease, CWD, TSE, PRION REPORTING 2011



Thursday, July 08, 2010


CWD Controversy still stalking elk feedgrounds in Wyoming 2010




This is very serious, please notice that one of the CWD clusters is only 45 miles from ELK feeding grounds in Wyoming, the second elk feeding ground is 98 miles from CWD cluster, and the third elk feeding ground is 130 miles from the CWD cluster. Common sense tells us we need to stop those feeding grounds, if you want your Elk to survive. There is no politics or plot against the hunters or elk about it. read the science please. ...TSS


chronic wasting disease proximity to elk feedgrounds in wyoming 2009-2010



Thursday, December 30, 2010





Monday, December 13, 2010







Friday, November 12, 2010





Sunday, October 31, 2010





Wednesday, October 20, 2010





Wednesday, November 25, 2009





Wednesday, November 11, 2009





Sunday, November 01, 2009


CWD confirmed in Johnson County Wyoming Sunday, November 1, 2009



Wednesday, October 14, 2009


Deer on western Bighorns has chronic wasting disease Shell Creek drainage Wyoming



Monday, December 22, 2008





Saturday, October 18, 2008





Wednesday, August 20, 2014


Wyoming Chronic Wasting Disease Found in Deer Hunt Area 97 Near Muddy Gap



*** Cervid Health Business Plan Fiscal Years 2014 to 2018 Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service Veterinary Services ***




c. Funding sources


Cervid Health Programs are funded through the equine, cervid, small ruminant health (ECSR) line. The total APHIS FY 2014 ECSR budget is $19. 5 million. Congressional language accompanying the FY 2014 appropriations specifies that APHIS should spend $3. 0 million for cervid health activities.


III. Value of Program Objectives:


In 2007, the cervid industry in the United States included 5,600 deer farms and 1,900 elk farms with an economic value of $894 million that supported nearly 30,000 jobs. The recently conducted 2012 National Agricultural Statistics Service (NASS) census will provide important updates on cervid industry statistics.


The Cervid Health Program protects the health of cervids and improves the quality, productivity and economic viability of the cervid industry. CWD, TB, and brucellosis remain important disease threats to cervid populations. Outbreaks of these diseases could have serious consequences for the cervid industry and allied stakeholders. APHIS’ CWD HCP, cervid TB herd accreditation, and proposed brucellosis herd certification programs are essential to reducing and mitigating those consequences.


A key value of the cervid health programs is to reduce losses to the cervid industry and to reduce the overall cost to the Federal government to respond to outbreaks. In the past 10 years, many CWD infected and exposed cervid farms were depopulated with Federal indemnity at a significant cost to the industry, States, and Federal government. The cervid TB herd accreditation program has reduced disease transmission in cervid populations and in other domestic species that could have resulted in larger and more serious disease outbreaks.


An additional value of the cervid health program is to promote and facilitate domestic and international trade of animals and cervid-derived products. Since the identification of CWD, many international markets have refused farmed cervids or cervid-derived products from the United States. The U.S. cervid industry cannot expand its markets without USDA animal health programs to certify their animals to have low disease risk and/or disease freedom. The Cervid Health Program promotes the opportunity for the cervid industry to start competing in international trade again.


Lastly, TB and brucellosis are zoonotic diseases which can be transmitted from farmed cervids to other livestock, wildlife, and people. Although CWD has not been recognized as a prion disease transmissible to people, it can be transmitted between farmed cervids to wild cervid populations and it persists in the environment. A direct benefit of the Cervid Health Program is to safeguard public health, prevent transmission at the domestic animal-wildlife interface, and reduce environmental contamination.


IV. FY 2014 – FY 2018 Implementation


Objective 1: Prevent and control CWD in farmed cervid populations


Strategy 1: Implement CWD rule and CWD Program Standards.


FY 2014 Activities:


1. 1 Affirm CWD final rule and publish in FY 2014.


1. 2 Finalize CWD Program Standards revision (consider public comments) and publish new version in FY 2014.


1. 3 Prepare and submit information collection documents for renewal by FY 2015.


FY 2015- FY 2018 Activities


1. 4 CWD Program Standards (2nd edition) to be reviewed for further updates.


1. 5 Information collection renewal to be completed in FY 2015 (triennial cycle).


Strategy 2: Maintain Approved State CWD HCPs.


FY 2014 Activities:


2. 1 Finalize annual report template and guidance for Approved States renewal process, and collect annual reports from Approved States.


2. 2 Complete Approved State status for remaining six Provisional Approved States.


FY 2015 – FY 2018 Activities


2. 3 Review annual reports and evaluate compliance of Approved States.


2. 4 Administer the national CWD HCP, subject to the availability of appropriated funds, for herd owners in States that do not have an approved State HCP.


June 19, 2014 6


2. 5 Develop metrics for Approved State program administration reviews.


2. 6 Conduct Consistent State Reviews of Approved State CWD HCPs based on requests for review by States or observation of deficiencies in State programs.


Strategy 4: Complete official CWD, cervid TB, and cervid brucellosis testing.


FY 2014 Activities:


4. 1 Monitor NAHLN approved laboratories for proficiency and accuracy in lab testing and reporting in defined timeframes.


4. 2 Establish list of approved laboratories to conduct IHC and/or ELISA testing for CWD.


4. 3 Approve new laboratories as needed as outlined in the NAHLN SOP and CWD Program Standards.


FY 2015 – FY 2018 Activities


4.4 Continue activities 4. 1 – 4. 3.


Strategy 5: National Program Reporting/ Data Management.


FY 2014 Activities:


5. 1 Develop and implement cervid health indemnity database on indemnity SharePoint site.


5. 2 Assess use of SCS/national CWD instance by Approved States.


5. 3 Develop SCS data entry guidance for national CWD instance (if warranted).


5. 4 Prepare national annual summary report from Approved States’ reports.


5. 5 Receive quarterly tallies of CWD testing surveillance in farmed cervids and prepare annual summary surveillance report.


5. 6 Encourage VS personnel and stakeholders regarding the use of electronic identification of animals, electronic data collection and reporting, e. g. MIMS, of program surveillance and disease control activities, collection and use of data and test results from outside sources. Tools that support this type of data handling also need to be improved so the process is streamlined, easily accessible and user friendly to VS employees, States and Federally accredited veterinarians.


FY 2015 – FY 2018 Activities


5. 6 Continue activities 5. 1 – 5. 5 (with or without SCS/national CWD instance). Strategy 6: Interstate and International Cervid Movement.


FY 2014 Activities:


6. 1 Address import/export issues for cervids and cervid products.


6. 2 Facilitate requests for interstate movement (translocation) of free-ranging cervids based on CWD rule requirements. Refine interstate movement agreement protocols as needed. Complete guidance.


June 19, 2014 7


FY 2015 – FY 2018 Activities:


6. 3 Continue work on import/export issues.


6. 4 Continue facilitation of requests for interstate movement (translocation) of wild cervids.


6. 5 Develop risk assessment and surveillance templates for interstate movement of cervids.


June 19, 2014





*** Susceptibility of UK red deer (Cervus alaphus elaphus) to oral BSE transmission Project Code: M03024 ***




The project confirmed that U.K red deer are susceptible to both oral and intra-cerebral inoculation with the cattle BSE agent. Six clinically positive (from 26-42 months post inoculation) i.c inoculated and one (56 months post inoculation) orally dosed deer that tested positive for TSE by immunohistochemistry and Western blotting using several primary antibodies demonstrated widespread accumulation of disease specific prion protein in the central nervous system, peripheral nervous system and enteric nervous system but none in lymphoreticular system. All showed several brain sites positive for disease specific prion protein and presented immunohistochemistry and Western blotting phenotypes with similarities to BSE in sheep, goats and cattle but unlike those seen in chronic wasting disease (CWD) in elk or scrapie in sheep. The vacuolar pathology and distribution of disease specific prion protein in red deer resembled that of CWD in most major respects however we have shown that BSE can be clearly differentiated from CWD by existing immunohistochemical and biochemical methods that are in routine use.


The knowledge gained as a result of this work will permit rapid and accurate diagnosis should a TSE ever be detected in European red deer and will also enable effective disease control methods to be quickly put in place.





We confirmed that U.K red deer are susceptible to both oral and intra-cerebral inoculation with the cattle BSE agent. Six clinically positive (from 26-42mpi) i.c inoculated and one (56mpi) orally dosed deer that tested positive for TSE by IHC and WB using several primary antibodies demonstrated widespread accumulation of disease specific PrP in CNS, PNS and ENS but none in LRS. All showed several brain sites positive for disease specific PrP and presented IHC and WB phenotypes with similarities to BSE in sheep, goats and cattle but unlike those seen in CWD in elk or scrapie in sheep. The vacuolar pathology and distribution of PrPd BSE in red deer resembled that of CWD in most major respects however we have shown that BSE can be clearly differentiated from CWD by existing immunohistochemical and biochemical methods that are in routine use.


Final technical report MO3024 01/04/2003 – 31/03/2010 Susceptibility of UK red deer (Cervus elaphus elaphus) to oral BSE transmission. Stuart Martin - VLA Lasswade Pentlands Science Park Bush Loan Penicuik EH26 0PZ Page 2 of 21 Further work undertaken August 2009 – March 2010. Genetic analysis - Wilfred Goldmann; Roslin NPD.


Negative controls and the remaining 5 orally dosed deer culled at 72mpi tested negative by IHC and Western blot however analysis of the PrP ORF of these deer (kindly carried out by Wilfred Goldmann of the Roslin NPD) identified a Q to E polymorphism at codon 226 that may influence the efficiency of oral transmission (not published).


In the experimental BSE challenge of red deer six out of six deer succumbed to BSE when challenged by intracerebral routes but only one of six deer challenged by the oral route succumbed to infection. Deer killed at 190 days or 365 days post oral challenge showed no evidence of abnormal PrP accumulation when tested by immunocytochemistry. The PrP gene of red deer includes a Q to E polymorphism at codon 226. The table shows the distribution of these codon 226 polymorphisms within experimental challenge groups.





Research article Open Access


Immunohistochemical and biochemical characteristics of BSE and CWD in experimentally infected European red deer (Cervus elaphus elaphus)


Stuart Martin*1, Martin Jeffrey1, Lorenzo González1, Sílvia Sisó1, Hugh W Reid2, Philip Steele2, Mark P Dagleish2, Michael J Stack3, Melanie J Chaplin3 and Aru Balachandran4 Address: 1Veterinary Laboratories Agency (VLA-Lasswade), Pentlands Science Park, Bush Loan, Penicuik, Midlothian, EH26 0PZ, UK, 2Moredun Research Institute, Pentlands Science Park, Bush Loan, Penicuik, Midlothian, EH26 0PZ, UK, 3VLA-Weybridge, Addlestone, Surrey, KT15 3NB, UK and 4Animal Diseases Research Institute, Canadian Food Inspection Agency, Ottawa, Ontario, K2H 8P9, Canada




Background: The cause of the bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) epidemic in the United Kingdom (UK) was the inclusion of contaminated meat and bone meal in the protein rations fed to cattle. Those rations were not restricted to cattle but were also fed to other livestock including farmed and free living deer. Although there are no reported cases to date of natural BSE in European deer, BSE has been shown to be naturally or experimentally transmissible to a wide range of different ungulate species. Moreover, several species of North America's cervids are highly susceptible to chronic wasting disease (CWD), a transmissible spongiform encephalopathy (TSE) that has become endemic. Should BSE infection have been introduced into the UK deer population, the CWD precedent could suggest that there is a danger for spread and maintenance of the disease in both free living and captive UK deer populations. This study compares the immunohistochemical and biochemical characteristics of BSE and CWD in experimentally-infected European red deer (Cervus elpahus elaphus).


Results: After intracerebral or alimentary challenge, BSE in red deer more closely resembled natural infection in cattle rather than experimental BSE in small ruminants, due to the lack of accumulation of abnormal PrP in lymphoid tissues. In this respect it was different from CWD, and although the neuropathological features of both diseases were similar, BSE could be clearly differentiated from CWD by immunohistochemical and Western blotting methods currently in routine use.


Conclusion: Red deer are susceptible to both BSE and CWD infection, but the resulting disease phenotypes are distinct and clearly distinguishable.






Clinical disease


All six deer challenged i.c. with BSE developed clinical disease between 794 and 1260 days post-inoculation with a mean incubation period of 1027 days. A detailed description of the clinical signs was provided in an earlier report [8]. Briefly, affected deer showed variable degrees of ataxia, anorexia, circling and apparent blindness, together with failure of seasonal change of coat, weight loss and 'panic attacks'. In addition, one of six red deer orally dosed with BSE developed clinical disease 1740 days after challenge, and this animal presented with a short clinical duration of two days; the other five deer from this group remain healthy at the time of writing (65 months after challenge). Sequential rectal biopsies taken at five different time points from orally and i.c. inoculated deer were negative for PrPd.


All four deer orally challenged with CWD started to show behavioural changes between 577 and 586 days post challenge;


these progressed to definite neurological disease between 742 and 760 days post-challenge (Table 1).


Clinical signs were similar to the BSE challenged deer and included nervousness, weight loss, excessive salivation, roughness of coat, and progressive ataxia. All these CWD inoculated deer showed PrPd accumulation in the secondary follicles of rectal biopsies taken at 7 months post infection.




European red deer are susceptible to infection with the cattle BSE agent, not only by the intra-cerebral but also by the oral route, and although the clinical signs and spong- iform change are similar to those of CWD in the same species, these two infections can be easily differentiated. The lack of lymphoid involvement, the PrPd truncation pattern both "in vivo" and "in vitro", and the predominantly intracellular accumulation of PrPd are features of deer BSE that are in contrast with those of deer CWD. However, only one of six deer developed disease after alimentary exposure to 25 g of a BSE brain pool homogenate after an incubation period of nearly 5 years; this suggests a strong species barrier but if a TSE in European red deer should ever be identified then BSE/CWD discrimination would be an urgent priority. To determine whether there are potential naturally occurring BSE-like strains and to determine the degree to which there is strain variation, it would be necessary to examine many more naturally occurring CWD cases. These results will support the ongoing European surveillance for natural TSEs in red deer and the further assessment of potential risk to human health.


Published: 27 July 2009 BMC Veterinary Research 2009, 5:26 doi:10.1186/1746-6148-5-26 Received: 12 February 2009 Accepted: 27 July 2009 This article is available from: © 2009 Martin et al; licensee BioMed Central Ltd. This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.



Monday, May 05, 2014


*** Member Country details for listing OIE CWD 2013 against the criteria of Article 1.2.2., the Code Commission recommends consideration for listing ***





Friday, December 14, 2012


DEFRA U.K. What is the risk of Chronic Wasting Disease CWD being introduced into Great Britain? A Qualitative Risk Assessment October 2012




In the USA, under the Food and Drug Administration’s BSE Feed Regulation (21 CFR 589.2000) most material (exceptions include milk, tallow, and gelatin) from deer and elk is prohibited for use in feed for ruminant animals. With regards to feed for non-ruminant animals, under FDA law, CWD positive deer may not be used for any animal feed or feed ingredients. For elk and deer considered at high risk for CWD, the FDA recommends that these animals do not enter the animal feed system. However, this recommendation is guidance and not a requirement by law.


Animals considered at high risk for CWD include:


1) animals from areas declared to be endemic for CWD and/or to be CWD eradication zones and


2) deer and elk that at some time during the 60-month period prior to slaughter were in a captive herd that contained a CWD-positive animal.


Therefore, in the USA, materials from cervids other than CWD positive animals may be used in animal feed and feed ingredients for non-ruminants.


The amount of animal PAP that is of deer and/or elk origin imported from the USA to GB can not be determined, however, as it is not specified in TRACES. It may constitute a small percentage of the 8412 kilos of non-fish origin processed animal proteins that were imported from US into GB in 2011.


*** Overall, therefore, it is considered there is a __greater than negligible risk___ that (nonruminant) animal feed and pet food containing deer and/or elk protein is imported into GB.


There is uncertainty associated with this estimate given the lack of data on the amount of deer and/or elk protein possibly being imported in these products.





2003D-0186 Guidance for Industry: Use of Material From Deer and Elk In Animal Feed


EMC 1 Terry S. Singeltary Sr. Vol #: 1




see my full text submission here ;



Sunday, December 15, 2013







please see full text and more ;


Wednesday, September 17, 2014


*** Cervid Health Business Plan Fiscal Years 2014 to 2018 Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service Veterinary Services ***



Wednesday, September 17, 2014


*** Cost benefit analysis of the development and use of ante-mortem tests for transmissible spongiform encephalopathies ***



kind regards, terry


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