Saturday, January 14, 2017

CHRONIC WASTING DISEASE CWD TSE PRION GLOBAL UPDATE JANUARY 14, 2017

SATURDAY, JANUARY 14, 2017
 
CHRONIC WASTING DISEASE CWD TSE PRION GLOBAL UPDATE JANUARY 14, 2017
 
Arkansas Chronic Wasting Disease Reports 158 cases CWD TSE PRION as of January 13, 2017
 
 
Tuesday, November 22, 2016
 
AGFC finds 28 new cases of CWD in north Arkansas
 
 
Wednesday, July 27, 2016
 
Arkansas CWD 101 positive cases documented to date, Biologists to take additional samples in in southern Pope County, Aug. 1-5
 
 
Wednesday, March 30, 2016
 
 ARIZONA CHRONIC WASTING DISEASE CWD TSE PRION SURVEILLANCE AND TESTING PROGRAM
 
 
Tuesday, March 29, 2016
 
ALABAMA CHRONIC WASTING DISEASE CWD TSE PRION SURVEILLANCE AND TESTING PROGRAM?
 
 
MONDAY, JANUARY 11, 2016
 
INDIANA SB109 HIGH FENCE HUNTING LEGISLATION AND RISK FACTORS FOR CHRONIC WASTING DISEASE CWD TSE PRION
 
 
KANSAS CWD CASES ALARMING
 
Wednesday, March 02, 2016
 
Kansas Chronic Wasting Disease CWD TSE Prion 52 cases 2015 updated report 'ALARMING'
 
 
Wednesday, January 11, 2017
 
Nebraska Four positives for CWD found in recent testing of deer
 
 
Wednesday, March 25, 2015
 
Chronic Wasting Disease CWD Cases Confirmed In New Mexico 2013 and 2014 UPDATE 2015
 
 
WEDNESDAY, SEPTEMBER 30, 2015
 
North Carolina Say NO to SB 513 Deer Farming Petition
 
 
North Dakota CWD
 
Chronic Wasting Disease Chronic Wasting Disease surveillance continues in North Dakota. Since February of 1999, 10,612 samples from farmed deer and elk have been submitted, with no evidence of disease. The North Dakota Game and Fish Department has tested over 29,000 wild deer, elk and moose since 2000. They have identified seven (7) positive animals, all in the central part of hunting unit 3F2, which includes Sioux and portions of Morton, Grant, Adams and Hettinger counties.
 
 
CWD Surveillance Continues
 
Release Date Monday, October 24, 2016
 
The State Game and Fish Department will continue its Hunter-Harvested Surveillance program during the 2016 hunting season, by sampling deer for chronic wasting disease and bovine tuberculosis from 13 units in North Dakota. In addition, all moose and elk harvested in the state are eligible for testing.
 
Samples from hunter-harvested deer taken in the eastern portion of the state will be tested from units 1, 2A, 2B, 2C, 2D, 2E, 2F1, 2F2, 2G, 2G1, 2G2 and 2L. In addition, deer will be tested from unit 3F2 in the southwest.
 
Every head sampled must have either the deer tag attached, or a new tag can be filled out with the license number, deer hunting unit and date harvested.
 
Hunters are encouraged to drop off deer heads at the following locations:
 
 
North Dakota CWD
 
No cases of chronic wasting disease found in North Dakota
 
Associated Press Published: March 7, 2016 6:42 PM CDT Updated: March 7, 2016 6:42 PM CDT
 
BISMARCK, N.D. (AP) — North Dakota wildlife officials reported no cases of chronic wasting disease after testing deer that were killed in the 2015 hunting season.
 
Chronic wasting is a fatal disease in members of the deer family. The state Game and Fish Department began monitoring it in 2002.
 
Wildlife veterinarians looked into samples taken from more than 1,200 deer in the western third of the state in 2015.
 
Officials say seven deer in state history have tested positive for the disease, all since 2009 and in the southwest part of the state.
 
More than 27,000 deer, elk and moose have tested negative for the disease since monitoring began in 2002. In 2016, deer will be tested from the eastern third of the state.
 
 
MONDAY, MARCH 23, 2015
 
North Dakota Documents Two More Cases of Chronic Wasting Disease CWD TSE Prion
 
 
WEDNESDAY, NOVEMBER 23, 2011
 
North Dakota Another 3F2 Mule Deer Tests Positive for CWD
 
 
South Dakota CWD
 
CAPTIVE NONDOMESTIC POSESSION PERMITS
 
The Animal Industry Board continues to maintain a Chronic Wasting Disease (CWD) Herd Certification Plan approved by USDA/APHIS. There are 25 herds enrolled in this voluntary program. These herds tested 53 animals in the past year, with all being negative. The South Dakota Game, Fish and Parks and the National Park Service conduct CWD sampling primarily focused on the CWD endemic area of western South Dakota and the greater Black Hills area. This sampling consists of hunter-harvest animals, vehicle killed animals, sick animals and other cervid mortalities. Surveillance identified 20 wild cervids infected with CWD during the past year. White-tail deer accounted for four positives in 31 samples, Mule deer had four positive in 18 samples and Elk had 12 positive in 190 samples. Six of the 12 positive elk originated from sampling in Wind Cave National Park.
 
Total historical sampling by SDGFP as of July 1, 2016, shows there have been 25,535 wild cervids sampled for CWD in South Dakota with 301 positive results.
 
 
Wednesday, January 11, 2017
 
Minnesota DNR CWD found in 2 more deer; 5-county feeding ban now in place
 
 
Friday, August 05, 2016
 
MINNESOTA CHRONIC WASTING DISEASE SURVEILLANCE AND TESTING CWD TSE PRION UPDATE
 
 
Tuesday, January 10, 2017
 
Missouri MDC reports three new cases of CWD from mandatory sampling
 
 
Friday, April 22, 2016
 
Missouri MDC finds seven new cases of ChronicWasting Disease CWD during past‐season testing
 
 
Sunday, March 06, 2016
 
Missouri 2015-2016 CWD Surveillance Summary to Date, with confirmed cases mounting
 
 
Saturday, January 07, 2017
 
Tennessee Republican representative Bud Hulsey wants to weaken CWD Carcass Ban rule and put other states at risk
 
 
Friday, December 23, 2016
 
WYOMING Game and Fish finds CWD in new deer hunt area 17 near Gillette
 
 
Thursday, December 15, 2016
 
Wyoming National Elk Refuge CWD forum update December 8, 2016
 
SEE CWD VIDEOS
 
 
Tuesday, December 20, 2016
 
IOWA CHRONIC WASTING DISEASE FOUND AT A DEER FARM IN BUCHANAN COUNTY http://chronic-wasting-disease.blogspot.com/2016/12/iowa-chronic-wasting-disease-found-at.html
 
Friday, July 29, 2016
 
IOWA CHRONIC WASTING DISEASE CWD TSE PRION TOTAL TO DATE 304 CASES WILD AND CAPTIVE REPORT UPDATE JULY 2016
 
 
Friday, December 30, 2016ccccccccc
 
TAHC Adopts Chronic Wasting Disease Movement Requirements and Trichomoniasis Program Rules
 
 
Saturday, December 03, 2016
 
TEXAS CHRONIC WASTING DISEASE CWD TSE PRION UPDATE 35 CASES TO DATE
 
 
Thursday, December 08, 2016
 
TEXAS TAHC confirmed Chronic Wasting Disease (CWD) in a free-ranging elk Dallam County
 
 
Friday, June 01, 2012
 
TEXAS DEER CZAR TO WISCONSIN ASK TO EXPLAIN COMMENTS
 
Deer expert asked to explain comments
 
 
Thursday, September 29, 2016
 
Wisconsin Governor Scott Walker's DNR et al have floundered again on taking any actions on CWD TSE Prion disease, decides to put off now until March 2017
 
 
Sunday, May 08, 2016
 
WISCONSIN CHRONIC WASTING DISEASE CWD TSE PRION UPDATE
 
WISCONSIN CHRONIC WASTING DISEASE CWD TSE PRION SPIRALING FURTHER INTO THE ABYSS UPDATE
 
Wisconsin Chronic Wasting Disease CWD TSE Prion
 
 
Wednesday, February 10, 2016
 
*** Wisconsin Two deer that escaped farm had chronic wasting disease CWD ***
 
 
Sunday, January 17, 2016
 
*** Wisconsin Captive CWD Lotto Pays Out Again indemnity payment of $298,770 for 228 white-tailed deer killed on farm ***
 
 
Friday, January 29, 2016
 
Wisconsin CWD-positive white-tailed deer found on Iowa County farm January 29, 2016
 
 
Friday, January 13, 2017
 
Michigan confirms 9th case of CWD and DNR receives 1 Million Dollars from state for research there for
 
BRAVO!
 
 
Tuesday, November 22, 2016
 
Michigan Suspect CWD deer harvested in Eagle Township, Clinton County
 
 
FRIDAY, JANUARY 13, 2017
 
Pennsylvania Deer Tests Positive for Chronic Wasting Disease four-year-old white-tailed deer Franklin County Hunting Preserve
 
 
Wednesday, September 21, 2016
 
Pennsylvania Game commission to present forum on deer chronic wasting disease cwd tse prion
 
 
Wednesday, May 11, 2016
 
PENNSYLVANIA TWELVE MORE CASES OF CWD FOUND: STATE GEARS UP FOR ADDITIONAL CONTROL MEASURES
 
 
Illinois CWD
 
Illinois Chronic Wasting Disease: 2015-2016 Surveillance and Management Report
 
(Project Period: July 1, 2015 - June 30, 2016)
 
Paul Shelton and Patrick McDonald Forest Wildlife Program, Illinois Department of Natural Resources July 25, 2016 Executive Summary
 
First CWD positive: A suspect adult female deer from northwest Boone County was diagnosed with CWD in November 2002. Total samples through June 30, 2016: 97,992+ Total positives through June 30, 2016: 610
 
Wednesday, September 21, 2016
 
ILLINOIS -- Deer disease CWD meetings set Oct. 18 at the Nash Recreation Center in Oregon, Illinois, and Oct. 19 at the Big Rock Park District Community Building in Big Rock
 
 
Tuesday, February 02, 2016
 
Illinois six out of 19 deer samples tested positive for CWD in the Oswego zone of Kendall County
 
 
Monday, August 31, 2015
 
Illinois Loosing Ground to Chronic Wasting Disease CWD cases mounting with 71 confirmed in 2015 and 538 confirmed cases to date
 
 
Monday, August 01, 2016
 
Florida Fish and Wildlife Conservation Commission CWD TSE Prion Surveillance Monitoring Programs and Testing
 
 
SATURDAY, SEPTEMBER 07, 2013
 
Georgia House Bill 1043 and Chronic Wasting Disease CWD
 
 
Tuesday, July 19, 2016
 
MONTANA CHRONIC WASTING DISEASE CWD TSE PRION UPDATE STILL SHOWS ONLY 9 CAPTIVE CASES CONFIRMED FROM Philipsburg Kesler Game game since 1999
 
 
Sunday, July 17, 2016
 
West Virginia Chronic Wasting Disease CWD has been found in 195 white-tailed deer As of June 2016
 
 
Sunday, July 17, 2016
 
Virginia Chronic Wasting Disease CWD As of March 2016 has diagnosed 13 CWD-positive white-tailed deer
 
 
Thursday, April 14, 2016
 
Louisiana Chronic Wasting Disease CWD TSE Prion Surveillance and Testing Program?
 
 
Tuesday, July 12, 2016
 
Colorado Chronic Wasting Disease CWD TSE Prion discovered in one deer in Montrose County
 
 
Friday, April 22, 2016
 
COLORADO CHRONIC WASTING DISEASE CWD TSE PRION SURVEILLANCE AND TESTING PROGRAM IS MINIMAL AND LIMITED
 
*** SEE CWD HIGH INFECTION RATE MAPS FOR COLORADO ! ***
 
 
Tuesday, March 29, 2016
 
Maryland Department of Natural Resources Five Deer Test Positive for Chronic Wasting Disease ONE OUTSIDE CWD MANAGEMENT ZONE
 
 
Wednesday, May 11, 2016
 
PENNSYLVANIA TWELVE MORE CASES OF CWD FOUND: STATE GEARS UP FOR ADDITIONAL CONTROL MEASURES
 
 
Friday, February 26, 2016
 
Pennsylvania Monitoring the Growing Threat of Chronic Wasting Disease CWD TSE Prion
 
 
Wednesday, April 20, 2016
 
UTAH CHRONIC WASTING DISEASE CWD TSE PRION SURVEILLANCE AND TESTING PROGRAM 70 mule deer and two elk have tested positive
 
 
Tuesday, March 08, 2016
 
Oklahoma Chronic Wasting Disease CWD of Deer and Elk Surveillance, Testing, and Preparedness ???
 
 
OHIO CWD
 
Background
 
In October 2014, a deer shot in a shooting preserve in Holmes County, Ohio, tested positive for CWD. In response, the ODNR Division of Wildlife intensively sampled an 8-township area encompassing nearly 250 square miles around the positive shooting preserve. Nearly 300 hunter-harvested deer and 42 road-killed deer were tested, along with an additional nine escaped captive white-tailed deer and found no evidence of CWD in Ohio’s wild herd. Of those hunter-harvested deer tested, nearly 75% of the deer were found to be taken by hunters living in the 8-township area. In fact, 80% of the deer harvested were taken by residents of the county. In light of these findings, the decision was made to NOT include Holmes County in the list of areas in the U.S. and Canada that are subject to Ohio’s carcass restrictions. Successful Holmes County hunters may responsibly move deer as they have in the past. Nonresident hunters are advised to review their state’s rules before transporting a deer from Holmes County into their state. The Hunting Preserve was depopulated in April 2015. Testing failed to produce any additional positives. However, in March and again in May 2015, two additional deer tested positive from a separate breeding facility in Holmes County. In June 2015 that facility was depopulated and an additional 16 deer tested positive for CWD. In response to these additional positives, the division expanded the local surveillance area to include Clinton and Franklin townships in southern Wayne County. Staff tested 752 hunter-harvested deer from this region during the 2015-16 deer season and found no evidence of CWD.
 
 
 
Friday, November 20, 2015
 
ODNR Takes Action to Monitor Chronic Wasting Disease in Ohio's Deer Herd
 
 
 
 
Friday, October 23, 2015
 
Ohio Wildlife Council Passes Rule to Help Monitor CWD
 
 
Wednesday, August 05, 2015
 
Ohio confirms to me Chronic Wasting Disease CWD Spreads 19 confirmed cases to date
 
 
Wednesday, February 11, 2015
 
World Class Whitetails quarantined CWD deer Daniel M. Yoder charged with two counts of tampering with evidence
 
 
Thursday, October 23, 2014
 
*** FIRST CASE OF CHRONIC WASTING DISEASE CONFIRMED IN OHIO ON PRIVATE PRESERVE
 
 
Monday, June 11, 2012
 
*** OHIO Captive deer escapees and non-reporting ***
 
 
Tuesday, December 13, 2016
 
Norway Chronic Wasting Disease CWD TSE Prion disease Skrantesjuke December 2016 Update
 
 
KOREA BANS CANADIAN ELK IMPORTS: According to the Calgary Sun, Korea has moved to ban imports of Canadian deer and elk products (antlers and antler velvet) due to the outbreak of Chronic Wasting Disease (CWD) in Saskatchewan elk herds. Late last year, the Canadian Food Inspection Agency (CFIA) ordered the slaughter of 1,700 domesticated elk at six Saskatchewan farms in attempt to stop the spread of CWD (see CA 0206). The disease has not been detected in any other province. Canada's elk population is estimated at 53,000 head and is raised primarily for antler velvet. Canada is the fourth-largest antler velvet producer in the world, behind New Zealand, China and Russia. Most of Canadian antler velvet is exported to Asia where it is sold for medicinal purposes and as an aphrodisiac.
 
 
spreading CWD around, or Trucking CWD or shipping CWD i.e. interstate movement of CWD by transportation of cervid or cervid materials
 
Between 1996 and 2002, chronic wasting disease was diagnosed in 39 herds of farmed elk in Saskatchewan in a single epidemic. All of these herds were depopulated as part of the Canadian Food Inspection Agency’s (CFIA) disease eradication program. Animals, primarily over 12 mo of age, were tested for the presence CWD prions following euthanasia. Twenty-one of the herds were linked through movements of live animals with latent CWD from a single infected source herd in Saskatchewan, 17 through movements of animals from 7 of the secondarily infected herds.
 
***The source herd is believed to have become infected via importation of animals from a game farm in South Dakota where CWD was subsequently diagnosed (7,4). A wide range in herd prevalence of CWD at the time of herd depopulation of these herds was observed. Within-herd transmission was observed on some farms, while the disease remained confined to the introduced animals on other farms.
 
 
Friday, May 13, 2011
 
Chronic Wasting Disease (CWD) outbreaks and surveillance program in the Republic of Korea
 
Hyun-Joo Sohn, Yoon-Hee Lee, Min-jeong Kim, Eun-Im Yun, Hyo-Jin Kim, Won-Yong Lee, Dong-Seob Tark, In- Soo Cho, Foreign Animal Disease Research Division, National Veterinary Research and Quarantine Service, Republic of Korea
 
Chronic wasting disease (CWD) has been recognized as an important prion disease in native North America deer and Rocky mountain elks. The disease is a unique member of the transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (TSEs), which naturally affects only a few species. CWD had been limited to USA and Canada until 2000.
 
On 28 December 2000, information from the Canadian government showed that a total of 95 elk had been exported from farms with CWD to Korea. These consisted of 23 elk in 1994 originating from the so-called “source farm” in Canada, and 72 elk in 1997, which had been held in pre export quarantine at the “source farm”.Based on export information of CWD suspected elk from Canada to Korea, CWD surveillance program was initiated by the Ministry of Agriculture and Forestry (MAF) in 2001.
 
All elks imported in 1997 were traced back, however elks imported in 1994 were impossible to identify. CWD control measures included stamping out of all animals in the affected farm, and thorough cleaning and disinfection of the premises. In addition, nationwide clinical surveillance of Korean native cervids, and improved measures to ensure reporting of CWD suspect cases were implemented.
 
Total of 9 elks were found to be affected. CWD was designated as a notifiable disease under the Act for Prevention of Livestock Epidemics in 2002.
 
Additional CWD cases - 12 elks and 2 elks - were diagnosed in 2004 and 2005.
 
Since February of 2005, when slaughtered elks were found to be positive, all slaughtered cervid for human consumption at abattoirs were designated as target of the CWD surveillance program. Currently, CWD laboratory testing is only conducted by National Reference Laboratory on CWD, which is the Foreign Animal Disease Division (FADD) of National Veterinary Research and Quarantine Service (NVRQS).
 
In July 2010, one out of 3 elks from Farm 1 which were slaughtered for the human consumption was confirmed as positive. Consequently, all cervid – 54 elks, 41 Sika deer and 5 Albino deer – were culled and one elk was found to be positive. Epidemiological investigations were conducted by Veterinary Epidemiology Division (VED) of NVRQS in collaboration with provincial veterinary services.
 
Epidemiologically related farms were found as 3 farms and all cervid at these farms were culled and subjected to CWD diagnosis. Three elks and 5 crossbreeds (Red deer and Sika deer) were confirmed as positive at farm 2.
 
All cervids at Farm 3 and Farm 4 – 15 elks and 47 elks – were culled and confirmed as negative.
 
Further epidemiological investigations showed that these CWD outbreaks were linked to the importation of elks from Canada in 1994 based on circumstantial evidences.
 
In December 2010, one elk was confirmed as positive at Farm 5. Consequently, all cervid – 3 elks, 11 Manchurian Sika deer and 20 Sika deer – were culled and one Manchurian Sika deer and seven Sika deer were found to be positive. This is the first report of CWD in these sub-species of deer. Epidemiological investigations found that the owner of the Farm 2 in CWD outbreaks in July 2010 had co-owned the Farm 5.
 
In addition, it was newly revealed that one positive elk was introduced from Farm 6 of Jinju-si Gyeongsang Namdo. All cervid – 19 elks, 15 crossbreed (species unknown) and 64 Sika deer – of Farm 6 were culled, but all confirmed as negative.
 
 
 
 
 
FRIDAY, SEPTEMBER 02, 2016
 
Canada Chronic Wasting Disease CWD Surveillance Update 2016
 
We have completed testing all heads received to date from the 2015/16 hunting seasons. In total we tested 4929 heads and detected CWD in 116 deer (2.4%). This is an increase in annual overall prevalence from the 2.1% in the 4163 heads tested in the 2014 surveillance program. The 116 cases in 2015 included 105 mule deer, 11 white-tailed deer; 84 males, 31 females, 1 of unknown gender). Majority of these cases (77 of 116; 66%) are mule deer bucks.
 
 
Wednesday, December 21, 2016
 
TRANSMISSION, DIFFERENTIATION, AND PATHOBIOLOGY OF TRANSMISSIBLE SPONGIFORM ENCEPHALOPATHIES 2016 ANNUAL REPORT ARS RESEARCH
 
 
Thursday, December 08, 2016
 
USDA APHIS National Scrapie Eradication Program October 2016 Monthly Report Fiscal Year 2017 atypical NOR-98 Scrapie
 
 
 
Sunday, August 28, 2016
 
CONFIDENTIAL
 
Transmissible Spongiform Encephalopathy TSE Prion and how Politics and Greed by the Industry spread madcow type diseases from species to species and around the globe TSE PRIONS AKA MAD COW TYPE DISEASE, LIONS AND TIGERS AND BEARS, OH MY!
 
 
Monday, August 29, 2016
 
NWHC USGS CHRONIC WASTING DISEASE CWD TSE PRION UPDATE
 
 
Thursday, August 18, 2016
 
PROCEEDINGS ONE HUNDRED AND Nineteenth ANNUAL MEETING of the USAHA BSE, CWD, SCRAPIE, PORCINE TSE PRION October 22 28, 2015
 
 
Sunday, January 22, 2012
 
*** Chronic Wasting Disease CWD cervids interspecies transmission ***
 
 
Tuesday, June 07, 2016
 
*** Comparison of two US sheep scrapie isolates supports identification as separate strains ***
 
Research Project: TRANSMISSION, DIFFERENTIATION, AND PATHOBIOLOGY OF TRANSMISSIBLE SPONGIFORM ENCEPHALOPATHIES
 
 
Scrapie-like disorder in a Nyala (Tragelaphus angasi) IN CONFIDENCE
 
 
 
 
Spongiform encephalopathy has so far only been recorded in the sheep and goat, man, mink, and several deer including the mule deer, black tailed deer and the elk (most, if not all, of the deer incidents occurred in wild life parts in Wyoming and Colorado). Clinical cases in deer all occurred from 3 1/2 to 5 years old and usually 60-80% losses occurred over a 4 year period...
 
 
The clinical and neuropathological findings in F22 are consistent with the spongiform encephalopathies of animals and man. The agents causing spongiform encephalopathy in various species cannot be unequivocally distinguished and some isolates of human agent cause neurologic disease in goats indistinguishable from scrapie. The spongiform encephalopathies are invariably fatal once clinical signs of disease are evident and as very high fatality rates (79% of 67 animals) are recorded in Mule deer it is important that an awareness of the disease is maintained at Marwell.
 
 
”The occurrence of CWD must be viewed against the contest of the locations in which it occurred. It was an incidental and unwelcome complication of the respective wildlife research programmes. Despite it’s subsequent recognition as a new disease of cervids, therefore justifying direct investigation, no specific research funding was forthcoming. The USDA veiwed it as a wildlife problem and consequently not their province!” page 26.
 
 
Evidence That Transmissible Mink Encephalopathy Results from Feeding Infected Cattle Over the next 8-10 weeks, approximately 40% of all the adult mink on the farm died from TME. snip... The rancher was a ''dead stock'' feeder using mostly (>95%) downer or dead dairy cattle...
 
 
 
 
In Confidence - Perceptions of unconventional slow virus diseases of animals in the USA - APRIL-MAY 1989 - G A H Wells 3. Prof. A. Robertson gave a brief account of BSE. The US approach was to accord it a very low profile indeed. Dr. A Thiermann showed the picture in the ''Independent'' with cattle being incinerated and thought this was a fanatical incident to be avoided in the US at all costs. ...
 
 
”The occurrence of CWD must be viewed against the contest of the locations in which it occurred. It was an incidental and unwelcome complication of the respective wildlife research programmes. Despite it’s subsequent recognition as a new disease of cervids, therefore justifying direct investigation, no specific research funding was forthcoming. The USDA veiwed it as a wildlife problem and consequently not their province!” ...page 26.
 
 
*** Spraker suggested an interesting explanation for the occurrence of CWD. The deer pens at the Foot Hills Campus were built some 30-40 years ago by a Dr. Bob Davis. At or abut that time, allegedly, some scrapie work was conducted at this site. When deer were introduced to the pens they occupied ground that had previously been occupied by sheep.
 
 
Spongiform Encephalopathy in Captive Wild ZOO BSE INQUIRY
 
 
Title: Pathological features of chronic wasting disease in reindeer and demonstration of horizontal transmission
 
 
*** Title: Pathological features of chronic wasting disease in reindeer and demonstration of horizontal transmission
 
 
*** December 2016 CDC Emerging Infectious Disease Journal CWD Horizontal Transmission
 
 
*** Infectious agent of sheep scrapie may persist in the environment for at least 16 years ***
 
Gudmundur Georgsson1, Sigurdur Sigurdarson2 and Paul Brown3
 
 
Using in vitro prion replication for high sensitive detection of prions and prionlike proteins and for understanding mechanisms of transmission.
 
Claudio Soto
 
Mitchell Center for Alzheimer's diseases and related Brain disorders, Department of Neurology, University of Texas Medical School at Houston.
 
Prion and prion-like proteins are misfolded protein aggregates with the ability to selfpropagate to spread disease between cells, organs and in some cases across individuals. I n T r a n s m i s s i b l e s p o n g i f o r m encephalopathies (TSEs), prions are mostly composed by a misfolded form of the prion protein (PrPSc), which propagates by transmitting its misfolding to the normal prion protein (PrPC). The availability of a procedure to replicate prions in the laboratory may be important to study the mechanism of prion and prion-like spreading and to develop high sensitive detection of small quantities of misfolded proteins in biological fluids, tissues and environmental samples. Protein Misfolding Cyclic Amplification (PMCA) is a simple, fast and efficient methodology to mimic prion replication in the test tube. PMCA is a platform technology that may enable amplification of any prion-like misfolded protein aggregating through a seeding/nucleation process. In TSEs, PMCA is able to detect the equivalent of one single molecule of infectious PrPSc and propagate prions that maintain high infectivity, strain properties and species specificity. Using PMCA we have been able to detect PrPSc in blood and urine of experimentally infected animals and humans affected by vCJD with high sensitivity and specificity. Recently, we have expanded the principles of PMCA to amplify amyloid-beta (Aβ) and alphasynuclein (α-syn) aggregates implicated in Alzheimer's and Parkinson's diseases, respectively. Experiments are ongoing to study the utility of this technology to detect Aβ and α-syn aggregates in samples of CSF and blood from patients affected by these diseases.
 
=========================
 
***Recently, we have been using PMCA to study the role of environmental prion contamination on the horizontal spreading of TSEs. These experiments have focused on the study of the interaction of prions with plants and environmentally relevant surfaces. Our results show that plants (both leaves and roots) bind tightly to prions present in brain extracts and excreta (urine and feces) and retain even small quantities of PrPSc for long periods of time. Strikingly, ingestion of prioncontaminated leaves and roots produced disease with a 100% attack rate and an incubation period not substantially longer than feeding animals directly with scrapie brain homogenate. Furthermore, plants can uptake prions from contaminated soil and transport them to different parts of the plant tissue (stem and leaves). Similarly, prions bind tightly to a variety of environmentally relevant surfaces, including stones, wood, metals, plastic, glass, cement, etc. Prion contaminated surfaces efficiently transmit prion disease when these materials were directly injected into the brain of animals and strikingly when the contaminated surfaces were just placed in the animal cage. These findings demonstrate that environmental materials can efficiently bind infectious prions and act as carriers of infectivity, suggesting that they may play an important role in the horizontal transmission of the disease.
 
========================
 
Since its invention 13 years ago, PMCA has helped to answer fundamental questions of prion propagation and has broad applications in research areas including the food industry, blood bank safety and human and veterinary disease diagnosis.
 
 
 
with CWD TSE Prions, I am not sure there is any absolute yet, other than what we know with transmission studies, and we know tse prion kill, and tse prion are bad. science shows to date, that indeed soil, dirt, some better than others, can act as a carrier. same with objects, farm furniture. take it with how ever many grains of salt you wish, or not. if load factor plays a role in the end formula, then everything should be on the table, in my opinion...tss
 
 
 Oral Transmissibility of Prion Disease Is Enhanced by Binding to Soil Particles
 
Author Summary
 
Transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (TSEs) are a group of incurable neurological diseases likely caused by a misfolded form of the prion protein. TSEs include scrapie in sheep, bovine spongiform encephalopathy (‘‘mad cow’’ disease) in cattle, chronic wasting disease in deer and elk, and Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease in humans. Scrapie and chronic wasting disease are unique among TSEs because they can be transmitted between animals, and the disease agents appear to persist in environments previously inhabited by infected animals. Soil has been hypothesized to act as a reservoir of infectivity and to bind the infectious agent. In the current study, we orally dosed experimental animals with a common clay mineral, montmorillonite, or whole soils laden with infectious prions, and compared the transmissibility to unbound agent. We found that prions bound to montmorillonite and whole soils remained orally infectious, and, in most cases, increased the oral transmission of disease compared to the unbound agent. The results presented in this study suggest that soil may contribute to environmental spread of TSEs by increasing the transmissibility of small amounts of infectious agent in the environment.
 
 
tse prion soil
 
 
 
 
 
Wednesday, December 16, 2015
 
Objects in contact with classical scrapie sheep act as a reservoir for scrapie transmission
 
 
The sources of dust borne prions are unknown but it seems reasonable to assume that faecal, urine, skin, parturient material and saliva-derived prions may contribute to this mobile environmental reservoir of infectivity. This work highlights a possible transmission route for scrapie within the farm environment, and this is likely to be paralleled in CWD which shows strong similarities with scrapie in terms of prion dissemination and disease transmission. The data indicate that the presence of scrapie prions in dust is likely to make the control of these diseases a considerable challenge.
 
 
>>>Particle-associated PrPTSE molecules may migrate from locations of deposition via transport processes affecting soil particles, including entrainment in and movement with air and overland flow. <<<
 
Fate of Prions in Soil: A Review
 
Christen B. Smith, Clarissa J. Booth, and Joel A. Pedersen*
 
Several reports have shown that prions can persist in soil for several years. Significant interest remains in developing methods that could be applied to degrade PrPTSE in naturally contaminated soils. Preliminary research suggests that serine proteases and the microbial consortia in stimulated soils and compost may partially degrade PrPTSE. Transition metal oxides in soil (viz. manganese oxide) may also mediate prion inactivation. Overall, the effect of prion attachment to soil particles on its persistence in the environment is not well understood, and additional study is needed to determine its implications on the environmental transmission of scrapie and CWD.
 
 
P.161: Prion soil binding may explain efficient horizontal CWD transmission
 
Conclusion. Silty clay loam exhibits highly efficient prion binding, inferring a durable environmental reservoir, and an efficient mechanism for indirect horizontal CWD transmission.
 
 
>>>Another alternative would be an absolute prohibition on the movement of deer within the state for any purpose. While this alternative would significantly reduce the potential spread of CWD, it would also have the simultaneous effect of preventing landowners and land managers from implementing popular management strategies involving the movement of deer, and would deprive deer breeders of the ability to engage in the business of buying and selling breeder deer. Therefore, this alternative was rejected because the department determined that it placed an avoidable burden on the regulated community.<<<
 
Wednesday, December 16, 2015
 
Objects in contact with classical scrapie sheep act as a reservoir for scrapie transmission
 
Timm Konold1*, Stephen A. C. Hawkins2, Lisa C. Thurston3, Ben C. Maddison4, Kevin C. Gough5, Anthony Duarte1 and Hugh A. Simmons1
 
1 Animal Sciences Unit, Animal and Plant Health Agency Weybridge, Addlestone, UK, 2 Pathology Department, Animal and Plant Health Agency Weybridge, Addlestone, UK, 3 Surveillance and Laboratory Services, Animal and Plant Health Agency Penrith, Penrith, UK, 4 ADAS UK, School of Veterinary Medicine and Science, University of Nottingham, Sutton Bonington, UK, 5 School of Veterinary Medicine and Science, University of Nottingham, Sutton Bonington, UK
 
Classical scrapie is an environmentally transmissible prion disease of sheep and goats. Prions can persist and remain potentially infectious in the environment for many years and thus pose a risk of infecting animals after re-stocking. In vitro studies using serial protein misfolding cyclic amplification (sPMCA) have suggested that objects on a scrapie affected sheep farm could contribute to disease transmission. This in vivo study aimed to determine the role of field furniture (water troughs, feeding troughs, fencing, and other objects that sheep may rub against) used by a scrapie-infected sheep flock as a vector for disease transmission to scrapie-free lambs with the prion protein genotype VRQ/VRQ, which is associated with high susceptibility to classical scrapie. When the field furniture was placed in clean accommodation, sheep became infected when exposed to either a water trough (four out of five) or to objects used for rubbing (four out of seven). This field furniture had been used by the scrapie-infected flock 8 weeks earlier and had previously been shown to harbor scrapie prions by sPMCA. Sheep also became infected (20 out of 23) through exposure to contaminated field furniture placed within pasture not used by scrapie-infected sheep for 40 months, even though swabs from this furniture tested negative by PMCA. This infection rate decreased (1 out of 12) on the same paddock after replacement with clean field furniture. Twelve grazing sheep exposed to field furniture not in contact with scrapie-infected sheep for 18 months remained scrapie free. The findings of this study highlight the role of field furniture used by scrapie-infected sheep to act as a reservoir for disease re-introduction although infectivity declines considerably if the field furniture has not been in contact with scrapie-infected sheep for several months. PMCA may not be as sensitive as VRQ/VRQ sheep to test for environmental contamination.
 
snip...
 
Discussion
 
Classical scrapie is an environmentally transmissible disease because it has been reported in naïve, supposedly previously unexposed sheep placed in pastures formerly occupied by scrapie-infected sheep (4, 19, 20). Although the vector for disease transmission is not known, soil is likely to be an important reservoir for prions (2) where – based on studies in rodents – prions can adhere to minerals as a biologically active form (21) and remain infectious for more than 2 years (22). Similarly, chronic wasting disease (CWD) has re-occurred in mule deer housed in paddocks used by infected deer 2 years earlier, which was assumed to be through foraging and soil consumption (23).
 
Our study suggested that the risk of acquiring scrapie infection was greater through exposure to contaminated wooden, plastic, and metal surfaces via water or food troughs, fencing, and hurdles than through grazing. Drinking from a water trough used by the scrapie flock was sufficient to cause infection in sheep in a clean building. Exposure to fences and other objects used for rubbing also led to infection, which supported the hypothesis that skin may be a vector for disease transmission (9). The risk of these objects to cause infection was further demonstrated when 87% of 23 sheep presented with PrPSc in lymphoid tissue after grazing on one of the paddocks, which contained metal hurdles, a metal lamb creep and a water trough in contact with the scrapie flock up to 8 weeks earlier, whereas no infection had been demonstrated previously in sheep grazing on this paddock, when equipped with new fencing and field furniture. When the contaminated furniture and fencing were removed, the infection rate dropped significantly to 8% of 12 sheep, with soil of the paddock as the most likely source of infection caused by shedding of prions from the scrapie-infected sheep in this paddock up to a week earlier.
 
This study also indicated that the level of contamination of field furniture sufficient to cause infection was dependent on two factors: stage of incubation period and time of last use by scrapie-infected sheep. Drinking from a water trough that had been used by scrapie sheep in the predominantly pre-clinical phase did not appear to cause infection, whereas infection was shown in sheep drinking from the water trough used by scrapie sheep in the later stage of the disease. It is possible that contamination occurred through shedding of prions in saliva, which may have contaminated the surface of the water trough and subsequently the water when it was refilled. Contamination appeared to be sufficient to cause infection only if the trough was in contact with sheep that included clinical cases. Indeed, there is an increased risk of bodily fluid infectivity with disease progression in scrapie (24) and CWD (25) based on PrPSc detection by sPMCA. Although ultraviolet light and heat under natural conditions do not inactivate prions (26), furniture in contact with the scrapie flock, which was assumed to be sufficiently contaminated to cause infection, did not act as vector for disease if not used for 18 months, which suggest that the weathering process alone was sufficient to inactivate prions.
 
PrPSc detection by sPMCA is increasingly used as a surrogate for infectivity measurements by bioassay in sheep or mice. In this reported study, however, the levels of PrPSc present in the environment were below the limit of detection of the sPMCA method, yet were still sufficient to cause infection of in-contact animals. In the present study, the outdoor objects were removed from the infected flock 8 weeks prior to sampling and were positive by sPMCA at very low levels (2 out of 37 reactions). As this sPMCA assay also yielded 2 positive reactions out of 139 in samples from the scrapie-free farm, the sPMCA assay could not detect PrPSc on any of the objects above the background of the assay. False positive reactions with sPMCA at a low frequency associated with de novo formation of infectious prions have been reported (27, 28). This is in contrast to our previous study where we demonstrated that outdoor objects that had been in contact with the scrapie-infected flock up to 20 days prior to sampling harbored PrPSc that was detectable by sPMCA analysis [4 out of 15 reactions (12)] and was significantly more positive by the assay compared to analogous samples from the scrapie-free farm. This discrepancy could be due to the use of a different sPMCA substrate between the studies that may alter the efficiency of amplification of the environmental PrPSc. In addition, the present study had a longer timeframe between the objects being in contact with the infected flock and sampling, which may affect the levels of extractable PrPSc. Alternatively, there may be potentially patchy contamination of this furniture with PrPSc, which may have been missed by swabbing. The failure of sPMCA to detect CWD-associated PrP in saliva from clinically affected deer despite confirmation of infectivity in saliva-inoculated transgenic mice was associated with as yet unidentified inhibitors in saliva (29), and it is possible that the sensitivity of sPMCA is affected by other substances in the tested material. In addition, sampling of amplifiable PrPSc and subsequent detection by sPMCA may be more difficult from furniture exposed to weather, which is supported by the observation that PrPSc was detected by sPMCA more frequently in indoor than outdoor furniture (12). A recent experimental study has demonstrated that repeated cycles of drying and wetting of prion-contaminated soil, equivalent to what is expected under natural weathering conditions, could reduce PMCA amplification efficiency and extend the incubation period in hamsters inoculated with soil samples (30). This seems to apply also to this study even though the reduction in infectivity was more dramatic in the sPMCA assays than in the sheep model. Sheep were not kept until clinical end-point, which would have enabled us to compare incubation periods, but the lack of infection in sheep exposed to furniture that had not been in contact with scrapie sheep for a longer time period supports the hypothesis that prion degradation and subsequent loss of infectivity occurs even under natural conditions.
 
In conclusion, the results in the current study indicate that removal of furniture that had been in contact with scrapie-infected animals should be recommended, particularly since cleaning and decontamination may not effectively remove scrapie infectivity (31), even though infectivity declines considerably if the pasture and the field furniture have not been in contact with scrapie-infected sheep for several months. As sPMCA failed to detect PrPSc in furniture that was subjected to weathering, even though exposure led to infection in sheep, this method may not always be reliable in predicting the risk of scrapie infection through environmental contamination. These results suggest that the VRQ/VRQ sheep model may be more sensitive than sPMCA for the detection of environmentally associated scrapie, and suggest that extremely low levels of scrapie contamination are able to cause infection in susceptible sheep genotypes.
 
Keywords: classical scrapie, prion, transmissible spongiform encephalopathy, sheep, field furniture, reservoir, serial protein misfolding cyclic amplification
 
 
Wednesday, December 16, 2015
 
*** Objects in contact with classical scrapie sheep act as a reservoir for scrapie transmission ***
 
 
*** Infectious agent of sheep scrapie may persist in the environment for at least 16 years ***
 
Gudmundur Georgsson1, Sigurdur Sigurdarson2 and Paul Brown3
 
 
snip...see full text ;
 
Scrapie Field Trial Experiments Mission, Texas, The Moore Air Force Base Scrapie Experiment 1964
 
How Did CWD Get Way Down In Medina County, Texas?
 
Confucius ponders...
 
Could the Scrapie experiments back around 1964 at Moore Air Force near Mission, Texas, could this area have been ground zero for CWD TSE Prion (besides the CWD cases that have waltzed across the Texas, New Mexico border near WSMR Trans Pecos region since around 2001)?
 
Epidemiology of Scrapie in the United States 1977
 
snip...
 
Scrapie Field Trial Experiments Mission, Texas
 
A Scrapie Field Trial was developed at Mission, Texas, to provide additional information for the eradication program on the epidemiology of natural scrapie. The Mission Field Trial Station is located on 450 acres of pastureland, part of the former Moore Air Force Base, near Mission, Texas. It was designed to bring previously exposed, and later also unexposed, sheep or goats to the Station and maintain and breed them under close observation for extended periods to determine which animals would develop scrapie and define more closely the natural spread and other epidemiological aspects of the disease.
 
The 547 previously exposed sheep brought to the Mission Station beginning in 1964 were of the Cheviot, Hampshire, Montadale, or Suffolk breeds. They were purchased as field outbreaks occurred, and represented 21 bloodlines in which scrapie had been diagnosed. Upon arrival at the Station, the sheep were maintained on pasture, with supplemental feeding as necessary. The station was divided into 2 areas: (1) a series of pastures and-pens occupied by male animals only, and (2) a series of pastures and pens occupied by females and young progeny of both sexes. ...
 
snip...see full text ;
 
 
Thursday, June 09, 2016
 
Scrapie Field Trial Experiments Mission, Texas, The Moore Air Force Base Scrapie TSE Prion Experiment 1964
 
How Did CWD Get Way Down In Medina County, Texas?
 
 
 
Friday, April 22, 2016
 
*** Texas Scrapie Confirmed in a Hartley County Sheep where CWD was detected in a Mule Deer
 
 
cwd resistant cervid???
 
***at present, no cervid PrP allele conferring absolute resistance to prion infection has been identified.
 
P-145 Estimating chronic wasting disease resistance in cervids using real time quaking- induced conversion
 
Nicholas J Haley1, Rachel Rielinqer2, Kristen A Davenport3, W. David Walter4, Katherine I O'Rourke5, Gordon Mitchell6, Juergen A Richt2
 
1 Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Midwestern University, United States; 2Department of Diagnostic Medicine and Pathobiology, Kansas State University; 3Prion Research Center; Colorado State University; 4U.S. Geological Survey, Pennsylvania Cooperative Fish and Wildlife Research Unit; 5Agricultural Research Service, United States Department of Agriculture; 6Canadian Food Inspection Agency, National and OlE Reference Laboratory for Scrapie and CWO
 
In mammalian species, the susceptibility to prion diseases is affected, in part, by the sequence of the host's prion protein (PrP). In sheep, a gradation from scrapie susceptible to resistant has been established both in vivo and in vitro based on the amino acids present at PrP positions 136, 154, and 171, which has led to global breeding programs to reduce the prevalence of scrapie in domestic sheep. In cervids, resistance is commonly characterized as a delayed progression of chronic wasting disease (CWD); at present, no cervid PrP allele conferring absolute resistance to prion infection has been identified. To model the susceptibility of various naturally-occurring and hypothetical cervid PrP alleles in vitro, we compared the amplification rates and efficiency of various CWD isolates in recombinant PrPC using real time quaking-induced conversion. We hypothesized that amplification metrics of these isolates in cervid PrP substrates would correlate to in vivo susceptibility - allowing susceptibility prediction for alleles found at 10 frequency in nature, and that there would be an additive effect of multiple resistant codons in hypothetical alleles. Our studies demonstrate that in vitro amplification metrics predict in vivo susceptibility, and that alleles with multiple codons, each influencing resistance independently, do not necessarily contribute additively to resistance. Importantly, we found that the white-tailed deer 226K substrate exhibited the slowest amplification rate among those evaluated, suggesting that further investigation of this allele and its resistance in vivo are warranted to determine if absolute resistance to CWD is possible.
 
***at present, no cervid PrP allele conferring absolute resistance to prion infection has been identified.
 
PRION 2016 CONFERENCE TOKYO
 
 
Saturday, May 28, 2016
 
*** Infection and detection of PrPCWD in soil from CWD infected farm in Korea Prion 2016 Tokyo ***
 
 
Sunday, December 11, 2016
 
Clay Components in Soil Dictate Environmental Stability and Bioavailability of Cervid Prions in Mice
 
 
Wednesday, December 14, 2016
 
Increased Abundance of M Cells in the Gut Epithelium Dramatically Enhances Oral Prion Disease Susceptibility
 
 
some of you may be interested in these videos presented recently at the WYOMING CWD FORUM.
 
Thursday, December 15, 2016
 
Wyoming National Elk Refuge CWD forum update December 8, 2016
 
 
the tse prion aka mad cow type disease is not your normal pathogen.
 
The TSE prion disease survives ashing to 600 degrees celsius, that’s around 1112 degrees farenheit.
 
you cannot cook the TSE prion disease out of meat. you can take the ash and mix it with saline and inject that ash into a mouse, and the mouse will go down with TSE.
 
Prion Infected Meat-and-Bone Meal Is Still Infectious after Biodiesel Production as well.
 
the TSE prion agent also survives Simulated Wastewater Treatment Processes.
 
IN fact, you should also know that the TSE Prion agent will survive in the environment for years, if not decades.
 
you can bury it and it will not go away.
 
The TSE agent is capable of infected your water table i.e. Detection of protease-resistant cervid prion protein in water from a CWD-endemic area.
 
it’s not your ordinary pathogen you can just cook it out and be done with.
 
that’s what’s so worrisome about Iatrogenic mode of transmission, a simple autoclave will not kill this TSE prion agent.
 
cwd to humans, consumption, exposure, sub-clinical, iatrogenic, what if ?
 
Wednesday, September 7, 2016
 
*** An assessment of the long-term persistence of prion infectivity in aquatic environments
 
 
Detection of protease-resistant cervid prion protein in water from a CWD-endemic area
 
The data presented here demonstrate that sPMCA can detect low levels of PrPCWD in the environment, corroborate previous biological and experimental data suggesting long term persistence of prions in the environment2,3 and imply that PrPCWD accumulation over time may contribute to transmission of CWD in areas where it has been endemic for decades. This work demonstrates the utility of sPMCA to evaluate other environmental water sources for PrPCWD, including smaller bodies of water such as vernal pools and wallows, where large numbers of cervids congregate and into which prions from infected animals may be shed and concentrated to infectious levels.
 
 
 
cwd zoonosis, and the science there from of late...as follows;
 
*** WDA 2016 NEW YORK ***
 
We found that CWD adapts to a new host more readily than BSE and that human PrP was unexpectedly prone to misfolding by CWD prions. In addition, we investigated the role of specific regions of the bovine, deer and human PrP protein in resistance to conversion by prions from another species. We have concluded that the human protein has a region that confers unusual susceptibility to conversion by CWD prions.
 
Student Presentations Session 2
 
The species barriers and public health threat of CWD and BSE prions
 
Ms. Kristen Davenport1, Dr. Davin Henderson1, Dr. Candace Mathiason1, Dr. Edward Hoover1 1Colorado State University
 
Chronic wasting disease (CWD) is spreading rapidly through cervid populations in the USA. Bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE, mad cow disease) arose in the 1980s because cattle were fed recycled animal protein. These and other prion diseases are caused by abnormal folding of the normal prion protein (PrP) into a disease causing form (PrPd), which is pathogenic to nervous system cells and can cause subsequent PrP to misfold. CWD spreads among cervids very efficiently, but it has not yet infected humans. On the other hand, BSE was spread only when cattle consumed infected bovine or ovine tissue, but did infect humans and other species. The objective of this research is to understand the role of PrP structure in cross-species infection by CWD and BSE. To study the propensity of each species’ PrP to be induced to misfold by the presence of PrPd from verious species, we have used an in vitro system that permits detection of PrPd in real-time. We measured the conversion efficiency of various combinations of PrPd seeds and PrP substrate combinations. We observed the cross-species behavior of CWD and BSE, in addition to feline-adapted CWD and BSE. We found that CWD adapts to a new host more readily than BSE and that human PrP was unexpectedly prone to misfolding by CWD prions. In addition, we investigated the role of specific regions of the bovine, deer and human PrP protein in resistance to conversion by prions from another species. We have concluded that the human protein has a region that confers unusual susceptibility to conversion by CWD prions. CWD is unique among prion diseases in its rapid spread in natural populations. BSE prions are essentially unaltered upon passage to a new species, while CWD adapts to the new species. This adaptation has consequences for surveillance of humans exposed to CWD.
 
Wildlife Disease Risk Communication Research Contributes to Wildlife Trust Administration Exploring perceptions about chronic wasting disease risks among wildlife and agriculture professionals and stakeholders
 
 
PRION 2016 TOKYO
 
Zoonotic Potential of CWD Prions: An Update
 
Ignazio Cali1, Liuting Qing1, Jue Yuan1, Shenghai Huang2, Diane Kofskey1,3, Nicholas Maurer1, Debbie McKenzie4, Jiri Safar1,3,5, Wenquan Zou1,3,5,6, Pierluigi Gambetti1, Qingzhong Kong1,5,6 1Department of Pathology, 3National Prion Disease Pathology Surveillance Center, 5Department of Neurology, 6National Center for Regenerative Medicine, Case Western Reserve University, Cleveland, OH 44106, USA. 4Department of Biological Sciences and Center for Prions and Protein Folding Diseases, University of Alberta, Edmonton, Alberta, Canada, 2Encore Health Resources, 1331 Lamar St, Houston, TX 77010
 
Chronic wasting disease (CWD) is a widespread and highly transmissible prion disease in free-ranging and captive cervid species in North America. The zoonotic potential of CWD prions is a serious public health concern, but the susceptibility of human CNS and peripheral organs to CWD prions remains largely unresolved. We reported earlier that peripheral and CNS infections were detected in transgenic mice expressing human PrP129M or PrP129V. Here we will present an update on this project, including evidence for strain dependence and influence of cervid PrP polymorphisms on CWD zoonosis as well as the characteristics of experimental human CWD prions.
 
PRION 2016 TOKYO In Conjunction with Asia Pacific Prion Symposium 2016 PRION 2016 Tokyo Prion 2016
 
 
 
Monday, May 02, 2016
 
*** Zoonotic Potential of CWD Prions: An Update Prion 2016 Tokyo ***
 
 
Saturday, April 23, 2016
 
PRION 2016 TOKYO
 
Saturday, April 23, 2016
 
SCRAPIE WS-01: Prion diseases in animals and zoonotic potential 2016
 
Prion. 10:S15-S21. 2016 ISSN: 1933-6896 printl 1933-690X online
 
Taylor & Francis
 
Prion 2016 Animal Prion Disease Workshop Abstracts
 
WS-01: Prion diseases in animals and zoonotic potential
 
Juan Maria Torres a, Olivier Andreoletti b, J uan-Carlos Espinosa a. Vincent Beringue c. Patricia Aguilar a,
 
Natalia Fernandez-Borges a. and Alba Marin-Moreno a
 
"Centro de Investigacion en Sanidad Animal ( CISA-INIA ). Valdeolmos, Madrid. Spain; b UMR INRA -ENVT 1225 Interactions Holes Agents Pathogenes. ENVT. Toulouse. France: "UR892. Virologie lmmunologie MolécuIaires, Jouy-en-Josas. France
 
Dietary exposure to bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) contaminated bovine tissues is considered as the origin of variant Creutzfeldt Jakob (vCJD) disease in human. To date, BSE agent is the only recognized zoonotic prion. Despite the variety of Transmissible Spongiform Encephalopathy (TSE) agents that have been circulating for centuries in farmed ruminants there is no apparent epidemiological link between exposure to ruminant products and the occurrence of other form of TSE in human like sporadic Creutzfeldt Jakob Disease (sCJD). However, the zoonotic potential of the diversity of circulating TSE agents has never been systematically assessed. The major issue in experimental assessment of TSEs zoonotic potential lies in the modeling of the ‘species barrier‘, the biological phenomenon that limits TSE agents’ propagation from a species to another. In the last decade, mice genetically engineered to express normal forms of the human prion protein has proved essential in studying human prions pathogenesis and modeling the capacity of TSEs to cross the human species barrier.
 
To assess the zoonotic potential of prions circulating in farmed ruminants, we study their transmission ability in transgenic mice expressing human PrPC (HuPrP-Tg). Two lines of mice expressing different forms of the human PrPC (129Met or 129Val) are used to determine the role of the Met129Val dimorphism in susceptibility/resistance to the different agents.
 
These transmission experiments confirm the ability of BSE prions to propagate in 129M- HuPrP-Tg mice and demonstrate that Met129 homozygotes may be susceptible to BSE in sheep or goat to a greater degree than the BSE agent in cattle and that these agents can convey molecular properties and neuropathological indistinguishable from vCJD. However homozygous 129V mice are resistant to all tested BSE derived prions independently of the originating species suggesting a higher transmission barrier for 129V-PrP variant.
 
Transmission data also revealed that several scrapie prions propagate in HuPrP-Tg mice with ef?ciency comparable to that of cattle BSE. While the ef?ciency of transmission at primary passage was low, subsequent passages resulted in a highly virulent prion disease in both Met129 and Val129 mice. Transmission of the different scrapie isolates in these mice leads to the emergence of prion strain phenotypes that showed similar characteristics to those displayed by MM1 or VV2 sCJD prion. These results demonstrate that scrapie prions have a zoonotic potential and raise new questions about the possible link between animal and human prions.
 
 
why do we not want to do TSE transmission studies on chimpanzees $
 
5. A positive result from a chimpanzee challenged severly would likely create alarm in some circles even if the result could not be interpreted for man. I have a view that all these agents could be transmitted provided a large enough dose by appropriate routes was given and the animals kept long enough. Until the mechanisms of the species barrier are more clearly understood it might be best to retain that hypothesis.
 
snip...
 
R. BRADLEY
 
 
Title: Transmission of scrapie prions to primate after an extended silent incubation period)
 
*** In complement to the recent demonstration that humanized mice are susceptible to scrapie, we report here the first observation of direct transmission of a natural classical scrapie isolate to a macaque after a 10-year incubation period. Neuropathologic examination revealed all of the features of a prion disease: spongiform change, neuronal loss, and accumulation of PrPres throughout the CNS.
 
*** This observation strengthens the questioning of the harmlessness of scrapie to humans, at a time when protective measures for human and animal health are being dismantled and reduced as c-BSE is considered controlled and being eradicated.
 
*** Our results underscore the importance of precautionary and protective measures and the necessity for long-term experimental transmission studies to assess the zoonotic potential of other animal prion strains.
 
 
SCRAPIE WS-01: Prion diseases in animals and zoonotic potential 2016
 
Prion. 10:S15-S21. 2016 ISSN: 1933-6896 printl 1933-690X online
 
 
 
O.05: Transmission of prions to primates after extended silent incubation periods: Implications for BSE and scrapie risk assessment in human populations
 
Emmanuel Comoy, Jacqueline Mikol, Valerie Durand, Sophie Luccantoni, Evelyne Correia, Nathalie Lescoutra, Capucine Dehen, and Jean-Philippe Deslys Atomic Energy Commission; Fontenay-aux-Roses, France
 
Prion diseases (PD) are the unique neurodegenerative proteinopathies reputed to be transmissible under field conditions since decades. The transmission of Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy (BSE) to humans evidenced that an animal PD might be zoonotic under appropriate conditions. Contrarily, in the absence of obvious (epidemiological or experimental) elements supporting a transmission or genetic predispositions, PD, like the other proteinopathies, are reputed to occur spontaneously (atpical animal prion strains, sporadic CJD summing 80% of human prion cases). Non-human primate models provided the first evidences supporting the transmissibiity of human prion strains and the zoonotic potential of BSE. Among them, cynomolgus macaques brought major information for BSE risk assessment for human health (Chen, 2014), according to their phylogenetic proximity to humans and extended lifetime. We used this model to assess the zoonotic potential of other animal PD from bovine, ovine and cervid origins even after very long silent incubation periods.
 
*** We recently observed the direct transmission of a natural classical scrapie isolate to macaque after a 10-year silent incubation period,
 
***with features similar to some reported for human cases of sporadic CJD, albeit requiring fourfold long incubation than BSE. Scrapie, as recently evoked in humanized mice (Cassard, 2014),
 
***is the third potentially zoonotic PD (with BSE and L-type BSE),
 
***thus questioning the origin of human sporadic cases. We will present an updated panorama of our different transmission studies and discuss the implications of such extended incubation periods on risk assessment of animal PD for human health.
 
===============
 
***thus questioning the origin of human sporadic cases***
 
***our findings suggest that possible transmission risk of H-type BSE to sheep and human. Bioassay will be required to determine whether the PMCA products are infectious to these animals.
 
 
LOOKING FOR CWD IN HUMANS AS nvCJD or as an ATYPICAL CJD, LOOKING IN ALL THE WRONG PLACES $$$
 
*** These results would seem to suggest that CWD does indeed have zoonotic potential, at least as judged by the compatibility of CWD prions and their human PrPC target. Furthermore, extrapolation from this simple in vitro assay suggests that if zoonotic CWD occurred, it would most likely effect those of the PRNP codon 129-MM genotype and that the PrPres type would be similar to that found in the most common subtype of sCJD (MM1).***
 
 
*** The potential impact of prion diseases on human health was greatly magnified by the recognition that interspecies transfer of BSE to humans by beef ingestion resulted in vCJD. While changes in animal feed constituents and slaughter practices appear to have curtailed vCJD, there is concern that CWD of free-ranging deer and elk in the U.S. might also cross the species barrier. Thus, consuming venison could be a source of human prion disease. Whether BSE and CWD represent interspecies scrapie transfer or are newly arisen prion diseases is unknown. Therefore, the possibility of transmission of prion disease through other food animals cannot be ruled out. There is evidence that vCJD can be transmitted through blood transfusion. There is likely a pool of unknown size of asymptomatic individuals infected with vCJD, and there may be asymptomatic individuals infected with the CWD equivalent. These circumstances represent a potential threat to blood, blood products, and plasma supplies.
 
 
THIS SHOULD BE VERY IMPORTANT TO ALL CATTLE RANCHERS, BEEF PRODUCERS, AND OR DAIRY FARMERS
 
2016 Docket No. FDA-2003-D-0432 (formerly 03D-0186) Use of Material from Deer and Elk in Animal Feed Singeltary Submission
 
V. Use in animal feed of material from deer and elk NOT considered at high risk for CWD FDA continues to consider materials from deer and elk NOT considered at high risk for CWD to be acceptable for use in NON-RUMINANT animal feeds in accordance with current agency regulations, 21 CFR 589.2000. Deer and elk not considered at high risk include: (1) deer and elk from areas not declared by State officials to be endemic for CWD and/or to be CWD eradication zones; and (2) deer and elk that were not at some time during the 60-month period immediately before the time of slaughter in a captive herd that contained a CWD-positive animal.
 
SNIP...
 
Greetings again FDA and Mr. Pritchett et al,
 
MY comments and source reference of sound science on this very important issue are as follows ;
 
Docket No. FDA-2003-D-0432 (formerly 03D-0186) Use of Material from Deer and Elk in Animal Feed Singeltary Submission
 
I kindly wish to once again submit to Docket No. FDA-2003-D-0432 (formerly 03D-0186) Use of Material from Deer and Elk in Animal Feed.
 
Thank you kindly for allowing me to comment again, ...and again...and again, on a topic so important, why it is ‘NON-BINDING’ is beyond me.
 
this should have been finalized and made ‘BINDING’ or MANDATORY OVER A DECADE AGO.
 
but here lay the problem, once made ‘BINDING’ or ‘MANDATORY’, it is still nothing but ink on paper.
 
we have had a mad cow feed ban in place since August 1997, and since then, literally 100s of millions of pounds BANNED MAD COW FEED has been sent out to commerce and fed out (see reference materials).
 
ENFORCEMENT OF SAID BINDING REGULATIONS HAS FAILED US TOO MANY TIMES.
 
so, in my opinion, any non-binding or voluntary regulations will not work, and to state further, ‘BINDING’ or MANDATORY regulations will not work unless enforced.
 
with that said, we know that Chronic Wasting Disease CWD TSE Prion easily transmits to other cervid through the oral route.
 
the old transmission studies of BSE TSE floored scientist once they figured out what they had, and please don’t forget about those mink that were fed 95%+ dead stock downer cow, that all came down with TME. please see ;
 
It is clear that the designing scientists must also have shared Mr Bradleys surprise at the results because all the dose levels right down to 1 gram triggered infection.
 
 
it is clear that the designing scientists must have also shared Mr Bradleys surprise at the results because all the dose levels right down to 1 gram triggered infection.
 
 
Evidence That Transmissible Mink Encephalopathy Results from Feeding Infected Cattle
 
Over the next 8-10 weeks, approximately 40% of all the adult mink on the farm died from TME.
 
snip...
 
The rancher was a ''dead stock'' feeder using mostly (>95%) downer or dead dairy cattle...
 
 
To further complicate things, we now know that science has shown that plants and vegetables can uptake the TSE Prion, and that the Scrapie agent can still be infectious from soil 16 years later. a frightening thought with the CWD running rampant now in North America (please see source reference materials below).
 
IF we don’t do this, we have failed, and the TSE Prion agent will continue to spread, as it is doing as we speak.
 
I strenuously once again urge the FDA and its industry constituents, to make it MANDATORY that all ruminant feed be banned to all ruminants, and this should include all cervids, as well as non-ruminants such as cats and dogs as well, as soon as possible for the following reasons...
 
 
Sunday, March 20, 2016
 
Docket No. FDA-2003-D-0432 (formerly 03D-0186) Use of Material from Deer and Elk in Animal Feed Singeltary Submission
 
 
Singeltary previous submission to DOCKET-- 03D-0186 -- FDA Issues Draft Guidance on Use of Material From Deer and Elk in Animal Feed; Availability
 
DOCKET-- 03D-0186 -- FDA Issues Draft Guidance on Use of Material From Deer and Elk in Animal Feed; Availability Fri, 16 May 2003 11:47:37 0500 EMC 1 Terry S. Singeltary Sr. Vol #: 1
 
Date: Fri, 16 May 2003 11:47:37 0500 EMC 1 Terry S. Singeltary Sr. Vol #: 1
 
 
 
 
MARCH 1, 2011
 
UPDATED CORRESPONDENCE FROM AUTHORS OF THIS STUDY I.E. COLBY, PRUSINER ET AL, ABOUT MY CONCERNS OF THE DISCREPANCY BETWEEN THEIR FIGURES AND MY FIGURES OF THE STUDIES ON CWD TRANSMISSION TO CATTLE ;
 
----- Original Message ----- From: David Colby To: flounder9@verizon.net
 
Cc: stanley@XXXXXXXX Sent: Tuesday, March 01, 2011 8:25 AM
 
Subject: Re: FW: re-Prions David W. Colby1,* and Stanley B. Prusiner1,2 + Author Affiliations Dear Terry Singeltary, Thank you for your correspondence regarding the review article Stanley Prusiner and I recently wrote for Cold Spring Harbor Perspectives. Dr. Prusiner asked that I reply to your message due to his busy schedule. We agree that the transmission of CWD prions to beef livestock would be a troubling development and assessing that risk is important. In our article, we cite a peer-reviewed publication reporting confirmed cases of laboratory transmission based on stringent criteria. The less stringent criteria for transmission described in the abstract you refer to lead to the discrepancy between your numbers and ours and thus the interpretation of the transmission rate. We stand by our assessment of the literature--namely that the transmission rate of CWD to bovines appears relatively low, but we recognize that even a low transmission rate could have important implications for public health and we thank you for bringing attention to this matter.
 
Warm Regards, David Colby --
 
David Colby, PhDAssistant ProfessorDepartment of Chemical EngineeringUniversity of Delaware ====================END...TSS============== SNIP...SEE FULL TEXT ;http://betaamyloidcjd.blogspot.com/2011/01/enlarging-spectrum-of-prion-like.html
 
UPDATED DATA ON 2ND CWD STRAIN
 
Wednesday, September 08, 2010 CWD PRION CONGRESS SEPTEMBER 8-11 2010 http://chronic-wasting-disease.blogspot.com/2010/09/cwd-prion-2010.html
 
Research Project: Transmission, Differentiation, and Pathobiology of Transmissible Spongiform Encephalopathies Location: Virus and Prion Diseases of Livestock Title: TRANSMISSION OF CHRONIC WASTING DISEASE AGENT OF MULE DEER (CWD**MD) TO SUFFOLK SHEEP BY INTRACEREBRAL ROUTE Authors Hamir, Amirali Kunkle, Robert Cutlip, Randall - ARS RETIRED Miller, Janice - ARS RETIRED Williams, Elizabeth - UNIVERSITY OF WYOMING Richt, Juergen Submitted to: European Society of Veterinary Pathology Publication Type: Abstract Publication Acceptance Date: June 5, 2006 Publication Date: August 31, 2006
 
Citation: Hamir, A., Kunkle, R., Cutlip, R., Miller, J., Williams, E., Richt, J. 2006.
 
Transmission of chronic wasting disease agent of mule deer (CWD**md) to Suffolk sheep by intracerebral route [abstract]. European Society of Veterinary Pathology 24th Annual Meeting. Paper No. P63. p. 171-172.
 
Technical Abstract: Chronic wasting disease (CWD) is a transmissible spongiform encephalopathy (TSE) that has been identified in captive and free-ranging cervids in the U.S. since 1967. To determine the transmissibility of CWD to sheep, 8 Suffolk lambs [4 QQ and 4 QR at codon 171 of prion protein (PRNP) gene] were inoculated intracerebrally with a pooled brain suspension from 28 mule deer naturally affected with CWD (CWD**md). Two other lambs (1 QQ and 1 QR at codon 171 of the PRNP gene) were kept as non-inoculated controls. Within 36 months post inoculation (MPI), 2 animals became sick and were euthanized. Only 1 sheep (euthanized at 35 MPI) showed clinical signs that were consistent with those described for scrapie. Microscopic lesions of spongiform encephalopathy (SE) were only seen in the sheep with the clinical signs of TSE and its tissues were positive for the abnormal prion protein (PrP**res) by immunohistochemistry and Western blot. Between 36 and 60 MPI, 3 other sheep were euthanized because of conditions unrelated to TSE. The remaining 3 sheep remained non-clinical at the termination of the study (72 MPI) and were euthanized at that time. One of the 3 animals revealed SE and its tissues were positive for PrP**res. Both sheep positive for PrP**res were homozygous QQ at codon 171. Retrospective examination of the PRNP genotype of the 2 TSE-positive animals revealed that the sheep with clinical prion disease (euthanized at 35 MPI) was heterozygous (AV) and the sheep with the sub-clinical disease (euthanized at 72 MPI) was homozygous (AA) at codon 136 of the PRNP. These findings demonstrate that transmission of the CWD**md agent to sheep via the intracerebral route is possible. Interestingly, the host genotype may play a significant part in successful transmission and incubation period of CWD**md.
 
 
Transmission of chronic wasting disease of mule deer to Suffolk sheep following intracerebral inoculation
 
Amir N. Hamir,1 Robert A. Kunkle, Randall C. Cutlip, Janice M. Miller, Elizabeth S. Williams, Juergen A. Richt
 
Abstract. To determine the transmissibility of chronic wasting disease (CWD) to sheep, 8 Suffolk lambs of various prion protein genotypes (4 ARQ/ARR, 3 ARQ/ARQ, 1 ARQ/VRQ at codons 136, 154, and 171, respectively) were inoculated intracerebrally with brain suspension from mule deer with CWD (CWDmd). Two other lambs were kept as noninoculated controls. Within 36 months postinoculation (MPI), 2 inoculated animals became sick and were euthanized. Only 1 sheep (euthanized at 35 MPI) showed clinical signs that were consistent with those described for scrapie. Microscopic lesions of spongiform encephalopathy (SE) were only seen in this sheep, and its tissues were determined to be positive for the abnormal prion protein (PrPres) by immunohistochemistry and Western blot. Three other inoculated sheep were euthanized (36 to 60 MPI) because of conditions unrelated to TSE. The 3 remaining inoculated sheep and the 2 control sheep did not have clinical signs of disease at the termination of the study (72 MPI) and were euthanized. Of the 3 remaining inoculated sheep, 1 was found to have SE, and its tissues were positive for PrPres. The sheep with clinical prion disease (euthanized at 35 MPI) was of the heterozygous genotype (ARQ/VRQ), and the sheep with subclinical disease (euthanized at 72 MPH) was of the homozygous ARQ/ARQ genotype. These findings demonstrate that transmission of the CWDmd agent to sheep via the intracerebral route is possible. Interestingly, the host genotype may play a notable part in successful transmission and incubation period of CWDmd. snip...
 
Thus far, among domestic animals, CWDmd has been transmitted by the intracerebral route to a goat18 and cattle.5–7 The present findings demonstrate that it is also possible to transmit CWDmd agent to sheep via the intracerebral route. However, the only sheep to develop clinical TSE within 35 MPI was genotypically AV at PRNP codon 136, suggesting that host genotype may play a notable part in successful transmission of the disease in this species. Although in Suffolk sheep the AV variant at codon 136 is very rare,17 selective breeding of Suffolk sheep with this codon has begun in the hope of testing this differential susceptibility hypothesis in a future study of CWDmd transmission to sheep. Key words: Chronic wasting disease; immunohistochemistry; intracerebral transmission; prion protein; sheep; spongiform encephalopathy. http://vdi.sagepub.com/content/18/6/558.long
 
Research Project: Transmission, Differentiation, and Pathobiology of Transmissible Spongiform Encephalopathies Location: Virus and Prion Diseases of Livestock Title: EXPERIMENTAL SECOND PASSAGE OF CHRONIC WASTING DISEASE (CWD(MULE DEER)) AGENT TO CATTLE
 
Authors Hamir, Amirali Kunkle, Robert Miller, Janice - ARS RETIRED Greenlee, Justin Richt, Juergen Submitted to: Journal of Comparative Pathology Publication Type: Peer Reviewed Journal Publication Acceptance Date: July 25, 2005 Publication Date: January 1, 2006 Citation: Hamir, A.N., Kunkle, R.A., Miller, J.M., Greenlee, J.J., Richt, J.A. 2006.
 
Experimental second passage of chronic wasting disease (CWD(mule deer)) agent to cattle. Journal of Comparative Pathology. 134(1):63-69. Interpretive Summary: To compare the findings of experimental first and second passage of chronic wasting disease (CWD) in cattle, 6 calves were inoculated into the brain with CWD-mule deer agent previously (first) passaged in cattle. Two other uninoculated calves served as controls. Beginning 10-12 months post inoculation (PI), all inoculates lost appetite and weight. Five animals subsequently developed clinical signs of central nervous system (CNS) abnormality. By 16.5 months PI, all cattle had been euthanized because of poor prognosis. None of the animals showed microscopic lesions of spongiform encephalopathy (SE) but the CWD agent was detected in their CNS tissues by 2 laboratory techniques (IHC and WB). These findings demonstrate that inoculated cattle amplify CWD agent but also develop clinical CNS signs without manifestation of microscopic lesions of SE. This situation has also been shown to occur following inoculation of cattle with another TSE agent, namely, sheep scrapie. The current study confirms previous work that indicates that the diagnostic tests currently used for confirmation of bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) in the U.S. would detect CWD in cattle, should it occur naturally. Furthermore, it raises the possibility of distinguishing CWD from BSE in cattle due to the absence of microscopic lesions and a unique multifocal distribution of PrPres, as demonstrated by IHC, which in this study, appears to be more sensitive than the WB.
 
Technical Abstract: To compare clinicopathological findings of first and second passage of chronic wasting disease (CWD) in cattle, a group of calves (n=6) were intracerebrally inoculated with CWD-mule deer agent previously (first) passaged in cattle. Two other uninoculated calves served as controls. Beginning 10-12 months post inoculation (PI), all inoculates lost appetite and lost weight. Five animals subsequently developed clinical signs of central nervous system (CNS) abnormality. By 16.5 months PI, all cattle had been euthanized because of poor prognosis. None of the animals showed microscopic lesions of spongiform encephalopathy (SE) but PrPres was detected in their CNS tissues by immunohistochemistry (IHC) and Western blot (WB) techniques. These findings demonstrate that intracerebrally inoculated cattle not only amplify CWD PrPres but also develop clinical CNS signs without manifestation of morphologic lesions of SE. This situation has also been shown to occur following inoculation of cattle with another TSE agent, scrapie. The current study confirms previous work that indicates the diagnostic techniques currently used for confirmation of bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) in the U.S. would detect CWD in cattle, should it occur naturally. Furthermore, it raises the possibility of distinguishing CWD from BSE in cattle due to the absence of neuropathologic lesions and a unique multifocal distribution of PrPres, as demonstrated by IHC, which in this study, appears to be more sensitive than the WB.http://www.ars.usda.gov/research/publications/publications.htm?seq_no_115=178318
 
 ***These findings demonstrate that inoculated cattle amplify CWD agent but also develop clinical CNS signs without manifestation of microscopic lesions of SE.*** Wednesday, September 21, 2011 Evidence for distinct CWD strains in experimental CWD in ferrets
 
 
Wednesday, October 12, 2011
 
White-tailed deer are susceptible to the agent of sheep scrapie by intracerebral inoculation
 
 
Wednesday, July 06, 2011
 
Swine Are Susceptible to Chronic Wasting Disease by Intracerebral Inoculation http://chronic-wasting-disease.blogspot.com/2011/07/swine-are-susceptible-to-chronic.html
 
WS-02
 
Scrapie in swine: A diagnostic challenge
 
Justin J Greenlee1, Robert A Kunkle1, Jodi D Smith1, Heather W. Greenlee2
 
1National Animal Disease Center, US Dept. of Agriculture, Agricultural Research Service, United States; 2Iowa State University College of Veterinary Medicine A naturally occurring prion disease has not been recognized in swine, but the agent of bovine spongiform encephalopathy does transmit to swine by experimental routes. Swine are thought to have a robust species barrier when exposed to the naturally occurring prion diseases of other species, but the susceptibility of swine to the agent of sheep scrapie has not been thoroughly tested. Since swine can be fed rations containing ruminant derived components in the United States and many other countries, we conducted this experiment to test the susceptibility of swine to U.S. scrapie isolates by intracranial and oral inoculation. Scrapie inoculum was a pooled 10% (w/v) homogenate derived from the brains of clinically ill sheep from the 4th passage of a serial passage study of the U.S scrapie agent (No. 13-7) through susceptible sheep that were homozygous ARQ at prion protein residues 136, 154, and 171, respectively. Pigs were inoculated intracranially (n=19) with a single 0.75 ml dose or orally (n=24) with 15 ml repeated on 4 consecutive days. Necropsies were done on a subset of animals at approximately six months post inoculation (PI), at the time the pigs were expected to reach market weight. Remaining pigs were maintained and monitored for clinical signs of TSE until study termination at 80 months PI or when removed due to intercurrent disease (primarily lameness). Brain samples were examined by immunohistochemistry (IHC), western blot (WB), and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Brain tissue from a subset of pigs in each inoculation group was used for bioassay in mice expressing porcine PRNP.
 
At six-months PI, no evidence of scrapie infection was noted by any diagnostic method. However, at 51 months of incubation or greater, 5 animals were positive by one or more methods: IHC (n=4), WB (n=3), or ELISA (n=5). Interestingly, positive bioassay results were obtained from all inoculated groups (oral and intracranial; market weight and end of study).
 
Swine inoculated with the agent of scrapie by the intracranial and oral routes do not accumulate abnormal prion protein (PrPSc) to a level detectable by IHC or WB by the time they reach typical market age and weight. However, strong support for the fact that swine are potential hosts for the agent of scrapie comes from positive bioassay from both intracranially and orally inoculated pigs and multiple diagnostic methods demonstrating abnormal prion protein in intracranially inoculated pigs with long incubation times.
 
Curriculum Vitae
 
Dr. Greenlee is Research Veterinary Medical Officer in the Virus and Prion Research Unit at the National Animal Disease Center, US Department of Agriculture, Agricultural Research Service. He applies his specialty in veterinary anatomic pathology to focused research on the intra- and interspecies transmission of prion diseases in livestock and the development of antemortem diagnostic assays for prion diseases. In addition, knockout and transgenic mouse models are used to complement ongoing experiments in livestock species. Dr. Greenlee has publications in a number of topic areas including prion agent decontamination, effects of PRNP genotype on susceptibility to the agent of sheep scrapie, characterization of US scrapie strains, transmission of chronic wasting disease to cervids and cattle, features of H-BSE associated with the E211 K polymorphism, and the development of retinal assessment for antemortem screening for prion diseases in sheep and cattle. Dr. Greenlee obtained his DVM degree and completed the PhD/residency program in Veterinary Pathology at Iowa State University. He is a Diplomate of the American College of Veterinary Pathologists.
 
 
***In contrast, cattle are highly susceptible to white-tailed deer CWD and mule deer CWD in experimental conditions but no natural CWD infections in cattle have been reported (Sigurdson, 2008; Hamir et al., 2006). It is not known how susceptible humans are to CWD but given that the prion can be present in muscle, it is likely that humans have been exposed to the agent via consumption of venison (Sigurdson, 2008). Initial experimental research, however, suggests that human susceptibility to CWD is low and there may be a robust species barrier for CWD transmission to humans (Sigurdson, 2008). It is apparent, though, that CWD is affecting wild and farmed cervid populations in endemic areas with some deer populations decreasing as a result.
 
 
Limited amplification of chronic wasting disease prions in the peripheral tissues of intracerebrally inoculated cattle
 
Authors: Nicholas Haley1, Christopher Siepker2, Justin Greenlee3, Jürgen Richt4
 
VIEW AFFILIATIONS Affiliations: 1 1Midwestern Univerisity 2 2Kansas State University 3 3USDA, Agricultural Research Service 4 4Kansas State University
 
Published Ahead of Print: 31 March, 2016 Journal of General Virology doi: 10.1099/jgv.0.000438 Published Online: 31/03/2016
 
Chronic wasting disease (CWD) is a fatal neurodegenerative disease, classified as a prion disease or transmissible spongiform encephalopathy (TSE) similar to bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE). Cervids affected by CWD accumulate an abnormal protease resistant prion protein throughout the central nervous system (CNS), as well as in both lymphatic and excretory tissues - an aspect of prion disease pathogenesis not observed in cattle with BSE. Using seeded amplification through real time quaking induced conversion (RT-QuIC), we investigated whether the bovine host or prion agent was responsible for this aspect of TSE pathogenesis. We blindly examined numerous central and peripheral tissues from cattle inoculated with CWD for prion seeding activity. Seeded amplification was readily detected in the CNS, though rarely observed in peripheral tissues, with a limited distribution similar to that of BSE prions in cattle. This seems to indicate that prion peripheralization in cattle is a host-driven characteristic of TSE infection.
 
 
Friday, August 14, 2015
 
Susceptibility of cattle to the agent of chronic wasting disease from elk after intracranial inoculation
 
ARS VIRUS AND PRION RESEARCH / Research / Publication #277212
 
Research Project: TRANSMISSION, DIFFERENTIATION, AND PATHOBIOLOGY OF TRANSMISSIBLE SPONGIFORM ENCEPHALOPATHIES
 
Title: Susceptibility of cattle to the agent of chronic wasting disease from elk after intracranial inoculation
 
Authors
 
item Greenlee, Justin item Nicholson, Eric item Smith, Jodi item Kunkle, Robert item Hamir, Amirali
 
Submitted to: Journal of Veterinary Diagnostic Investigation Publication
 
Type: Peer Reviewed Journal Publication Acceptance
 
Date: July 12, 2012
 
Publication Date: November 1, 2012
 
Citation: Greenlee, J.J., Nicholson, E.M., Smith, J.D., Kunkle, R.A., Hamir, A.N. 2012.
 
Susceptibility of cattle to the agent of chronic wasting disease from elk after intracranial inoculation.
 
Journal of Veterinary Diagnostic Investigation. 24(6):1087-1093.
 
Interpretive Summary: Chronic Wasting Disease (CWD), a fatal neurodegenerative disease that occurs in farmed and wild cervids (deer and elk) of North America, is a transmissible spongiform encephalopathy (TSE). TSEs are caused by infectious proteins called prions that are resistant to various methods of decontamination and environmental degradation. Cattle could be exposed to chronic wasting disease (CWD) by contact with infected farmed or free-ranging cervids. The purpose of this study was to assess the potential transmission of CWD from elk to cattle after intracranial inoculation, the most direct route to test the potential of a host to replicate an isolate of the prion agent. This study reports that only 2 of 14 calves inoculated with CWD from elk had clinical signs or evidence of abnormal prion protein accumulation. These results suggest that cattle are unlikely to be susceptible to CWD if inoculated by a more natural route. This information could have an impact on regulatory officials developing plans to reduce or eliminate TSEs and farmers with concerns about ranging cattle on areas where CWD may be present.
 
Technical Abstract:
 
***Cattle could be exposed to the agent of chronic wasting disease (CWD) through contact with infected farmed or free-ranging cervids or exposure to contaminated premises. The purpose of this study was to assess the potential for CWD derived from elk to transmit to cattle after intracranial inoculation. Calves (n=14) were inoculated with brain homogenate derived from elk with CWD to determine the potential for transmission and define the clinicopathologic features of disease.
 
Cattle were necropsied if clinical signs occurred or at the termination of experiment (49 months post-inoculation (MPI)).
 
Clinical signs of poor appetite, weight loss, circling, and bruxism occurred in two cattle (14%) at 16 and 17 MPI, respectively.
 
Accumulation of abnormal prion protein (PrP**Sc) in these cattle was confined to the central nervous system with the most prominent immunoreactivity in midbrain, brainstem, and hippocampus with lesser immunoreactivity in the cervical spinal cord.
 
*** The rate of transmission was lower than in cattle inoculated with CWD derived from mule deer (38%) or white-tailed deer (86%).
 
Additional studies are required to fully assess the potential for cattle to develop CWD through a more natural route of exposure, but a low rate of transmission after intracranial inoculation suggests that risk of transmission through other routes is low.
 
***A critical finding here is that if CWD did transmit to exposed cattle, currently used diagnostic techniques would detect and differentiate it from other prion diseases in cattle based on absence of spongiform change, distinct pattern of PrP**Sc deposition, and unique molecular profile.
 
 
Monday, April 04, 2016
 
*** Limited amplification of chronic wasting disease prions in the peripheral tissues of intracerebrally inoculated cattle ***
 
 
SPONTANEOUS ATYPICAL BOVINE SPONGIFORM ENCEPHALOPATHY
 
***Moreover, sporadic disease has never been observed in breeding colonies or primate research laboratories, most notably among hundreds of animals over several decades of study at the National Institutes of Health25, and in nearly twenty older animals continuously housed in our own facility.***
 
 
Research Project: TRANSMISSION, DIFFERENTIATION, AND PATHOBIOLOGY OF TRANSMISSIBLE SPONGIFORM ENCEPHALOPATHIES
 
Title: Scrapie transmits to white-tailed deer by the oral route and has a molecular profile similar to chronic wasting disease
 
Authors item Greenlee, Justin item Moore, S - item Smith, Jodi - item Kunkle, Robert item West Greenlee, M - Submitted to: American College of Veterinary Pathologists Meeting
 
Publication Type: Abstract Only
 
Publication Acceptance Date: August 12, 2015 Publication Date: N/A
 
Technical Abstract: The purpose of this work was to determine susceptibility of white-tailed deer (WTD) to the agent of sheep scrapie and to compare the resultant PrPSc to that of the original inoculum and chronic wasting disease (CWD). We inoculated WTD by a natural route of exposure (concurrent oral and intranasal (IN); n=5) with a US scrapie isolate. All scrapie-inoculated deer had evidence of PrPSc accumulation. PrPSc was detected in lymphoid tissues at preclinical time points, and deer necropsied after 28 months post-inoculation had clinical signs, spongiform encephalopathy, and widespread distribution of PrPSc in neural and lymphoid tissues. Western blotting (WB) revealed PrPSc with 2 distinct molecular profiles. WB on cerebral cortex had a profile similar to the original scrapie inoculum, whereas WB of brainstem, cerebellum, or lymph nodes revealed PrPSc with a higher profile resembling CWD. Homogenates with the 2 distinct profiles from WTD with clinical scrapie were further passaged to mice expressing cervid prion protein and intranasally to sheep and WTD. In cervidized mice, the two inocula have distinct incubation times. Sheep inoculated intranasally with WTD derived scrapie developed disease, but only after inoculation with the inoculum that had a scrapie-like profile. The WTD study is ongoing, but deer in both inoculation groups are positive for PrPSc by rectal mucosal biopsy.
 
In summary, this work demonstrates that WTD are susceptible to the agent of scrapie, two distinct molecular profiles of PrPSc are present in the tissues of affected deer, and inoculum of either profile readily passes to deer.
 
 
 
 
White-tailed Deer are Susceptible to Scrapie by Natural Route of Infection
 
Jodi D. Smith, Justin J. Greenlee, and Robert A. Kunkle; Virus and Prion Research Unit, National Animal Disease Center, USDA-ARS
 
Interspecies transmission studies afford the opportunity to better understand the potential host range and origins of prion diseases. Previous experiments demonstrated that white-tailed deer are susceptible to sheep-derived scrapie by intracranial inoculation. The purpose of this study was to determine susceptibility of white-tailed deer to scrapie after a natural route of exposure. Deer (n=5) were inoculated by concurrent oral (30 ml) and intranasal (1 ml) instillation of a 10% (wt/vol) brain homogenate derived from a sheep clinically affected with scrapie. Non-inoculated deer were maintained as negative controls. All deer were observed daily for clinical signs. Deer were euthanized and necropsied when neurologic disease was evident, and tissues were examined for abnormal prion protein (PrPSc) by immunohistochemistry (IHC) and western blot (WB). One animal was euthanized 15 months post-inoculation (MPI) due to an injury. At that time, examination of obex and lymphoid tissues by IHC was positive, but WB of obex and colliculus were negative. Remaining deer developed clinical signs of wasting and mental depression and were necropsied from 28 to 33 MPI. Tissues from these deer were positive for scrapie by IHC and WB. Tissues with PrPSc immunoreactivity included brain, tonsil, retropharyngeal and mesenteric lymph nodes, hemal node, Peyer’s patches, and spleen. ***This work demonstrates for the first time that white-tailed deer are susceptible to sheep scrapie by potential natural routes of inoculation. In-depth analysis of tissues will be done to determine similarities between scrapie in deer after intracranial and oral/intranasal inoculation and chronic wasting disease resulting from similar routes of inoculation.
 
 
2012
 
PO-039: A comparison of scrapie and chronic wasting disease in white-tailed deer
 
Justin Greenlee, Jodi Smith, Eric Nicholson US Dept. Agriculture; Agricultural Research Service, National Animal Disease Center; Ames, IA USA
 
snip...
 
The results of this study suggest that there are many similarities in the manifestation of CWD and scrapie in WTD after IC inoculation including early and widespread presence of PrPSc in lymphoid tissues, clinical signs of depression and weight loss progressing to wasting, and an incubation time of 21-23 months. Moreover, western blots (WB) done on brain material from the obex region have a molecular profile similar to CWD and distinct from tissues of the cerebrum or the scrapie inoculum. However, results of microscopic and IHC examination indicate that there are differences between the lesions expected in CWD and those that occur in deer with scrapie: amyloid plaques were not noted in any sections of brain examined from these deer and the pattern of immunoreactivity by IHC was diffuse rather than plaque-like.
 
*** After a natural route of exposure, 100% of WTD were susceptible to scrapie.
 
Deer developed clinical signs of wasting and mental depression and were necropsied from 28 to 33 months PI. Tissues from these deer were positive for PrPSc by IHC and WB. Similar to IC inoculated deer, samples from these deer exhibited two different molecular profiles: samples from obex resembled CWD whereas those from cerebrum were similar to the original scrapie inoculum. On further examination by WB using a panel of antibodies, the tissues from deer with scrapie exhibit properties differing from tissues either from sheep with scrapie or WTD with CWD. Samples from WTD with CWD or sheep with scrapie are strongly immunoreactive when probed with mAb P4, however, samples from WTD with scrapie are only weakly immunoreactive. In contrast, when probed with mAb’s 6H4 or SAF 84, samples from sheep with scrapie and WTD with CWD are weakly immunoreactive and samples from WTD with scrapie are strongly positive. This work demonstrates that WTD are highly susceptible to sheep scrapie, but on first passage, scrapie in WTD is differentiable from CWD.
 
 
2011
 
*** After a natural route of exposure, 100% of white-tailed deer were susceptible to scrapie.
 
 
SEE;
 
Sunday, January 22, 2012
 
Chronic Wasting Disease CWD cervids interspecies transmission
 
 
 
Wednesday, December 21, 2016
 
TRANSMISSION, DIFFERENTIATION, AND PATHOBIOLOGY OF TRANSMISSIBLE SPONGIFORM ENCEPHALOPATHIES 2016 ANNUAL REPORT ARS RESEARCH
 
 
Thursday, December 08, 2016
 
USDA APHIS National Scrapie Eradication Program October 2016 Monthly Report Fiscal Year 2017 atypical NOR-98 Scrapie
 
 
 
 
Monday, January 09, 2017
 
*** Oral Transmission of L-Type Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy Agent among Cattle
 
*** CDC Volume 23, Number 2—February 2017
 
 
 
 
Wednesday, December 14, 2016
 
Diagnosis of Human Prion Disease Using Real-TimeQuaking-Induced Conversion Testing of Olfactory Mucosa and Cerebrospinal FluidSamples
 
 
 
*** Transmission of Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease to achimpanzee by electrodes contaminated during neurosurgery ***
 
Gibbs CJ Jr, Asher DM, Kobrine A, Amyx HL, Sulima MP,Gajdusek DC. Laboratory of Central Nervous System Studies, National Instituteof Neurological Disorders and Stroke, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda,MD 20892.
 
Stereotactic multicontact electrodes used to probe thecerebral cortex of a middle aged woman with progressive dementia werepreviously implicated in the accidental transmission of Creutzfeldt-Jakobdisease (CJD) to two younger patients. The diagnoses of CJD have been confirmedfor all three cases. More than two years after their last use in humans, afterthree cleanings and repeated sterilisation in ethanol and formaldehyde vapour,the electrodes were implanted in the cortex of a chimpanzee. Eighteen monthslater the animal became ill with CJD. This finding serves to re-emphasise thepotential danger posed by reuse of instruments contaminated with the agents ofspongiform encephalopathies, even after scrupulous attempts to clean them.
 
 
Diagnosis and Reporting of Creutzfeldt-Jakob Disease
 
Singeltary, Sr et al. JAMA.2001; 285: 733-734. Vol. 285 No.6, February 14, 2001 JAMA
 
Diagnosis and Reporting of Creutzfeldt-Jakob Disease
 
To the Editor: In their Research Letter, Dr Gibbons andcolleagues1 reported that the annual US death rate due to Creutzfeldt-Jakobdisease (CJD) has been stable since 1985. These estimates, however, are basedonly on reported cases, and do not include misdiagnosed or preclinical cases.It seems to me that misdiagnosis alone would drastically change these figures.An unknown number of persons with a diagnosis of Alzheimer disease in fact mayhave CJD, although only a small number of these patients receive the postmortemexamination necessary to make this diagnosis. Furthermore, only a few stateshave made CJD reportable. Human and animal transmissible spongiform encephalopathiesshould be reportable nationwide and internationally.
 
Terry S. Singeltary, Sr Bacliff, Tex
 
1. Gibbons RV, Holman RC, Belay ED, Schonberger LB.Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease in the United States: 1979-1998. JAMA.2000;284:2322-2323.
 
 
 Terry S. Singeltary Sr.