Sunday, July 24, 2016

Chronic Wasting Disease Prions in Elk Antler Velvet and Marketing of this Product in Nutritional Supplements for Humans?

Research Project: TRANSMISSIBLE SPONGIFORM ENCEPHALOPATHIES: THE ROLE OF GENETICS, STRAIN VARIATION, AND ENVIRONMENTAL CONTAMINATION IN DISEASE CONTROL
 
Title: Chronic Wasting Disease Prions in Elk Antler Velvet
 
Authors
 
item Angers, R - UNIVERSITY OF KENTUCKY item Napier, D - UNIVERSITY OF KENTUCKY item Seward, T - UNIVERSITY OF KENTUCKY item Green, M - UNIVERSITY OF KENTUCKY item Spraker, T - COLORADO STATE UNIVERSITY item O'Rourke, Katherine item Balachandran, A - CANADIAN FOOD INSPCTN AG item Telling, G - UNIVERSITY OF KENTUCKY
 
Submitted to: Emerging Infectious Diseases Publication Type: Peer Reviewed Journal Publication Acceptance Date: February 1, 2009
 
 
Citation: Angers RC, Seward TS, Napier D, Green M, Hoover E, Spraker T, et al. 2009. Chronic wasting disease prions in elk antler velvet. Emerg Infect Dis 15(5):696-703.
 
Interpretive Summary: Chronic wasting disease (CWD) is a fatal neurologic disease of deer and elk in the United States and Canada. The disease is associated with accumulations of infectious proteins in the brain, nervous system, blood, and a limited number of other tissues. In this study, the investigators examined elk antler velvet, the covering that grows on elk antlers every year. Antler velvet is rich in blood and nervous supply and may represent a source of infectious material as the velvet is shed every year. Antler velvet and brain tissue from four infected elk was examined by immunohistochemistry and biochemical methods, with no evidence of the abnormal prion protein in antler velvet. The same preparations were tested in genetically engineered mice susceptible to CWD. Mice in both inoculated groups developed prion disease. This finding demonstrates that antler velvet from CWD infected elk contain infectious material and may represent a risk material to other elk. Technical Abstract: Chronic wasting disease (CWD) is a transmissible spongiform encephalopathy or prion disease of captive and free ranging white tailed deer, mule deer, Rocky Mountain elk and moose in the some parts of the United States and Canada. The presence of the disease has sharply curtailed movement of captive animals and reduced the domestic or international market for some cervid by-products. The disease appears to be transmitted by Rocky Mountain elk relatively late in the disease course, but the sources of the infectious material remain undefined. Brain and lymphoid tissue contain the highest levels of the abnormal prion protein, the marker for disease, and transmission in white tailed deer can be accomplished by blood transfusion from experimentally infected deer to naive deer. In this study, the investigators examined the transmission potential of antler velvet, a highly vascularized and innervated epidermal tissue covering the growing antler. Antler velvet is shed each year and is widely used as a nutritional supplement. Genetically engineered mice susceptible to CWD were inoculated with homogenates of paired brain and antler velvet from 4 elk with CWD. Mice in both groups developed a transmissible spongiform encephalopathy. These findings demonstrate prion infectivity accumulates in antler velvet and may have impact on marketing of this product.
 
Last Modified: 7/24/2016
 
 
Chronic Wasting Disease Prions in Elk Antler Velvet
 
Rachel C. Angers,1 Tanya S. Seward, Dana Napier, Michael Green, Edward Hoover, Terry Spraker, Katherine O’Rourke, Aru Balachandran, and Glenn C. Telling
 
Chronic wasting disease (CWD) is a contagious, fatal prion disease of deer and elk that continues to emerge in new locations. To explore the means by which prions are transmitted with high efficiency among cervids, we examined prion infectivity in the apical skin layer covering the growing antler (antler velvet) by using CWD-susceptible transgenic mice and protein misfolding cyclic amplification. Our finding of prions in antler velvet of CWD-affected elk suggests that this tissue may play a role in disease transmission among cervids. Humans who consume antler velvet as a nutritional supplement are at risk for exposure to prions. The fact that CWD prion incubation times in transgenic mice expressing elk prion protein are consistently more rapid raises the possibility that residue 226, the sole primary structural difference between deer and elk prion protein, may be a major determinant of CWD pathogenesis.
 
snip...
 
Implications for Horizontal CWD Transmission and Human Exposure
 
Our studies indicate that antler velvet represents a previously unrecognized source of CWD prions in the environment. Whereas oral transmission of rodent-adapted scrapie prions is known to be ≈5 orders of magnitude less efficient than transmission by intracerebral inoculation (14,15), the relative efficiency of oral CWD prion transmission is unknown. Multiple exposures to low levels of CWD prions in the environment (16,17), as well as increased infectivity when prions are bound to soil minerals (18), are factors that may influence transmission.
 
The appearance of variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease in humans exposed to bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) (19,20) and the demonstration of CWD prions in muscle (3) placed the human species barrier to CWD prions at the forefront of public health concerns. Our studies indicate that antler velvet represents an additional source for human exposure to CWD prions. Widely used in traditional Asian medicine to treat a variety of ailments including impotence, arthritis, and high blood pressure, antler velvet can be readily purchased in caplet form and its usage has increased worldwide.
 
Fortunately, to date there is no epidemiologic evidence that rates of CJD in the CWD-endemic region (Colorado, USA) have increased (21,22). Also reassuring is the inefficient in vitro conversion of human PrP to protease-resistant PrP by CWD (23). Two studies have shown that CWD prions failed to induce disease in Tg mice expressing human PrP (24,25). However, the failure of BSE to be transmitted to Tg mice expressing human prion protein (HuPrP) was cited as early evidence of a BSE transmission barrier in humans (26); subsequent studies demonstrated a strong effect of the codon 129 polymorphism on transmissibility of BSE prions (27). To date, only mice expressing HuPrP with methionine at 129 have been challenged with CWD. In support of the argument that humans might be susceptible to CWD, intracerebral inoculation of squirrel monkeys produced disease after >30 months (28). Prion strain properties are also critical when considering the potential for interspecies transmission. The existence of multiple CWD strains has been suggested by several studies (4,25,29,30), but strain isolation and host range characterization have not been reported. Finally, it is worth considering that if CWD were to cross the species barrier into humans, this transmission source might not be recognized if the disease profile overlapped with one of the forms of sporadic CJD reported in North America.
 
snip...end
 
 
Volume 15, Number 5—May 2009
 
Research
 
Chronic Wasting Disease Prions in Elk Antler Velvet
 
 
 
 
 
ABOUT that deer antler spray and CWD TSE PRION...
 
I have been screaming this since my neighbors mom died from cjd, and she had been taking a supplement that contained bovine brain, bovine eyeball, and other SRMs specified risk materials, the most high risk for mad cow disease.
just saying...
 
I made a submission to the BSE Inquiry long ago during the BSE Inquiry days, and they seemed pretty interested.
 
Sender: "Patricia Cantos"
 
To: "Terry S Singeltary Sr. (E-mail)"
 
Subject: Your submission to the Inquiry
 
Date: Fri, 3 Jul 1998 10:10:05 +0100
 
3 July 1998
 
Mr Terry S Singeltary Sr.
 
E-Mail: Flounder at wt.net
 
Ref: E2979
 
Dear Mr Singeltary,
 
Thank you for your E-mail message of the 30th of June 1998 providing the Inquiry with your further comments.
 
Thank you for offering to provide the Inquiry with any test results on the nutritional supplements your mother was taking before she died.
 
As requested I am sending you our general Information Pack and a copy of the Chairman's letter. Please contact me if your system cannot read the attachments.
 
Regarding your question, the Inquiry is looking into many aspects of the scientific evidence on BSE and nvCJD. I would refer you to the transcripts of evidence we have already heard which are found on our internet site at ;
 
 
Could you please provide the Inquiry with a copy of the press article you refer to in your e-mail? If not an approximate date for the article so that we can locate it?
 
In the meantime, thank you for you comments. Please do not hesitate to contact me on...
 
snip...end...tss
 
everyone I tell this too gets it screwed up...MY MOTHER WAS NOT TAKING THOSE SUPPLEMENTS IPLEX (that I ever knew of). this was my neighbors mother that died exactly one year _previously_ and to the day of sporadic CJD that was diagnosed as Alzheimer’s at first. my mother died exactly a year later from the Heidenhain Variant of Creutzfeldt Jakob Disease hvCJD, and exceedingly rare strains of the ever growing sporadic CJD’s. _both_ cases confirmed. ...kind regards, terry
 
TSEs i.e. mad cow disease's BSE/BASE and NUTRITIONAL SUPPLEMENTS
 
IPLEX, mad by standard process;
 
vacuum dried bovine BRAIN, bone meal, bovine EYE, veal Bone, bovine liver powder, bovine adrenal, vacuum dried bovine kidney, and vacuum dried porcine stomach.
 
also;
 
what about potential mad cow candy bars ?
 
see their potential mad cow candy bar list too...
 
THESE are just a few of MANY of just this ONE COMPANY...TSS
 
DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES
 
FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION CENTER FOR BIOLOGICS EVALUATION AND RESEARCH
 
TRANSMISSIBLE SPONGIFORM ENCEPHALOPATHIES ADVISORY COMMITTEE
 
Friday, January 19, 2001 snip...
 
17 But I think that we could exhibit some quite
 
18 reasonable concern about blood donors who are taking dietary
 
19 supplements that contain a certain amount of unspecified-
 
20 origin brain, brain-related, brain and pituitary material.
 
21 If they have done this for more than a sniff or something
 
22 like that, then, perhaps, they should be deferred as blood
 
23 donors.
 
24 That is probably worse than spending six months in
 
25 the U.K.
 
1/19/01
 
3681t2.rtf(845) page 501
 
 
 
 
see full text ;
 
 
 
everyone I tell this too gets it screwed up...MY MOTHER WAS NOT TAKING THOSE SUPPLEMENTS IPLEX (that I ever knew of). this was my neighbors mother that died exactly one year _previously_ and to the day of sporadic CJD that was diagnosed as Alzheimer’s at first. my mother died exactly a year later from the Heidenhain Variant of Creutzfeldt Jakob Disease hvCJD, and exceedingly rare strains of the ever growing sporadic CJD’s. _both_ cases confirmed. ...kind regards, terry
 
TSEs i.e. mad cow disease's BSE/BASE and NUTRITIONAL SUPPLEMENTS
 
IPLEX, mad by standard process;
 
vacuum dried bovine BRAIN, bone meal, bovine EYE, veal Bone, bovine liver powder, bovine adrenal, vacuum dried bovine kidney, and vacuum dried porcine stomach.
 
also;
 
what about potential mad cow candy bars ?
 
see their potential mad cow candy bar list too...
 
THESE are just a few of MANY of just this ONE COMPANY...TSS
 
DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES
 
FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION CENTER FOR BIOLOGICS EVALUATION AND RESEARCH
 
TRANSMISSIBLE SPONGIFORM ENCEPHALOPATHIES ADVISORY COMMITTEE
 
Friday, January 19, 2001 snip...
 
17 But I think that we could exhibit some quite
 
18 reasonable concern about blood donors who are taking dietary
 
19 supplements that contain a certain amount of unspecified-
 
20 origin brain, brain-related, brain and pituitary material.
 
21 If they have done this for more than a sniff or something
 
22 like that, then, perhaps, they should be deferred as blood
 
23 donors.
 
24 That is probably worse than spending six months in
 
25 the U.K.
 
1/19/01
 
3681t2.rtf(845) page 501
 
 
Docket Management Docket: 96N-0417 - Current Good Manufacturing Practice in Manufacturing, Packing, or Holding Dietary Ingredients a Comment Number: EC -2 Accepted - Volume 7
 
 
 
see full text ;
 
 
2003 - 2004 Product Catalog
 
Standard Process Inc.
 
NATURAL COCOA STANDARDBAR (mad cow candy bar) (i will just list animal organs) bovine adrenal, bovine liver, bovine spleen, ovine spleen, bovine kidney...
 
NATURAL PEANUT BUTTER STANDARDBAR
 
bovine adrenal, bovine liver, bovine spleen, ovine spleen, bovine kidney...
 
USF (MAD COW) OINTMENT (RUB A DUB DUB, KURU ETC) ;
 
bovine orhic glandular extract
 
UTROPHIN PMG
 
bovine uterus PMG
 
VASCULIN
 
bovine heart PMG extract, veal bone PMG extract, bovine liever, porcine duodenum, bovine adrenal Cytosol extract, bovine spleen, ovine spleen
 
IPLEX (neighbors mom died from CJD while taking these pills for years)
 
bovine eye PMG extract, veal bone PMG, bovine liver, porcine stomach, bovine adrenal, bovine kidney, bovine adrenal Cytosol extract, BOVINE BRAIN, bovine bone, veal bone meal
 
MYO-PLUS
 
bovine heart PMG, bovine liver, porcine stomach, bovine orchic extract, bovine spleen, ovine spleen, bovine adrenal Cytosol extract, BOVINE BRAIN
 
NEUROPLEX
 
bovine orchic Cytosol extract, bovine spleen, BOVINE BRAIN PMG EXTRACT, BOVINE ANTERIOR PITUITARY, bovine liver, BOVINE PITUITARY PMG EXTRACT, AND MORE BOVINE BRAIN...
 
NEUROTROPHIN PMG
 
BOVINE BRAIN PMG
 
NIACINAMIDE B6 VM
 
bovine liver, porcine stomach, bovine spleen ovine spleen, BOVINE BRAIN
 
OCULOTROPHIN PMG BOVINE EYE PMG
 
ORCHEX
 
bovine liver, bovine orchic Cytosol extract, porcine stomch, bovine spleen, ovine spleen, BOVINE BRAIN
 
OSTARPLEX
 
veal bone PMG extract, veal bone PMG extract, bovine liver, porcine stomach, bovine adrenal, bovine spleen, ovine spleen, BOVINE BRAIN
 
PARAPLEX
 
bovine pancreas PMG extract, porcine duodenum, bovine adrenal PMG, BOVINE PITUITARY PMG EXTRACT, bovine thyroid PMG extract
 
PITUITROPHIN PMG
 
RUMAPLEX
 
BOVINE BRAIN, veal bone PMG extract, bovine adrenal, bovine prostate Cytosol extract, veal bone meal, bovine liver PMG extract, bovine spleen, ovine spleen, bovine liver
 
SENAPLEX
 
bovine liver PMG extract, bovine adrenal, BOVNE BRAIN, veal bone meal, bovine kidney, bovine orchic extract, bovine spleen, ovine spleen ..........
 
THESE are just a few of MANY of just this ONE COMPANY.
 
FOR the following reason, I implore that the FDA take serious action in further protecting the consumer from the TSE agent via nutritional supplements.
 
Does all that e-mail spam promising sexual vitality actually hide serious risk of contracting MAD COW DISEASE?
 
Volume 361, Number 9368 03 May 2003
 
Correspondence
 
Tighter regulation needed for dietary supplements in USA
 
Sir--Mary Palmer and colleagues (Jan 11, p 101)1 found that dietary supplements have the potential to cause serious adverse effects. The investigators state that research on the hazards and risks of dietary supplements should be a priority. The safety of individuals who consume these products is important, and organisations such as the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) need to take initiative by enforcing stricter regulations on supplements. Several commonly used products--for example ginkgo biloba, St John's Wort, and ephedrine--can have serious adverse effects.2 Although the FDA requires multiple studies on the safety and efficacy for pharmaceutical products before placing them on the market, standards are less robust for dietary supplements. In the USA, under the Dietary Supplement Health and Education Act (DSHEA) of 1994, supplements are subject to the same regulatory requirements as food. There are no provisions that require FDA approval for the safety or effectiveness of supplements,3 which leaves consumers and manufacturers essentially responsible for the health effects of these products. The DSHEA of 1994 needs to be revised so that dietary supplements are subject to the same regulations as pharmacological drugs. The FDA needs to review clinical studies on the safety and efficacy of dietary supplements. Organisations such as Public Citizen and the American Medical Association are already taking steps to achieve these changes. However, they face immense opposition from groups such as the National Nutritional Foods Association, the American Herbal Association, and the Council for Responsible Nutrition. To overcome such resistance, consumer organisations, health-care providers, and government agencies need to approach this subject in unison. The public needs to be able to assess the risks and benefits of dietary supplements before consuming them. Health-care providers and the more than 100 million Americans who consume these products4 should encourage the FDA to treat supplements with the stringent regulations it enforces on pharmaceutical products.
 
Nipa Kinariwala
 
----------------------------------------------------------
 
700 Bolinwood Drive, Apartment 12A, Chapel Hill, NC 27514, USA (e-mail nskinari at aol.com) 1 Palmer ME, Haller C, McKinney PE, et al. Adverse events associated with dietary supplements: an observational study. Lancet 2003; 361: 101-06. [Text ] 2 Cupp MJ. Herbal remedies: adverse effects and drug interactions. Am Fam Physician 1999; 59: 1239-45. [PubMed ] 3 Unites States Food and Drug Administration. Overview of dietary supplements. Jan 3, 2001. http://www.cfsan.fda.gov/~dms/ds-oview.html (accessed Feb 20, 2002). 4 Pear R. Feds call for tighter control over nutritional supplements. Organic Consumers Association, April 17, 2001. http://www.organicconsumers.org/Organic/dietsupp.cfm (accessed Feb 20, 2002).
 
 
snip...end tss letter to fda.
 
=================== 2013 ================
 
my plight with Metabolife, the GAO et al, and my submission to the BSE inquiry, about mad cow in a pill ;
 
Wednesday, March 20, 2013
 
GAO-13-244, Mar 18, 2013 Dietary Supplements FDA May Have Opportunities to Expand Its Use of Reported Health Problems to Oversee Product
 
From: Terry S. Singeltary Sr.
 
Sent: Tuesday, March 19, 2013 2:46 PM
 
To: mailto:gomezj%40gao.gov Cc: mailto:siggerudk%40gao.gov ; mailto:youngc1%40gao.gov ; mailto:oighotline%40gao.gov
 
 
Monday, February 01, 2010
 
Import Alert 17-04 BSE CJD HIGH RISK TISSUES, Nutritional Supplements and Cosmetics Import Alert 17-04
 
 
Thursday, March 19, 2009
 
Chronic Wasting Disease Prions in Elk Antler Velvet (Nutritional Supplements and CJD)
 
10.3201/eid1505.081458 Suggested citation for this article: Angers RC, Seward TS, Napier D, Green M, Hoover E, Spraker T, et al. Chronic wasting disease prions in elk antler velvet. Emerg Infect Dis. 2009 May; [Epub ahead of print]
 
 
Docket Management Docket: 96N-0417 - Current Good Manufacturing Practice in Manufacturing, Packing, or Holding Dietary Ingredients a
 
Comment Number: EC –2
 
Accepted - Volume 7
 
 
Docket Management Docket: 96N-0417 - Current Good Manufacturing Practice in Manufacturing, Packing, or Holding Dietary Ingredients a Comment Number: EC -2 Accepted - Volume 7
 
snip...
 
what did Paul Brown say about this previously;
 
i bring your attention to (page 500) Dr. Paul Brown statements;
 
253 1 DR. BOLTON: I have an additional question about 2 that. What is the assurance that additional locally sourced 3 tracheas are not added into that manufacturing process, thus 4 boosting the yield, if you will, but being returned to the 5 U.S. as being produced from U.S.-sourced raw material? 6 DR. McCURDY: Are there data to indicate how many 7 grams, or whatever, of infected brain are likely to infect 8 an organism, either animal or man, when taken orally? 9 DR. BROWN: If I am not mistaken, and I can be 10 corrected, I think a half a gram is enough in a cow, orally; [FULL TEXT ABOUT 600 PAGES] 3681t2.rtf
 
 
snip...
 
 
Unregulated "foods" such as 'nutritional supplements' containing various extracts from ruminants, whether imported or derived from 3 US cattle/sheep/cervids ("antler velvet" extracts!) should be forbidden or at least very seriously regulated.
 
(neighbors Mom, whom also died from CJD, had been taking bovine based supplement, which contained brain, eye, and many other bovine/ovine tissues for years, 'IPLEX').
 
 
my plight with metabolife and there 'bovine complex' about risk factors of TSE in there product ;
 
Terry S. Singeltary Sr. wrote:
 
######## Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy > > #########
 
1. Dietary Supplements: Review of Health-Related Call Records for
 
Users of Metabolife 356. GAO-03-494, March 31.
 
 
 
-------- Original Message --------
 
Subject: METABOLIFE AND TSEs GAO-03-494 ''URGENT DATA''
 
Date: Thu, 01 May 2003 11:23:01 –0500
 
From: "Terry S. Singeltary Sr."
 
To: NelliganJ at gao.gov
 
The General Accounting Office (GAO) today released the following reports and testimonies: ‘'
 
REPORTS;
 
1. Dietary Supplements: Review of Health-Related Call Records for
 
Users of Metabolife 356. GAO-03-494, March 31.
 
 
 
GREETINGS GAO:
 
i was suprised that i did not see any listing of bovine tissue in > metabolife on it's label. have they ceased using these desiccated tissues???
 
i see that the lable on this product METABOLIFE 356, does not state that it has any tissues of desiccated bovine organs? i no > the product use to, so i am curious if they have ceased the use of the tissues of cattle they _use_ to use (see below)???
 
METABOLIFE 356
 
BOVINE COMPLEX/GLANDULAR SYSTEM
 
OVARIES, PROSTATE, SCROTUM AND ADRENAL
 
USDA SOURCE CATTLE
 
i tried warning them years ago of this potential threat of CJD/TSEs;
 
From: Randy Smith
 
To: "'flounder at wt.net'"
 
Subject: Metabolife
 
Date: Mon, 7 Dec 1998 14:21:35 –0800
 
Dear Sir,
 
We are looking at reformulation. I agree that slow virus diseases present a problem in some areas of the world.
 
Our product uses healthy USDA inspected cattle for the glandular extract.
 
If you have any links to more information on this subject I would like to examine them.
 
Thank you for your interest and concern,
 
Dr. Smith
 
============
 
From: Randy Smith
 
To: "'flounder at wt.net'"
 
Subject: RE: [Fwd: Your submission to the Inquiry]
 
Date: Wed, 9 Dec 1998 10:37:07 –0800
 
Terry,
 
Thank you for your note and the information links you forwarded to me.
 
I am new to Metabolife International, however hopefully as my role here enlarges I well have a greater impact on formulation and product development.
 
Metabolife International does believe in placing safety first. And I am going to do my best to see that we continue to do so.
 
Sincerely,
 
Dr. Smith
 
============
 
-----Original Message-----
 
From: Terry S. Singeltary Sr. [mailto:flounder at wt.net]
 
Sent: Wednesday, December 09, 1998 5:49 PM
 
To: rsmith at metabolife.com
 
Subject: [Fwd: Your submission to the Inquiry]
 
Dr. Smith, I am truly impressed with you honesty, THANKS.....I am not just spouting off about the potential dangers, here. THEY ARE REAL.....I have forwarded an e-mail from the BSE Inquiry, in which I made a statement about them........You might want to go to the site and read through it........IT WILL TAKE A WHILE........ THINGS ARE HAPPENING HERE SIR, THAT YOU ARE NOT AWARE OF, AND AS MOST PEOPLE ARE NOT...............I JUST HOPE, THAT THE REFORMULATION YOU SPEAK OF, IS IN FACT GOING TO TAKE PLACE.
 
The Department of Health, here in the U.S., is also worried about the potential dangers involved hear............Terry/MADSON
 
==================================================
 
From: Randy Smith
 
To: "'flounder at wt.net'"
 
Subject: RE: [Fwd: MEDICINES "GREATER BSE RISK THAN BEEF"!!!!]
 
Date: Fri, 18 Dec 1998 09:55:17 –0800
 
Return-Receipt-To: Randy Smith
 
Thanks very much for the info. I appreciate all these articles I can get. It does sound very familiar - just follow the green ($) trail.
 
-----Original Message-----
 
From: Terry S. Singeltary Sr. [mailto:flounder at wt.net]
 
Sent: Friday, December 18, 1998 5:15 PM
 
To: rsmith at metabolife.com
 
Subject: [Fwd: MEDICINES "GREATER BSE RISK THAN BEEF"!!!!]
 
Randy, thought you might be interested in > > this...............MADSON!!!!!1
 
snip...
 
===============================
 
-------- Original Message --------
 
Subject: re: METABOLIFE AND TSEs GAO-03-494 ''URGENT DATA''
 
Date: Thu, 01 May 2003 16:04:35 –0400
 
From: "Marcia G Crosse"
 
To:
 
CC: "Charles W Davenport" , "Carolyn Feis Korman" > > , "Martin Gahart" >
 
Mr. Singletary,
 
We were informed by representatives of Metabolife, Inc. that Metabolife 356 was reformulated to remove bovine complex as an ingredient in the product, approximately September 2001. We did not independently verify the contents of the product.
 
Sincerely,
 
Marcia Crosse
 
Acting Director
 
Health CarePublic Health and Science Issues
 
U.S. General Accounting Office
 
441 G Street, N.W.
 
Washington, D.C. 20548
 
===================
 
-------- Original Message --------
 
Subject: Re: METABOLIFE AND TSEs GAO-03-494 ''URGENT DATA''
 
Date: Thu, 01 May 2003 15:48:52 –0500
 
From: "Terry S. Singeltary Sr."
 
To: Marcia G Crosse
 
CC: Charles W Davenport , Carolyn Feis Korman > > , Martin Gahart > References: > >
 
THANK YOU!
 
MIRACLES DO HAPPEN! ;-)
 
now all we need to do is;
 
snip......
 
one small step for man, one giant leap for mankind ;-)
 
however;
 
''We did not independently verify the contents of the product''
 
???
 
TSS
 
 
 
 
Could you get mad cow from a pill ? Some doctors say a class of pills that promise smarts, energy, and sexual vitality may cause mad-cow disease.
 
The government isn't worried. Should you be?
 
June 1, 2001
 
Health Magazine
 
by Susan Freinkel
 
 
The German Magazine Der Spiegel came out to the house here and interviewed me in 2001 (I think), about that token purina mad cow feed mill blunder, and they were very concerned about these type supplements that carried the SRMs that could very well carry the TSE prion agent. ...please see ;
 
GERMAN DER SPIEGEL MAGAZINEDie
 
BSE-Angst erreicht Amerika: Trotz strikter Auflagen gelangte in Texas verbotenes Tiermehl ins Rinderfutter - die Kontrollen der Aufsichtsbehörden sind lax.
 
 
DER SPIEGEL (9/2001) - 24.02.2001 (9397 Zeichen) USA: Loch in der Mauer Die BSE-Angst erreicht Amerika: Trotz strikter Auflagen gelangte in Texas verbotenes Tiermehl ins Rinderfutter - die Kontrollen der Aufsichtsbehördensind lax.Link auf diesen Artikel im Archiv:
 
 
"Löcher wie in einem Schweizer Käse" hat auch Terry Singeltary im Regelwerk der FDA ausgemacht. Der Texaner kam auf einem tragischen Umweg zu dem Thema: Nachdem seine Mutter 1997 binnen weniger Wochen an der Creutzfeldt-Jakob-Krankheit gestorben war, versuchte er, die Ursachen der Infektion aufzuspüren. Er klagte auf die Herausgabe von Regierungsdokumenten und arbeitete sich durch Fachliteratur; heute ist er überzeugt, dass seine Mutter durch die stetige Einnahme von angeblich kräftigenden Mitteln erkrankte, in denen - völlig legal - Anteile aus Rinderprodukten enthalten sind.
 
Von der Fachwelt wurde Singeltary lange als versponnener Außenseiter belächelt. Doch mittlerweile sorgen sich auch Experten, dass ausgerechnet diese verschreibungsfreien Wundercocktails zur Stärkung von Intelligenz, Immunsystem oder Libido von den Importbeschränkungen ausgenommen sind. Dabei enthalten die Pillen und Ampullen, die in Supermärkten verkauft werden, exotische Mixturen aus Rinderaugen; dazu Extrakte von Hypophyse oder Kälberföten, Prostata, Lymphknoten und gefriergetrocknetem Schweinemagen. In die USA hereingelassen werden auch Blut, Fett, Gelatine und Samen. Diese Stoffe tauchen noch immer in US-Produkten auf, inklusive Medizin und Kosmetika. Selbst in Impfstoffen waren möglicherweise gefährliche Rinderprodukte enthalten. Zwar fordert die FDA schon seit acht Jahren die US-Pharmaindustrie auf, keine Stoffe aus Ländern zu benutzen, in denen die Gefahr einer BSE-Infizierung besteht. Aber erst kürzlich verpflichteten sich fünf Unternehmen, darunter Branchenführer wie GlaxoSmithKline, Aventis und American Home Products, ihre Seren nur noch aus unverdächtigem Material herzustellen.
 
"Its as full of holes as Swiss Cheese" says Terry Singeltary of the FDA regulations. ...
 
 
 
 
Sunday, November 10, 2013
 
LARGE CJD TSE PRION POTENTIAL CASE STUDY AMONG HUMANS WHO TAKE DEER ANTLER VELVET WILL BE ONGOING FOR YEARS IF NOT DECADES, but who's cares $
 
 
*** CHRONIC WASTING DISEASE TSE PRION UPDATE ON RECENT SCIENCE AND THE POTENTIAL FOR ZOONOTIC TRANSMISSION GROWS ***
 
*** PRION 2016 TOKYO ***
 
*** Zoonotic Potential of CWD Prions: An Update ***
 
Ignazio Cali1, Liuting Qing1, Jue Yuan1, Shenghai Huang2, Diane Kofskey1,3, Nicholas Maurer1, Debbie McKenzie4, Jiri Safar1,3,5, Wenquan Zou1,3,5,6, Pierluigi Gambetti1, Qingzhong Kong1,5,6
 
1Department of Pathology, 3National Prion Disease Pathology Surveillance Center, 5Department of Neurology, 6National Center for Regenerative Medicine, Case Western Reserve University, Cleveland, OH 44106, USA.
 
4Department of Biological Sciences and Center for Prions and Protein Folding Diseases, University of Alberta, Edmonton, Alberta, Canada,
 
2Encore Health Resources, 1331 Lamar St, Houston, TX 77010
 
Chronic wasting disease (CWD) is a widespread and highly transmissible prion disease in free-ranging and captive cervid species in North America. The zoonotic potential of CWD prions is a serious public health concern, but the susceptibility of human CNS and peripheral organs to CWD prions remains largely unresolved. We reported earlier that peripheral and CNS infections were detected in transgenic mice expressing human PrP129M or PrP129V. Here we will present an update on this project, including evidence for strain dependence and influence of cervid PrP polymorphisms on CWD zoonosis as well as the characteristics of experimental human CWD prions.
 
PRION 2016 TOKYO
 
In Conjunction with Asia Pacific Prion Symposium 2016
 
PRION 2016 Tokyo
 
Prion 2016
 
 
PRION 2016 CONFERENCE TOKYO
 
Cervid to human prion transmission
 
Kong, Qingzhong
 
Case Western Reserve University, Cleveland, OH, United States
 
Abstract
 
Prion disease is transmissible and invariably fatal. Chronic wasting disease (CWD) is the prion disease affecting deer, elk and moose, and it is a widespread and expanding epidemic affecting 22 US States and 2 Canadian provinces so far. CWD poses the most serious zoonotic prion transmission risks in North America because of huge venison consumption (>6 million deer/elk hunted and consumed annually in the USA alone), significant prion infectivity in muscles and other tissues/fluids from CWD-affected cervids, and usually high levels of individual exposure to CWD resulting from consumption of the affected animal among often just family and friends. However, we still do not know whether CWD prions can infect humans in the brain or peripheral tissues or whether clinical/asymptomatic CWD zoonosis has already occurred, and we have no essays to reliably detect CWD infection in humans. We hypothesize that:
 
(1) The classic CWD prion strain can infect humans at low levels in the brain and peripheral lymphoid tissues;
 
(2) The cervid-to-human transmission barrier is dependent on the cervid prion strain and influenced by the host (human) prion protein (PrP) primary sequence;
 
(3) Reliable essays can be established to detect CWD infection in humans;and
 
(4) CWD transmission to humans has already occurred. We will test these hypotheses in 4 Aims using transgenic (Tg) mouse models and complementary in vitro approaches.
 
Aim 1 will prove that the classical CWD strain may infect humans in brain or peripheral lymphoid tissues at low levels by conducting systemic bioassays in a set of "humanized" Tg mouse lines expressing common human PrP variants using a number of CWD isolates at varying doses and routes. Experimental "human CWD" samples will also be generated for Aim 3.
 
Aim 2 will test the hypothesis that the cervid-to-human prion transmission barrier is dependent on prion strain and influenced by the host (human) PrP sequence by examining and comparing the transmission efficiency and phenotypes of several atypical/unusual CWD isolates/strains as well as a few prion strains from other species that have adapted to cervid PrP sequence, utilizing the same panel of humanized Tg mouse lines as in Aim 1.
 
Aim 3 will establish reliable essays for detection and surveillance of CWD infection in humans by examining in details the clinical, pathological, biochemical and in vitro seeding properties of existing and future experimental "human CWD" samples generated from Aims 1-2 and compare them with those of common sporadic human Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (sCJD) prions.
 
Aim 4 will attempt to detect clinical CWD-affected human cases by examining a significant number of brain samples from prion-affected human subjects in the USA and Canada who have consumed venison from CWD-endemic areas utilizing the criteria and essays established in Aim 3. The findings from this proposal will greatly advance our understandings on the potential and characteristics of cervid prion transmission in humans, establish reliable essays for CWD zoonosis and potentially discover the first case(s) of CWD infection in humans.
 
Public Health Relevance There are significant and increasing human exposure to cervid prions because chronic wasting disease (CWD, a widespread and highly infectious prion disease among deer and elk in North America) continues spreading and consumption of venison remains popular, but our understanding on cervid-to-human prion transmission is still very limited, raising public health concerns. This proposal aims to define the zoonotic risks of cervid prions and set up and apply essays to detect CWD zoonosis using mouse models and in vitro methods. The findings will greatly expand our knowledge on the potentials and characteristics of cervid prion transmission in humans, establish reliable essays for such infections and may discover the first case(s) of CWD infection in humans.
 
Funding Agency Agency National Institute of Health (NIH)
 
Institute National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke (NINDS)
 
Type Research Project (R01)
 
Project # 1R01NS088604-01A1
 
Application # 9037884
 
Study Section Cellular and Molecular Biology of Neurodegeneration Study Section (CMND)
 
Program Officer Wong, May
 
Project Start 2015-09-30
 
Project End 2019-07-31
 
Budget Start 2015-09-30
 
Budget End 2016-07-31
 
Support Year 1
 
Fiscal Year 2015
 
Total Cost $337,507
 
Indirect Cost $118,756
 
Institution
 
Name Case Western Reserve University
 
Department Pathology
 
Type Schools of Medicine
 
DUNS # 077758407
 
City Cleveland
 
State OH
 
Country United States
 
Zip Code 44106
 
 
===========================================================
 
We hypothesize that:
 
(1) The classic CWD prion strain can infect humans at low levels in the brain and peripheral lymphoid tissues;
 
(2) The cervid-to-human transmission barrier is dependent on the cervid prion strain and influenced by the host (human) prion protein (PrP) primary sequence;
 
(3) Reliable essays can be established to detect CWD infection in humans;and
 
(4) *** CWD transmission to humans has already occurred. *** We will test these hypotheses in 4 Aims using transgenic (Tg) mouse models and complementary in vitro approaches.
 
============================================================
 
Key Molecular Mechanisms of TSEs
 
Zabel, Mark D.
 
Colorado State University-Fort Collins, Fort Collins, CO, United States Abstract Prion diseases, or transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (TSEs), are fatal neurodegenerative diseases affecting humans, cervids, bovids, and ovids. The absolute requirement of PrPC expression to generate prion diseases and the lack of instructional nucleic acid define prions as unique infectious agents. Prions exhibit species-specific tropism, inferring that unique prion strains exist that preferentially infct certain host species and confront transmission barriers to heterologous host species. However, transmission barriers are not absolute. Scientific consensus agrees that the sheep TSE scrapie probably breached the transmission barrier to cattle causing bovine spongiform encephalopathy that subsequently breached the human transmission barrier and likely caused several hundred deaths by a new-variant form of the human TSE Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease in the UK and Europe. The impact to human health, emotion and economies can still be felt in areas like farming, blood and organ donations and the threat of a latent TSE epidemic. This precedent raises the real possibility of other TSEs, like chronic wasting disease of cervids, overcoming similar human transmission barriers. A groundbreaking discovery made last year revealed that mice infected with heterologous prion strains facing significant transmission barriers replicated prions far more readily in spleens than brains6. Furthermore, these splenic prions exhibited weakened transmission barriers and expanded host ranges compared to neurogenic prions. These data question conventional wisdom of avoiding neural tissue to avoid prion xenotransmission, when more promiscuous prions may lurk in extraneural tissues. Data derived from work previously funded by NIH demonstrate that Complement receptors CD21/35 bind prions and high density PrPC and differentially impact prion disease depending on the prion isolate or strain used. Recent advances in live animal and whole organ imaging have led us to generate preliminary data to support novel, innovative approaches to assessing prion capture and transport. We plan to test our unifying hypothesis for this proposal that CD21/35 control the processes of peripheral prion capture, transport, strain selection and xenotransmission in the following specific aims.
 
1. Assess the role of CD21/35 in splenic prion strain selection and host range expansion.
 
2. Determine whether CD21/35 and C1q differentially bind distinct prion strains
 
3. Monitor the effects of CD21/35 on prion trafficking in real time and space
 
4. Assess the role of CD21/35 in incunabular prion trafficking
 
Public Health Relevance Transmissible spongiform encephalopathies, or prion diseases, are devastating illnesses that greatly impact public health, agriculture and wildlife in North America and around the world. The impact to human health, emotion and economies can still be felt in areas like farming, blood and organ donations and the threat of a latent TSE epidemic. This precedent raises the real possibility of other TSEs, like chronic wasting disease (CWD) of cervids, overcoming similar human transmission barriers. Early this year Canada reported its first case of BSE in over a decade audits first case of CWD in farmed elk in three years, underscoring the need for continued vigilance and research. Identifying mechanisms of transmission and zoonoses remains an extremely important and intense area of research that will benefit human and other animal populations.
 
Funding Agency Agency National Institute of Health (NIH)
 
Institute National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIAID)
 
Type High Priority, Short Term Project Award (R56)
 
Project # 1R56AI122273-01A1
 
Application # 9211114
 
Study Section Cellular and Molecular Biology of Neurodegeneration Study Section (CMND)
 
Program Officer Beisel, Christopher E
 
Project Start 2016-02-16
 
Project End 2017-01-31
 
Budget Start 2016-02-16
 
Budget End 2017-01-31
 
Support Year 1
 
Fiscal Year 2016
 
Total Cost
 
Indirect Cost Institution Name Colorado State University-Fort Collins
 
Department Microbiology/Immun/Virology
 
Type Schools of Veterinary Medicine
 
DUNS # 785979618 City Fort Collins
 
State CO
 
Country United States
 
Zip Code 80523
 
 
PMCA Detection of CWD Infection in Cervid and Non-Cervid Species
 
Hoover, Edward Arthur
 
Colorado State University-Fort Collins, Fort Collins, CO, United States Abstract Chronic wasting disease (CWD) of deer and elk is an emerging highly transmissible prion disease now recognized in 18 States, 2 Canadian provinces, and Korea. We have shown that Infected deer harbor and shed high levels of infectious prions in saliva, blood, urine, and feces, and in the tissues generating those body fluids and excreta, thereby leading to facile transmission by direct contact and environmental contamination. We have also shown that CWD can infect some non-cervid species, thus the potential risk CWD represents to domestic animal species and to humans remains unknown. Whether prions borne in blood, saliva, nasal fluids, milk, or excreta are generated or modified in the proximate peripheral tissue sites, may differ in subtle ways from those generated in brain, or may be adapted for mucosal infection remain open questions. The increasing parallels in the pathogenesis between prion diseases and human neurodegenerative conditions, such as Alzheimer's and Parkinson's diseases, add relevance to CWD as a transmissible protein misfolding disease. The overall goal of this work is to elucidate the process of CWD prion transmission from mucosal secretory and excretory tissue sites by addressing these questions: (a) What are the kinetics and magnitude of CWD prion shedding post-exposure? (b) Are excreted prions biochemically distinct, or not, from those in the CNS? (c) Are peripheral epithelial or CNS tissues, or both, the source of excreted prions? and (d) Are excreted prions adapted for horizontal transmission via natural/trans-mucosal routes? The specific aims of this proposal are: (1) To determine the onset and consistency of CWD prion shedding in deer and cervidized mice; (2); To compare the biochemical and biophysical properties of excretory vs. CNS prions; (3) To determine the capacity of peripheral tissues to support replication of CWD prions; (4) To determine the protease- sensitive infectious fraction of excreted vs. CNS prions; and (5) To compare the mucosal infectivity of excretory vs. CNS prions. Understanding the mechanisms that enable efficient prion dissemination and shedding will help elucidate how horizontally transmissible prions evolve and succeed, and is the basis of this proposal. Understanding how infectious misfolded proteins (prions) are generated, trafficked, shed, and transmitted will aid in preventing, treating, and managing the risks associated with these agents and the diseases they cause.
 
Public Health Relevance Chronic wasting disease (CWD) of deer and elk is an emergent highly transmissible prion disease now recognized throughout the USA as well as in Canada and Korea. We have shown that infected deer harbor and shed high levels of infectious prions in saliva, blood, urine, and feces thereby leading to transmission by direct contact and environmental contamination. In that our studies have also shown that CWD can infect some non-cervid species, the potential risk CWD may represents to domestic animal species and humans remains unknown. The increasing parallels in the development of major human neurodegenerative conditions, such as Alzheimer's and Parkinson's diseases, and prion diseases add relevance to CWD as a model of a transmissible protein misfolding disease. Understanding how infectious misfolded proteins (prions) are generated and transmitted will aid in interrupting, treating, and managing the risks associated with these agents and the diseases they cause.
 
Funding Agency Agency National Institute of Health (NIH)
 
Institute National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke (NINDS)
 
Type Research Project (R01)
 
Project # 4R01NS061902-07
 
Application # 9010980
 
Study Section Cellular and Molecular Biology of Neurodegeneration Study Section (CMND)
 
Program Officer Wong, May Project Start 2009-09-30
 
Project End 2018-02-28
 
Budget Start 2016-03-01
 
Budget End 2017-02-28
 
Support Year 7
 
Fiscal Year 2016
 
Total Cost $409,868
 
Indirect Cost $134,234 Institution Name Colorado State University-Fort Collins
 
Department Microbiology/Immun/Virology
 
Type Schools of Veterinary Medicine
 
DUNS # 785979618 City Fort Collins
 
State CO
 
Country United States
 
Zip Code 80523
 
 
LOOKING FOR CWD IN HUMANS AS nvCJD or as an ATYPICAL CJD, LOOKING IN ALL THE WRONG PLACES $$$
 
*** These results would seem to suggest that CWD does indeed have zoonotic potential, at least as judged by the compatibility of CWD prions and their human PrPC target. Furthermore, extrapolation from this simple in vitro assay suggests that if zoonotic CWD occurred, it would most likely effect those of the PRNP codon 129-MM genotype and that the PrPres type would be similar to that found in the most common subtype of sCJD (MM1).***
 
 
PRION 2015 CONFERENCE FT. COLLINS CWD RISK FACTORS TO HUMANS
 
*** LATE-BREAKING ABSTRACTS PRION 2015 CONFERENCE ***
 
O18
 
Zoonotic Potential of CWD Prions
 
Liuting Qing1, Ignazio Cali1,2, Jue Yuan1, Shenghai Huang3, Diane Kofskey1, Pierluigi Gambetti1, Wenquan Zou1, Qingzhong Kong1 1Case Western Reserve University, Cleveland, Ohio, USA, 2Second University of Naples, Naples, Italy, 3Encore Health Resources, Houston, Texas, USA
 
*** These results indicate that the CWD prion has the potential to infect human CNS and peripheral lymphoid tissues and that there might be asymptomatic human carriers of CWD infection.
 
==================
 
***These results indicate that the CWD prion has the potential to infect human CNS and peripheral lymphoid tissues and that there might be asymptomatic human carriers of CWD infection.***
 
==================
 
P.105: RT-QuIC models trans-species prion transmission
 
Kristen Davenport, Davin Henderson, Candace Mathiason, and Edward Hoover Prion Research Center; Colorado State University; Fort Collins, CO USA
 
Conversely, FSE maintained sufficient BSE characteristics to more efficiently convert bovine rPrP than feline rPrP. Additionally, human rPrP was competent for conversion by CWD and fCWD.
 
***This insinuates that, at the level of protein:protein interactions, the barrier preventing transmission of CWD to humans is less robust than previously estimated.
 
================
 
***This insinuates that, at the level of protein:protein interactions, the barrier preventing transmission of CWD to humans is less robust than previously estimated.***
 
================
 
 
*** PRICE OF CWD TSE PRION POKER GOES UP 2014 ***
 
Transmissible Spongiform Encephalopathy TSE PRION update January 2, 2014
 
*** chronic wasting disease, there was no absolute barrier to conversion of the human prion protein.
 
*** Furthermore, the form of human PrPres produced in this in vitro assay when seeded with CWD, resembles that found in the most common human prion disease, namely sCJD of the MM1 subtype.
 
 
 
*** These results would seem to suggest that CWD does indeed have zoonotic potential, at least as judged by the compatibility of CWD prions and their human PrPC target. Furthermore, extrapolation from this simple in vitro assay suggests that if zoonotic CWD occurred, it would most likely effect those of the PRNP codon 129-MM genotype and that the PrPres type would be similar to that found in the most common subtype of sCJD (MM1).***
 
 
*** The potential impact of prion diseases on human health was greatly magnified by the recognition that interspecies transfer of BSE to humans by beef ingestion resulted in vCJD. While changes in animal feed constituents and slaughter practices appear to have curtailed vCJD, there is concern that CWD of free-ranging deer and elk in the U.S. might also cross the species barrier. Thus, consuming venison could be a source of human prion disease. Whether BSE and CWD represent interspecies scrapie transfer or are newly arisen prion diseases is unknown. Therefore, the possibility of transmission of prion disease through other food animals cannot be ruled out. There is evidence that vCJD can be transmitted through blood transfusion. There is likely a pool of unknown size of asymptomatic individuals infected with vCJD, and there may be asymptomatic individuals infected with the CWD equivalent. These circumstances represent a potential threat to blood, blood products, and plasma supplies.
 
 
***********CJD REPORT 1994 increased risk for consumption of veal and venison and lamb***********
 
CREUTZFELDT JAKOB DISEASE SURVEILLANCE IN THE UNITED KINGDOM THIRD ANNUAL REPORT AUGUST 1994
 
Consumption of venison and veal was much less widespread among both cases and controls. For both of these meats there was evidence of a trend with increasing frequency of consumption being associated with increasing risk of CJD. (not nvCJD, but sporadic CJD...tss)
 
These associations were largely unchanged when attention was restricted to pairs with data obtained from relatives. ...
 
Table 9 presents the results of an analysis of these data.
 
There is STRONG evidence of an association between ‘’regular’’ veal eating and risk of CJD (p = .0.01).
 
Individuals reported to eat veal on average at least once a year appear to be at 13 TIMES THE RISK of individuals who have never eaten veal.
 
There is, however, a very wide confidence interval around this estimate. There is no strong evidence that eating veal less than once per year is associated with increased risk of CJD (p = 0.51).
 
The association between venison eating and risk of CJD shows similar pattern, with regular venison eating associated with a 9 FOLD INCREASE IN RISK OF CJD (p = 0.04).
 
There is some evidence that risk of CJD INCREASES WITH INCREASING FREQUENCY OF LAMB EATING (p = 0.02).
 
The evidence for such an association between beef eating and CJD is weaker (p = 0.14). When only controls for whom a relative was interviewed are included, this evidence becomes a little STRONGER (p = 0.08).
 
snip...
 
It was found that when veal was included in the model with another exposure, the association between veal and CJD remained statistically significant (p = < 0.05 for all exposures), while the other exposures ceased to be statistically significant (p = > 0.05).
 
snip...
 
In conclusion, an analysis of dietary histories revealed statistical associations between various meats/animal products and INCREASED RISK OF CJD. When some account was taken of possible confounding, the association between VEAL EATING AND RISK OF CJD EMERGED AS THE STRONGEST OF THESE ASSOCIATIONS STATISTICALLY. ...
 
snip...
 
In the study in the USA, a range of foodstuffs were associated with an increased risk of CJD, including liver consumption which was associated with an apparent SIX-FOLD INCREASE IN THE RISK OF CJD. By comparing the data from 3 studies in relation to this particular dietary factor, the risk of liver consumption became non-significant with an odds ratio of 1.2 (PERSONAL COMMUNICATION, PROFESSOR A. HOFMAN. ERASMUS UNIVERSITY, ROTTERDAM). (???...TSS)
 
snip...see full report ;
 
 
CJD9/10022
 
October 1994
 
Mr R.N. Elmhirst Chairman British Deer Farmers Association Holly Lodge Spencers Lane BerksWell Coventry CV7 7BZ
 
Dear Mr Elmhirst,
 
CREUTZFELDT-JAKOB DISEASE (CJD) SURVEILLANCE UNIT REPORT
 
Thank you for your recent letter concerning the publication of the third annual report from the CJD Surveillance Unit. I am sorry that you are dissatisfied with the way in which this report was published.
 
The Surveillance Unit is a completely independant outside body and the Department of Health is committed to publishing their reports as soon as they become available. In the circumstances it is not the practice to circulate the report for comment since the findings of the report would not be amended. In future we can ensure that the British Deer Farmers Association receives a copy of the report in advance of publication.
 
The Chief Medical Officer has undertaken to keep the public fully informed of the results of any research in respect of CJD. This report was entirely the work of the unit and was produced completely independantly of the the Department.
 
The statistical results reqarding the consumption of venison was put into perspective in the body of the report and was not mentioned at all in the press release. Media attention regarding this report was low key but gave a realistic presentation of the statistical findings of the Unit. This approach to publication was successful in that consumption of venison was highlighted only once by the media ie. in the News at one television proqramme.
 
I believe that a further statement about the report, or indeed statistical links between CJD and consumption of venison, would increase, and quite possibly give damaging credence, to the whole issue. From the low key media reports of which I am aware it seems unlikely that venison consumption will suffer adversely, if at all.
 
 
Monday, May 02, 2016
 
*** Zoonotic Potential of CWD Prions: An Update Prion 2016 Tokyo ***
 
 
*** PRION 2014 CONFERENCE CHRONIC WASTING DISEASE CWD
 
 
*** PPo3-7: Prion Transmission from Cervids to Humans is Strain-dependent
 
*** Here we report that a human prion strain that had adopted the cervid prion protein (PrP) sequence through passage in cervidized transgenic mice efficiently infected transgenic mice expressing human PrP,
 
*** indicating that the species barrier from cervid to humans is prion strain-dependent and humans can be vulnerable to novel cervid prion strains.
 
PPo2-27:
 
Generation of a Novel form of Human PrPSc by Inter-species Transmission of Cervid Prions
 
*** Our findings suggest that CWD prions have the capability to infect humans, and that this ability depends on CWD strain adaptation, implying that the risk for human health progressively increases with the spread of CWD among cervids.
 
PPo2-7:
 
Biochemical and Biophysical Characterization of Different CWD Isolates
 
*** The data presented here substantiate and expand previous reports on the existence of different CWD strains.
 
 
Envt.07:
 
Pathological Prion Protein (PrPTSE) in Skeletal Muscles of Farmed and Free Ranging White-Tailed Deer Infected with Chronic Wasting Disease
 
***The presence and seeding activity of PrPTSE in skeletal muscle from CWD-infected cervids suggests prevention of such tissue in the human diet as a precautionary measure for food safety, pending on further clarification of whether CWD may be transmissible to humans.
 
 
>>>CHRONIC WASTING DISEASE , THERE WAS NO ABSOLUTE BARRIER TO CONVERSION OF THE HUMAN PRION PROTEIN<<<
 
*** PRICE OF CWD TSE PRION POKER GOES UP 2014 ***
 
Transmissible Spongiform Encephalopathy TSE PRION update January 2, 2014
 
Wednesday, January 01, 2014
 
Molecular Barriers to Zoonotic Transmission of Prions
 
*** chronic wasting disease, there was no absolute barrier to conversion of the human prion protein.
 
*** Furthermore, the form of human PrPres produced in this in vitro assay when seeded with CWD, resembles that found in the most common human prion disease, namely sCJD of the MM1 subtype.
 
 
 
*** now, let’s see what the authors said about this casual link, personal communications years ago, and then the latest on the zoonotic potential from CWD to humans from the TOKYO PRION 2016 CONFERENCE.
 
see where it is stated NO STRONG evidence. so, does this mean there IS casual evidence ???? “Our conclusion stating that we found no strong evidence of CWD transmission to humans”
 
From: TSS (216-119-163-189.ipset45.wt.net)
 
Subject: CWD aka MAD DEER/ELK TO HUMANS ???
 
Date: September 30, 2002 at 7:06 am PST
 
From: "Belay, Ermias"
 
To: Cc: "Race, Richard (NIH)" ; ; "Belay, Ermias"
 
Sent: Monday, September 30, 2002 9:22 AM
 
Subject: RE: TO CDC AND NIH - PUB MED- 3 MORE DEATHS - CWD - YOUNG HUNTERS
 
Dear Sir/Madam,
 
In the Archives of Neurology you quoted (the abstract of which was attached to your email), we did not say CWD in humans will present like variant CJD. That assumption would be wrong. I encourage you to read the whole article and call me if you have questions or need more clarification (phone: 404-639-3091). Also, we do not claim that "no-one has ever been infected with prion disease from eating venison." Our conclusion stating that we found no strong evidence of CWD transmission to humans in the article you quoted or in any other forum is limited to the patients we investigated.
 
Ermias Belay, M.D. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention
 
-----Original Message-----
 
From: Sent: Sunday, September 29, 2002 10:15 AM
 
To: rr26k@nih.gov; rrace@niaid.nih.gov; ebb8@CDC.GOV
 
Subject: TO CDC AND NIH - PUB MED- 3 MORE DEATHS - CWD - YOUNG HUNTERS
 
Sunday, November 10, 2002 6:26 PM ......snip........end..............TSS
 
Thursday, April 03, 2008
 
A prion disease of cervids: Chronic wasting disease 2008 1: Vet Res. 2008 Apr 3;39(4):41 A prion disease of cervids: Chronic wasting disease Sigurdson CJ.
 
snip...
 
*** twenty-seven CJD patients who regularly consumed venison were reported to the Surveillance Center***,
 
snip... full text ;
 
 
Monday, May 02, 2016
 
*** Zoonotic Potential of CWD Prions: An Update Prion 2016 Tokyo ***
 
 
*** NIH awards $11 million to UTHealth researchers to study deadly CWD prion diseases Claudio Soto, Ph.D. ***
 
Public Release: 29-Jun-2016
 
 
I urge everyone to watch this video closely...terry
 
*** you can see video here and interview with Jeff's Mom, and scientist telling you to test everything and potential risk factors for humans ***
 
 
Tuesday, July 12, 2016
 
Chronic Wasting Disease CWD, Scrapie, Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy BSE, TSE, Prion Zoonosis Science History
 
see history of NIH may destroy human brain collection
 
 
Prion. 10:S15-S21. 2016 ISSN: 1933-6896 printl 1933-690X online
 
Taylor & Francis
 
Prion 2016 Animal Prion Disease Workshop Abstracts
 
WS-01: Prion diseases in animals and zoonotic potential
 
Juan Maria Torres a, Olivier Andreoletti b, J uan-Carlos Espinosa a. Vincent Beringue c. Patricia Aguilar a,
 
Natalia Fernandez-Borges a. and Alba Marin-Moreno a
 
"Centro de Investigacion en Sanidad Animal ( CISA-INIA ). Valdeolmos, Madrid. Spain; b UMR INRA -ENVT 1225 Interactions Holes Agents Pathogenes. ENVT. Toulouse. France: "UR892. Virologie lmmunologie MolécuIaires, Jouy-en-Josas. France
 
Dietary exposure to bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) contaminated bovine tissues is considered as the origin of variant Creutzfeldt Jakob (vCJD) disease in human. To date, BSE agent is the only recognized zoonotic prion. Despite the variety of Transmissible Spongiform Encephalopathy (TSE) agents that have been circulating for centuries in farmed ruminants there is no apparent epidemiological link between exposure to ruminant products and the occurrence of other form of TSE in human like sporadic Creutzfeldt Jakob Disease (sCJD). However, the zoonotic potential of the diversity of circulating TSE agents has never been systematically assessed. The major issue in experimental assessment of TSEs zoonotic potential lies in the modeling of the ‘species barrier‘, the biological phenomenon that limits TSE agents’ propagation from a species to another. In the last decade, mice genetically engineered to express normal forms of the human prion protein has proved essential in studying human prions pathogenesis and modeling the capacity of TSEs to cross the human species barrier.
 
To assess the zoonotic potential of prions circulating in farmed ruminants, we study their transmission ability in transgenic mice expressing human PrPC (HuPrP-Tg). Two lines of mice expressing different forms of the human PrPC (129Met or 129Val) are used to determine the role of the Met129Val dimorphism in susceptibility/resistance to the different agents.
 
These transmission experiments confirm the ability of BSE prions to propagate in 129M- HuPrP-Tg mice and demonstrate that Met129 homozygotes may be susceptible to BSE in sheep or goat to a greater degree than the BSE agent in cattle and that these agents can convey molecular properties and neuropathological indistinguishable from vCJD. However homozygous 129V mice are resistant to all tested BSE derived prions independently of the originating species suggesting a higher transmission barrier for 129V-PrP variant.
 
Transmission data also revealed that several scrapie prions propagate in HuPrP-Tg mice with efficiency comparable to that of cattle BSE. While the efficiency of transmission at primary passage was low, subsequent passages resulted in a highly virulent prion disease in both Met129 and Val129 mice. Transmission of the different scrapie isolates in these mice leads to the emergence of prion strain phenotypes that showed similar characteristics to those displayed by MM1 or VV2 sCJD prion. These results demonstrate that scrapie prions have a zoonotic potential and raise new questions about the possible link between animal and human prions.
 
 
 
SCRAPIE AND CWD ZOONOSIS
 
PRION 2016 CONFERENCE TOKYO
 
Saturday, April 23, 2016
 
*** SCRAPIE WS-01: Prion diseases in animals and zoonotic potential 2016 ***
 
Prion. 10:S15-S21. 2016 ISSN: 1933-6896 printl 1933-690X
 
 
Transmission of scrapie prions to primate after an extended silent incubation period
 
***Moreover, sporadic disease has never been observed in breeding colonies or primate research laboratories, most notably among hundreds of animals over several decades of study at the National Institutes of Health25, and in nearly twenty older animals continuously housed in our own facility.***
 
 
Wednesday, June 29, 2016
 
CWD, SCRAPIE, ZOONOSIS, it’s for real folks, the risk factors have increased greatly, and science has spoken, cwd and scrapie to humans as sporadic cjd may have already happened.
 
Transmission of scrapie prions to primate after an extended silent incubation period
 
Emmanuel E. Comoy , Jacqueline Mikol , Sophie Luccantoni-Freire , Evelyne Correia , Nathalie Lescoutra-Etchegaray , Valérie Durand , Capucine Dehen , Olivier Andreoletti , Cristina Casalone , Juergen A. Richt , Justin J. Greenlee , Thierry Baron , Sylvie L. Benestad , Paul Brown & Jean-Philippe Deslys
 
Abstract
 
Classical bovine spongiform encephalopathy (c-BSE) is the only animal prion disease reputed to be zoonotic, causing variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (vCJD) in humans and having guided protective measures for animal and human health against animal prion diseases. Recently, partial transmissions to humanized mice showed that the zoonotic potential of scrapie might be similar to c-BSE. We here report the direct transmission of a natural classical scrapie isolate to cynomolgus macaque, a highly relevant model for human prion diseases, after a 10-year silent incubation period, with features similar to those reported for human cases of sporadic CJD. Scrapie is thus actually transmissible to primates with incubation periods compatible with their life expectancy, although fourfold longer than BSE. Long-term experimental transmission studies are necessary to better assess the zoonotic potential of other prion diseases with high prevalence, notably Chronic Wasting Disease of deer and elk and atypical/Nor98 scrapie.
 
snip...
 
In addition to previous studies on scrapie transmission to primate1,8,9 and the recently published study on transgenic humanized mice13, our results constitute new evidence for recommending that the potential risk of scrapie for human health should not be dismissed. Indeed, human PrP transgenic mice and primates are the most relevant models for investigating the human transmission barrier. To what extent such models are informative for measuring the zoonotic potential of an animal TSE under field exposure conditions is unknown. During the past decades, many protective measures have been successfully implemented to protect cattle from the spread of c-BSE, and some of these measures have been extended to sheep and goats to protect from scrapie according to the principle of precaution. Since cases of c-BSE have greatly reduced in number, those protective measures are currently being challenged and relaxed in the absence of other known zoonotic animal prion disease. We recommend that risk managers should be aware of the long term potential risk to human health of at least certain scrapie isolates, notably for lymphotropic strains like the classical scrapie strain used in the current study. Relatively high amounts of infectivity in peripheral lymphoid organs in animals infected with these strains could lead to contamination of food products produced for human consumption. Efforts should also be maintained to further assess the zoonotic potential of other animal prion strains in long-term studies, notably lymphotropic strains with high prevalence like CWD, which is spreading across North America, and atypical/Nor98 scrapie (Nor98)50 that was first detected in the past two decades and now represents approximately half of all reported cases of prion diseases in small ruminants worldwide, including territories previously considered as scrapie free. Even if the prevailing view is that sporadic CJD is due to the spontaneous formation of CJD prions, it remains possible that its apparent sporadic nature may, at least in part, result from our limited capacity to identify an environmental origin.
 
***Moreover, sporadic disease has never been observed in breeding colonies or primate research laboratories, most notably among hundreds of animals over several decades of study at the National Institutes of Health25, and in nearly twenty older animals continuously housed in our own facility.***
 
 
 
2015
 
O.05: Transmission of prions to primates after extended silent incubation periods: Implications for BSE and scrapie risk assessment in human populations
 
Emmanuel Comoy, Jacqueline Mikol, Valerie Durand, Sophie Luccantoni, Evelyne Correia, Nathalie Lescoutra, Capucine Dehen, and Jean-Philippe Deslys Atomic Energy Commission; Fontenay-aux-Roses, France
 
Prion diseases (PD) are the unique neurodegenerative proteinopathies reputed to be transmissible under field conditions since decades. The transmission of Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy (BSE) to humans evidenced that an animal PD might be zoonotic under appropriate conditions. Contrarily, in the absence of obvious (epidemiological or experimental) elements supporting a transmission or genetic predispositions, PD, like the other proteinopathies, are reputed to occur spontaneously (atpical animal prion strains, sporadic CJD summing 80% of human prion cases). Non-human primate models provided the first evidences supporting the transmissibiity of human prion strains and the zoonotic potential of BSE. Among them, cynomolgus macaques brought major information for BSE risk assessment for human health (Chen, 2014), according to their phylogenetic proximity to humans and extended lifetime. We used this model to assess the zoonotic potential of other animal PD from bovine, ovine and cervid origins even after very long silent incubation periods.
 
*** We recently observed the direct transmission of a natural classical scrapie isolate to macaque after a 10-year silent incubation period,
 
***with features similar to some reported for human cases of sporadic CJD, albeit requiring fourfold long incubation than BSE. Scrapie, as recently evoked in humanized mice (Cassard, 2014),
 
***is the third potentially zoonotic PD (with BSE and L-type BSE),
 
***thus questioning the origin of human sporadic cases. We will present an updated panorama of our different transmission studies and discuss the implications of such extended incubation periods on risk assessment of animal PD for human health.
 
===============
 
***thus questioning the origin of human sporadic cases***
 
===============
 
***our findings suggest that possible transmission risk of H-type BSE to sheep and human. Bioassay will be required to determine whether the PMCA products are infectious to these animals.
 
==============
 
 
*** Infectious agent of sheep scrapie may persist in the environment for at least 16 years ***
 
Gudmundur Georgsson1, Sigurdur Sigurdarson2 and Paul Brown3
 
 
***Moreover, sporadic disease has never been observed in breeding colonies or primate research laboratories, most notably among hundreds of animals over several decades of study at the National Institutes of Health25, and in nearly twenty older animals continuously housed in our own facility.***
 
 
Using in vitro prion replication for high sensitive detection of prions and prionlike proteins and for understanding mechanisms of transmission.
 
Claudio Soto
 
Mitchell Center for Alzheimer's diseases and related Brain disorders, Department of Neurology, University of Texas Medical School at Houston.
 
Prion and prion-like proteins are misfolded protein aggregates with the ability to selfpropagate to spread disease between cells, organs and in some cases across individuals. I n T r a n s m i s s i b l e s p o n g i f o r m encephalopathies (TSEs), prions are mostly composed by a misfolded form of the prion protein (PrPSc), which propagates by transmitting its misfolding to the normal prion protein (PrPC). The availability of a procedure to replicate prions in the laboratory may be important to study the mechanism of prion and prion-like spreading and to develop high sensitive detection of small quantities of misfolded proteins in biological fluids, tissues and environmental samples. Protein Misfolding Cyclic Amplification (PMCA) is a simple, fast and efficient methodology to mimic prion replication in the test tube. PMCA is a platform technology that may enable amplification of any prion-like misfolded protein aggregating through a seeding/nucleation process. In TSEs, PMCA is able to detect the equivalent of one single molecule of infectious PrPSc and propagate prions that maintain high infectivity, strain properties and species specificity. Using PMCA we have been able to detect PrPSc in blood and urine of experimentally infected animals and humans affected by vCJD with high sensitivity and specificity. Recently, we have expanded the principles of PMCA to amplify amyloid-beta (Aβ) and alphasynuclein (α-syn) aggregates implicated in Alzheimer's and Parkinson's diseases, respectively. Experiments are ongoing to study the utility of this technology to detect Aβ and α-syn aggregates in samples of CSF and blood from patients affected by these diseases.
 
=========================
 
***Recently, we have been using PMCA to study the role of environmental prion contamination on the horizontal spreading of TSEs. These experiments have focused on the study of the interaction of prions with plants and environmentally relevant surfaces. Our results show that plants (both leaves and roots) bind tightly to prions present in brain extracts and excreta (urine and feces) and retain even small quantities of PrPSc for long periods of time. Strikingly, ingestion of prioncontaminated leaves and roots produced disease with a 100% attack rate and an incubation period not substantially longer than feeding animals directly with scrapie brain homogenate. Furthermore, plants can uptake prions from contaminated soil and transport them to different parts of the plant tissue (stem and leaves). Similarly, prions bind tightly to a variety of environmentally relevant surfaces, including stones, wood, metals, plastic, glass, cement, etc. Prion contaminated surfaces efficiently transmit prion disease when these materials were directly injected into the brain of animals and strikingly when the contaminated surfaces were just placed in the animal cage. These findings demonstrate that environmental materials can efficiently bind infectious prions and act as carriers of infectivity, suggesting that they may play an important role in the horizontal transmission of the disease.
 
========================
 
Since its invention 13 years ago, PMCA has helped to answer fundamental questions of prion propagation and has broad applications in research areas including the food industry, blood bank safety and human and veterinary disease diagnosis.
 
 
see ;
 
with CWD TSE Prions, I am not sure there is any absolute yet, other than what we know with transmission studies, and we know tse prion kill, and tse prion are bad. science shows to date, that indeed soil, dirt, some better than others, can act as a carrier. same with objects, farm furniture. take it with how ever many grains of salt you wish, or not. if load factor plays a role in the end formula, then everything should be on the table, in my opinion. see ;
 
***Recently, we have been using PMCA to study the role of environmental prion contamination on the horizontal spreading of TSEs. These experiments have focused on the study of the interaction of prions with plants and environmentally relevant surfaces. Our results show that plants (both leaves and roots) bind tightly to prions present in brain extracts and excreta (urine and feces) and retain even small quantities of PrPSc for long periods of time. Strikingly, ingestion of prioncontaminated leaves and roots produced disease with a 100% attack rate and an incubation period not substantially longer than feeding animals directly with scrapie brain homogenate. Furthermore, plants can uptake prions from contaminated soil and transport them to different parts of the plant tissue (stem and leaves). Similarly, prions bind tightly to a variety of environmentally relevant surfaces, including stones, wood, metals, plastic, glass, cement, etc. Prion contaminated surfaces efficiently transmit prion disease when these materials were directly injected into the brain of animals and strikingly when the contaminated surfaces were just placed in the animal cage. These findings demonstrate that environmental materials can efficiently bind infectious prions and act as carriers of infectivity, suggesting that they may play an important role in the horizontal transmission of the disease.
 
Since its invention 13 years ago, PMCA has helped to answer fundamental questions of prion propagation and has broad applications in research areas including the food industry, blood bank safety and human and veterinary disease diagnosis.
 
 
see ;
 
 
Oral Transmissibility of Prion Disease Is Enhanced by Binding to Soil Particles
 
Author Summary
 
Transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (TSEs) are a group of incurable neurological diseases likely caused by a misfolded form of the prion protein. TSEs include scrapie in sheep, bovine spongiform encephalopathy (‘‘mad cow’’ disease) in cattle, chronic wasting disease in deer and elk, and Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease in humans. Scrapie and chronic wasting disease are unique among TSEs because they can be transmitted between animals, and the disease agents appear to persist in environments previously inhabited by infected animals. Soil has been hypothesized to act as a reservoir of infectivity and to bind the infectious agent. In the current study, we orally dosed experimental animals with a common clay mineral, montmorillonite, or whole soils laden with infectious prions, and compared the transmissibility to unbound agent. We found that prions bound to montmorillonite and whole soils remained orally infectious, and, in most cases, increased the oral transmission of disease compared to the unbound agent. The results presented in this study suggest that soil may contribute to environmental spread of TSEs by increasing the transmissibility of small amounts of infectious agent in the environment.
 
 
tse prion soil
 
 
 
 
 
Saturday, May 28, 2016
 
*** Infection and detection of PrPCWD in soil from CWD infected farm in Korea Prion 2016 Tokyo ***
 
 
Wednesday, December 16, 2015
 
Objects in contact with classical scrapie sheep act as a reservoir for scrapie transmission
 
 
The sources of dust borne prions are unknown but it seems reasonable to assume that faecal, urine, skin, parturient material and saliva-derived prions may contribute to this mobile environmental reservoir of infectivity. This work highlights a possible transmission route for scrapie within the farm environment, and this is likely to be paralleled in CWD which shows strong similarities with scrapie in terms of prion dissemination and disease transmission. The data indicate that the presence of scrapie prions in dust is likely to make the control of these diseases a considerable challenge.
 
 
>>>Particle-associated PrPTSE molecules may migrate from locations of deposition via transport processes affecting soil particles, including entrainment in and movement with air and overland flow. <<<
 
Fate of Prions in Soil: A Review
 
Christen B. Smith, Clarissa J. Booth, and Joel A. Pedersen*
 
Several reports have shown that prions can persist in soil for several years. Significant interest remains in developing methods that could be applied to degrade PrPTSE in naturally contaminated soils. Preliminary research suggests that serine proteases and the microbial consortia in stimulated soils and compost may partially degrade PrPTSE. Transition metal oxides in soil (viz. manganese oxide) may also mediate prion inactivation. Overall, the effect of prion attachment to soil particles on its persistence in the environment is not well understood, and additional study is needed to determine its implications on the environmental transmission of scrapie and CWD.
 
 
P.161: Prion soil binding may explain efficient horizontal CWD transmission
 
Conclusion. Silty clay loam exhibits highly efficient prion binding, inferring a durable environmental reservoir, and an efficient mechanism for indirect horizontal CWD transmission.
 
 
Wednesday, December 16, 2015
 
Objects in contact with classical scrapie sheep act as a reservoir for scrapie transmission
 
Objects in contact with classical scrapie sheep act as a reservoir for scrapie transmission
 
Timm Konold1*, Stephen A. C. Hawkins2, Lisa C. Thurston3, Ben C. Maddison4, Kevin C. Gough5, Anthony Duarte1 and Hugh A. Simmons1
 
1 Animal Sciences Unit, Animal and Plant Health Agency Weybridge, Addlestone, UK, 2 Pathology Department, Animal and Plant Health Agency Weybridge, Addlestone, UK, 3 Surveillance and Laboratory Services, Animal and Plant Health Agency Penrith, Penrith, UK, 4 ADAS UK, School of Veterinary Medicine and Science, University of Nottingham, Sutton Bonington, UK, 5 School of Veterinary Medicine and Science, University of Nottingham, Sutton Bonington, UK
 
Classical scrapie is an environmentally transmissible prion disease of sheep and goats. Prions can persist and remain potentially infectious in the environment for many years and thus pose a risk of infecting animals after re-stocking. In vitro studies using serial protein misfolding cyclic amplification (sPMCA) have suggested that objects on a scrapie affected sheep farm could contribute to disease transmission. This in vivo study aimed to determine the role of field furniture (water troughs, feeding troughs, fencing, and other objects that sheep may rub against) used by a scrapie-infected sheep flock as a vector for disease transmission to scrapie-free lambs with the prion protein genotype VRQ/VRQ, which is associated with high susceptibility to classical scrapie. When the field furniture was placed in clean accommodation, sheep became infected when exposed to either a water trough (four out of five) or to objects used for rubbing (four out of seven). This field furniture had been used by the scrapie-infected flock 8 weeks earlier and had previously been shown to harbor scrapie prions by sPMCA. Sheep also became infected (20 out of 23) through exposure to contaminated field furniture placed within pasture not used by scrapie-infected sheep for 40 months, even though swabs from this furniture tested negative by PMCA. This infection rate decreased (1 out of 12) on the same paddock after replacement with clean field furniture. Twelve grazing sheep exposed to field furniture not in contact with scrapie-infected sheep for 18 months remained scrapie free. The findings of this study highlight the role of field furniture used by scrapie-infected sheep to act as a reservoir for disease re-introduction although infectivity declines considerably if the field furniture has not been in contact with scrapie-infected sheep for several months. PMCA may not be as sensitive as VRQ/VRQ sheep to test for environmental contamination.
 
snip...
 
Discussion
 
Classical scrapie is an environmentally transmissible disease because it has been reported in naïve, supposedly previously unexposed sheep placed in pastures formerly occupied by scrapie-infected sheep (4, 19, 20). Although the vector for disease transmission is not known, soil is likely to be an important reservoir for prions (2) where – based on studies in rodents – prions can adhere to minerals as a biologically active form (21) and remain infectious for more than 2 years (22). Similarly, chronic wasting disease (CWD) has re-occurred in mule deer housed in paddocks used by infected deer 2 years earlier, which was assumed to be through foraging and soil consumption (23).
 
Our study suggested that the risk of acquiring scrapie infection was greater through exposure to contaminated wooden, plastic, and metal surfaces via water or food troughs, fencing, and hurdles than through grazing. Drinking from a water trough used by the scrapie flock was sufficient to cause infection in sheep in a clean building. Exposure to fences and other objects used for rubbing also led to infection, which supported the hypothesis that skin may be a vector for disease transmission (9). The risk of these objects to cause infection was further demonstrated when 87% of 23 sheep presented with PrPSc in lymphoid tissue after grazing on one of the paddocks, which contained metal hurdles, a metal lamb creep and a water trough in contact with the scrapie flock up to 8 weeks earlier, whereas no infection had been demonstrated previously in sheep grazing on this paddock, when equipped with new fencing and field furniture. When the contaminated furniture and fencing were removed, the infection rate dropped significantly to 8% of 12 sheep, with soil of the paddock as the most likely source of infection caused by shedding of prions from the scrapie-infected sheep in this paddock up to a week earlier.
 
This study also indicated that the level of contamination of field furniture sufficient to cause infection was dependent on two factors: stage of incubation period and time of last use by scrapie-infected sheep. Drinking from a water trough that had been used by scrapie sheep in the predominantly pre-clinical phase did not appear to cause infection, whereas infection was shown in sheep drinking from the water trough used by scrapie sheep in the later stage of the disease. It is possible that contamination occurred through shedding of prions in saliva, which may have contaminated the surface of the water trough and subsequently the water when it was refilled. Contamination appeared to be sufficient to cause infection only if the trough was in contact with sheep that included clinical cases. Indeed, there is an increased risk of bodily fluid infectivity with disease progression in scrapie (24) and CWD (25) based on PrPSc detection by sPMCA. Although ultraviolet light and heat under natural conditions do not inactivate prions (26), furniture in contact with the scrapie flock, which was assumed to be sufficiently contaminated to cause infection, did not act as vector for disease if not used for 18 months, which suggest that the weathering process alone was sufficient to inactivate prions.
 
PrPSc detection by sPMCA is increasingly used as a surrogate for infectivity measurements by bioassay in sheep or mice. In this reported study, however, the levels of PrPSc present in the environment were below the limit of detection of the sPMCA method, yet were still sufficient to cause infection of in-contact animals. In the present study, the outdoor objects were removed from the infected flock 8 weeks prior to sampling and were positive by sPMCA at very low levels (2 out of 37 reactions). As this sPMCA assay also yielded 2 positive reactions out of 139 in samples from the scrapie-free farm, the sPMCA assay could not detect PrPSc on any of the objects above the background of the assay. False positive reactions with sPMCA at a low frequency associated with de novo formation of infectious prions have been reported (27, 28). This is in contrast to our previous study where we demonstrated that outdoor objects that had been in contact with the scrapie-infected flock up to 20 days prior to sampling harbored PrPSc that was detectable by sPMCA analysis [4 out of 15 reactions (12)] and was significantly more positive by the assay compared to analogous samples from the scrapie-free farm. This discrepancy could be due to the use of a different sPMCA substrate between the studies that may alter the efficiency of amplification of the environmental PrPSc. In addition, the present study had a longer timeframe between the objects being in contact with the infected flock and sampling, which may affect the levels of extractable PrPSc. Alternatively, there may be potentially patchy contamination of this furniture with PrPSc, which may have been missed by swabbing. The failure of sPMCA to detect CWD-associated PrP in saliva from clinically affected deer despite confirmation of infectivity in saliva-inoculated transgenic mice was associated with as yet unidentified inhibitors in saliva (29), and it is possible that the sensitivity of sPMCA is affected by other substances in the tested material. In addition, sampling of amplifiable PrPSc and subsequent detection by sPMCA may be more difficult from furniture exposed to weather, which is supported by the observation that PrPSc was detected by sPMCA more frequently in indoor than outdoor furniture (12). A recent experimental study has demonstrated that repeated cycles of drying and wetting of prion-contaminated soil, equivalent to what is expected under natural weathering conditions, could reduce PMCA amplification efficiency and extend the incubation period in hamsters inoculated with soil samples (30). This seems to apply also to this study even though the reduction in infectivity was more dramatic in the sPMCA assays than in the sheep model. Sheep were not kept until clinical end-point, which would have enabled us to compare incubation periods, but the lack of infection in sheep exposed to furniture that had not been in contact with scrapie sheep for a longer time period supports the hypothesis that prion degradation and subsequent loss of infectivity occurs even under natural conditions.
 
In conclusion, the results in the current study indicate that removal of furniture that had been in contact with scrapie-infected animals should be recommended, particularly since cleaning and decontamination may not effectively remove scrapie infectivity (31), even though infectivity declines considerably if the pasture and the field furniture have not been in contact with scrapie-infected sheep for several months. As sPMCA failed to detect PrPSc in furniture that was subjected to weathering, even though exposure led to infection in sheep, this method may not always be reliable in predicting the risk of scrapie infection through environmental contamination. These results suggest that the VRQ/VRQ sheep model may be more sensitive than sPMCA for the detection of environmentally associated scrapie, and suggest that extremely low levels of scrapie contamination are able to cause infection in susceptible sheep genotypes.
 
Keywords: classical scrapie, prion, transmissible spongiform encephalopathy, sheep, field furniture, reservoir, serial protein misfolding cyclic amplification
 
 
Wednesday, December 16, 2015
 
*** Objects in contact with classical scrapie sheep act as a reservoir for scrapie transmission ***
 
 
*** Infectious agent of sheep scrapie may persist in the environment for at least 16 years ***
 
Gudmundur Georgsson1, Sigurdur Sigurdarson2 and Paul Brown3
 
 
Circulation of prions within dust on a scrapie affected farm
 
Kevin C Gough1, Claire A Baker2, Hugh A Simmons3, Steve A Hawkins3 and Ben C Maddison2*
 
Abstract
 
Prion diseases are fatal neurological disorders that affect humans and animals. Scrapie of sheep/goats and Chronic Wasting Disease (CWD) of deer/elk are contagious prion diseases where environmental reservoirs have a direct link to the transmission of disease. Using protein misfolding cyclic amplification we demonstrate that scrapie PrPSc can be detected within circulating dusts that are present on a farm that is naturally contaminated with sheep scrapie. The presence of infectious scrapie within airborne dusts may represent a possible route of infection and illustrates the difficulties that may be associated with the effective decontamination of such scrapie affected premises.
 
snip...
 
Discussion
 
We present biochemical data illustrating the airborne movement of scrapie containing material within a contaminated farm environment. We were able to detect scrapie PrPSc within extracts from dusts collected over a 70 day period, in the absence of any sheep activity. We were also able to detect scrapie PrPSc within dusts collected within pasture at 30 m but not at 60 m distance away from the scrapie contaminated buildings, suggesting that the chance of contamination of pasture by scrapie contaminated dusts decreases with distance from contaminated farm buildings. PrPSc amplification by sPMCA has been shown to correlate with infectivity and amplified products have been shown to be infectious [14,15]. These experiments illustrate the potential for low dose scrapie infectivity to be present within such samples. We estimate low ng levels of scrapie positive brain equivalent were deposited per m2 over 70 days, in a barn previously occupied by sheep affected with scrapie. This movement of dusts and the accumulation of low levels of scrapie infectivity within this environment may in part explain previous observations where despite stringent pen decontamination regimens healthy lambs still became scrapie infected after apparent exposure from their environment alone [16]. The presence of sPMCA seeding activity and by inference, infectious prions within dusts, and their potential for airborne dissemination is highly novel and may have implications for the spread of scrapie within infected premises. The low level circulation and accumulation of scrapie prion containing dust material within the farm environment will likely impede the efficient decontamination of such scrapie contaminated buildings unless all possible reservoirs of dust are removed. Scrapie containing dusts could possibly infect animals during feeding and drinking, and respiratory and conjunctival routes may also be involved. It has been demonstrated that scrapie can be efficiently transmitted via the nasal route in sheep [17], as is also the case for CWD in both murine models and in white tailed deer [18-20].
 
The sources of dust borne prions are unknown but it seems reasonable to assume that faecal, urine, skin, parturient material and saliva-derived prions may contribute to this mobile environmental reservoir of infectivity. This work highlights a possible transmission route for scrapie within the farm environment, and this is likely to be paralleled in CWD which shows strong similarities with scrapie in terms of prion dissemination and disease transmission. The data indicate that the presence of scrapie prions in dust is likely to make the control of these diseases a considerable challenge.
 
 
Saturday, May 28, 2016
 
*** Infection and detection of PrPCWD in soil from CWD infected farm in Korea Prion 2016 Tokyo ***
 
 
Saturday, April 16, 2016
 
APHIS [Docket No. APHIS-2016-0029] Secretary's Advisory Committee on Animal Health; Meeting May 2, 2016, and June 16, 2016 Singeltary Submission
 
 
Evidence That Transmissible Mink Encephalopathy Results from Feeding Infected Cattle
 
Over the next 8-10 weeks, approximately 40% of all the adult mink on the farm died from TME.
 
snip...
 
The rancher was a ''dead stock'' feeder using mostly (>95%) downer or dead dairy cattle...
 
 
 
 
In Confidence - Perceptions of unconventional slow virus diseases of animals in the USA - APRIL-MAY 1989 - G A H Wells
 
3. Prof. A. Robertson gave a brief account of BSE. The US approach was to accord it a very low profile indeed. Dr. A Thiermann showed the picture in the ''Independent'' with cattle being incinerated and thought this was a fanatical incident to be avoided in the US at all costs. ...
 
 
”The occurrence of CWD must be viewed against the contest of the locations in which it occurred. It was an incidental and unwelcome complication of the respective wildlife research programmes. Despite it’s subsequent recognition as a new disease of cervids, therefore justifying direct investigation, no specific research funding was forthcoming. The USDA veiwed it as a wildlife problem and consequently not their province!” ...page 26.
 
 
Sunday, July 17, 2016
 
CHRONIC WASTING DISEASE CWD TSE PRION GLOBAL REPORT UPDATE JULY 17 2016
 
 
Saturday, July 23, 2016
 
BOVINE SPONGIFORM ENCEPHALOPATHY BSE TSE PRION SURVEILLANCE, TESTING, AND SRM REMOVAL UNITED STATE OF AMERICA UPDATE JULY 2016
 
 
see BSE TSE SRM breaches being served up to humans as appetizers...
 
Monday, June 20, 2016
 
Specified Risk Materials SRMs BSE TSE Prion Program
 
 
Tuesday, July 12, 2016
 
Chronic Wasting Disease CWD, Scrapie, Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy BSE, TSE, Prion Zoonosis Science History
 
*** see history of NIH may destroy human brain collection ***
 
 
Terry S. Singeltary Sr. Bacliff, Texas USA flounder9@verizon.net