Chronic Wasting Disease found in a farmed elk from Olmsted County ST. PAUL, Minn.
Contact: Malissa Fritz, BAH Communications Director, 651-201-6830
Chronic Wasting Disease found in a farmed elk from Olmsted County
Mandatory surveillance program leads to detection of positive elk; state initiates investigation
ST. PAUL, Minn. – The Minnesota Board of Animal Health today announced that a farmed elk from an Olmsted County herd tested positive for Chronic Wasting Disease (CWD). The brain stem and lymph nodes from a 7-year-old female elk were submitted to the U.S. Department of Agriculture’s National Veterinary Services Laboratory (NVSL) in Ames, Iowa, after the animal was slaughtered. NVSL confirmed the animal had CWD. The Board of Animal Health quarantined the herd on January 23, 2009. This quarantine means no cervidae (members of the deer and elk family) can move on or off the farm. Meanwhile, officials continue to investigate the source of the infection and whether other cervidae may have been exposed. In 2003, Minnesota implemented mandatory registration and CWD surveillance programs for farmed cervidae herds. When farmed cervidae over 16 months of age die or are slaughtered, herd owners must submit brain samples for CWD testing. CWD is a fatal brain and nervous system disease found in cervidae in certain parts of North America. The disease is caused by an abnormally shaped protein called a prion, which can damage brain and nerve tissue. Infected animals show progressive loss of body weight with accompanying behavioral changes. In later stages of the disease, infected animals become emaciated (thus “wasting” disease). Other signs include staggering, consuming large amounts of water, excessive urination, and drooling. According to state health officials and the federal Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, there is no evidence that CWD can be transmitted to humans. For more information on CWD and the BAH, visit their website at www.bah.state.mn.us.
Saturday, January 24, 2009
Research Project: Detection of TSE Agents in Livestock, Wildlife, Agricultural Products, and the Environment Location: 2008 Annual Report
CWD UPDATE 2009
-------------------- BSE-L@LISTS.AEGEE.ORG --------------------
Research Project: Detection of Transmissible Spongiform Encephalopathy Agents in Livestock, Wildlife, Agricultural Products, and the Environment Location: Foodborne Contaminants Research
2008 Annual Report
1a.Objectives (from AD-416) We will develop highly sensitive diagnostic tests to detect transmissible spongiform encephalopathy (TSE) in livestock and wildlife animal species prior to the onset of clinical disease. We will also develop tests to confirm the presence or absence of TSE disease agents in ingredients of animal origin and decontaminated environments.
1b.Approach (from AD-416) The threat of BSE continues to affect export economics for US meat. Meanwhile scrapie continues to influence sheep profits and herd biosecurity, and CWD is spreading throughout North America. Thus U.S. animal industry stakeholders have identified detection of the TSE infectious agent (prions) as a priority biosecurity research issue essential for prevention of TSE diseases. We will build on our previous successes using mass spectrometry (MS) for high-sensitivity and specificity in detection of PrPsc as a marker for TSE infectivity in blood using a hamster scrapie model. We will also develop a novel PrP-null mouse strain and related myeloma cell culture system for production of monoclonal antibodies (MAb), which may be specific for PrPsc. We will then choose MS or MAb and validate our novel diagnostic for preclinical diagnosis of scrapie in sheep blood. Whereas MS and MAb methods rely on dissolved samples, contamination of agricultural products and environmental surfaces is associated with solid samples. So we will produce a cell culture based assay for TSE infectivity that is surface-adsorbed. After using the relatively convenient hamster model for early development, we will validate this technology for detection of scrapie in sheep brain on meat-and-bone meal and stainless steel. Replacing 5325-32000-007-00D (3/19/2008).
3.Progress Report At this point in the Project, in general, we are completing preliminary studies using our relatively convenient hamster and mouse models, and are starting to work with more agriculturally relevant sheep and deer tissues. We are finding the cervid tissues quite different from rodent tissues, in their requirements for sample workup (e.g., amount and quality of lipid and fiber) and in their expression of TSE infectivity and presence of markers. OSQR required us to establish a new collaboration with a reputable cell biologist, to assist with our cell-based scrapie assay. We now have a new MTA with Dr. Charles Weissmann (Scripps), under which we are sharing cell lines and laboratory protocols. We have completed one part of our speed congenics project to develop PrP-null (disease-resistant) mice for use in antibody generation. After conceiving a new procedure for immunogen enrichment, we performed experimental vaccination of these animals in our facilities. This project relates to NP103 Component 8: Prevention and control of transmissible spongiform encephalopathies. Problem statement 9A: Scrapie; 9B Chronic Wasting Disease (CWD); and 9C: Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy (BSE).
4.Accomplishments 1. Proteinase K-free method for preparation of samples facilitates TSE blood assay.
The most widely used and regulatory approved methods for detection of Transmissible Spongiform Encephalopathy (TSE) contain a step in which the sample is subjected to digestion by a very strong enzyme, proteinase K, which degrades almost all proteins in the sample except for an Infectious isoform of the normal cellular prion protein, a prion (PrPsc). Although PrPsc has served well as a marker for brain disease, infectivity in the blood is mostly not proteinase K resistant. The proteinase K-free technique developed by ARS scientists in the Foodborne Contaminants Research Unit in Albany, CA will allow scientists to detect infectivity in blood. These efforts will lead to diagnostic tests that will save farmers and ranchers money and resources by allowing them to identify infected animals prior to purchase, sale or slaughter, and keep TSE-infected animals out of the US food supply. This accomplishment addresses NP103 Component 8: Prevention and Control of Transmissible Spongiform Encephalopathies; Problem Statement 9A: Scrapie; 9B: Chronic Wasting Disease (CWD); and 9C: Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy (BSE).
2. Demonstrated conversion of a non-infectious normal cellular prion protein (PrP) into disease isoform in cell culture.
Although Transmissible Spongiform Encephalopathy (TSE) infectivity can be detected using animal models and mass spectroscopy, a cell culture system offers increased speed and throughput. ARS scientists in the Foodborne Contaminants Research Unit in Albany, CA developed conditions for growth and infection of existing cell cultures and cultures expressing transgenic PrP genes, observing conversion to the disease-associated PrPsc isoform. This method will be further developed to detect infectivity that is adsorbed onto surfaces, such as stainless steel and soil. These efforts will lead to diagnostic tests that will save farmers and ranchers money and resources by allowing them to identify infected areas and equipment before these areas or items can infect their animals. This accomplishment addresses NP103 Component 8: Prevention and Control of Transmissible Spongiform Encephalopathies; Problem Statement 9A: Scrapie; 9B: Chronic Wasting Disease (CWD); and 9C: Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy (BSE).
5.Significant Activities that Support Special Target Populations None.
6.Technology Transfer Number of New Commercial Licenses Executed 1
Review Publications Bruederle, C.E., Hnasko, R.M., Kraemer, T., Garcia, R.A., Haas, M.J., Marmer, W.N., Carter, J.M. 2008. Prion infected Meat-and-Bone Meal is still infectious after biodiesel production. PLoS Pathogens. Available: http://dx.plos.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0002969
Onisko, B.C., Chen, N., Napoli, J. 2008. The Nuclear Transcription Factor RAR Associates with Neuronal RNA Granules and Suppresses Translation. Journal of Biological Chemistry. 283(30):20841-20847.
Sajnani, G., Pastrana, M.A., Dynin, I.A., Onisko, B.C., Requena, J.R. 2008. Insights on scrapie prion protein (prpsc) structure obtained by limited proteolysis and mass spectrometry. Journal of Molecular Biology. 382(2008):88-98.
FY2006: Tests for prion contamination in soil and water will be developed.
Scrapie Agent (Strain 263K) Can Transmit Disease via the Oral Route after Persistence in Soil over Years Bjoern Seidel1#*, Achim Thomzig2#, Anne Buschmann3#, Martin H. Groschup3, Rainer Peters1, Michael Beekes2, Konstantin Terytze4
1 Fraunhofer Institute for Molecular Biology und Applied Ecology (IME), Schmallenberg, Germany, 2 P24 -Transmissible Spongiform Encephalopathies, Robert Koch-Institut, Berlin, Germany, 3 Institute for Novel and Emerging Infectious Diseases, Friedrich-Loeffler-Institut, Insel Riems, Germany, 4 German Federal Environmental Agency (Umweltbundesamt, UBA), Dessau, Germany
Abstract The persistence of infectious biomolecules in soil constitutes a substantial challenge. This holds particularly true with respect to prions, the causative agents of transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (TSEs) such as scrapie, bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE), or chronic wasting disease (CWD). Various studies have indicated that prions are able to persist in soil for years without losing their pathogenic activity. Dissemination of prions into the environment can occur from several sources, e.g., infectious placenta or amniotic fluid of sheep. Furthermore, environmental contamination by saliva, excrements or non-sterilized agricultural organic fertilizer is conceivable. Natural transmission of scrapie in the field seems to occur via the alimentary tract in the majority of cases, and scrapie-free sheep flocks can become infected on pastures where outbreaks of scrapie had been observed before. These findings point to a sustained contagion in the environment, and notably the soil. By using outdoor lysimeters, we simulated a contamination of standard soil with hamster-adapted 263K scrapie prions, and analyzed the presence and biological activity of the soil-associated PrPSc and infectivity by Western blotting and hamster bioassay, respectively. Our results showed that 263K scrapie agent can persist in soil at least over 29 months. Strikingly, not only the contaminated soil itself retained high levels of infectivity, as evidenced by oral administration to Syrian hamsters, but also feeding of aqueous soil extracts was able to induce disease in the reporter animals. We could also demonstrate that PrPSc in soil, extracted after 21 months, provides a catalytically active seed in the protein misfolding cyclic amplification (PMCA) reaction. PMCA opens therefore a perspective for considerably improving the detectability of prions in soil samples from the field.
Prions Adhere to Soil Minerals and Remain Infectious Christopher J. Johnson1,2, Kristen E. Phillips3, Peter T. Schramm3, Debbie McKenzie2, Judd M. Aiken1,2, Joel A. Pedersen3,4*
1 Program in Cellular and Molecular Biology, University of Wisconsin Madison, Madison, Wisconsin, United States of America, 2 Department of Animal Health and Biomedical Sciences, School of Veterinary Medicine, University of Wisconsin Madison, Madison, Wisconsin, United States of America, 3 Molecular and Environmental Toxicology Center, University of Wisconsin Madison, Madison, Wisconsin, United States of America, 4 Department of Soil Science, University of Wisconsin Madison, Madison, Wisconsin, United States of America
Abstract An unidentified environmental reservoir of infectivity contributes to the natural transmission of prion diseases (transmissible spongiform encephalopathies [TSEs]) in sheep, deer, and elk. Prion infectivity may enter soil environments via shedding from diseased animals and decomposition of infected carcasses. Burial of TSE-infected cattle, sheep, and deer as a means of disposal has resulted in unintentional introduction of prions into subsurface environments. We examined the potential for soil to serve as a TSE reservoir by studying the interaction of the disease-associated prion protein (PrPSc) with common soil minerals. In this study, we demonstrated substantial PrPSc adsorption to two clay minerals, quartz, and four whole soil samples. We quantified the PrPSc-binding capacities of each mineral. Furthermore, we observed that PrPSc desorbed from montmorillonite clay was cleaved at an N-terminal site and the interaction between PrPSc and Mte was strong, making desorption of the protein difficult. Despite cleavage and avid binding, PrPSc bound to Mte remained infectious. Results from our study suggest that PrPSc released into soil environments may be preserved in a bioavailable form, perpetuating prion disease epizootics and exposing other species to the infectious agent.
Synopsis Transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (TSEs) are a group of incurable diseases likely caused by a misfolded form of the prion protein (PrPSc). TSEs include scrapie in sheep, bovine spongiform encephalopathy ("mad cow" disease) in cattle, chronic wasting disease (CWD) in deer and elk, and Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease in humans. Scrapie and CWD are unique among TSEs because they can be transmitted between animals, and the disease agents appear to persist in environments previously inhabited by infected animals. Soil has been hypothesized to act as a reservoir of infectivity, because PrPSc likely enters soil environments through urinary or alimentary shedding and decomposition of infected animals. In this manuscript, the authors test the potential for soil to serve as a reservoir for PrPSc and TSE infectivity. They demonstrate that PrPSc binds to a variety of soil minerals and to whole soils. They also quantitate the levels of protein binding to three common soil minerals and show that the interaction of PrPSc with montmorillonite, a common clay mineral, is remarkably strong. PrPSc bound to Mte remained infectious to laboratory animals, suggesting that soil can serve as a reservoir of TSE infectivity.
Direct Detection of Soil-Bound Prions Sacha Genovesi1, Liviana Leita2, Paolo Sequi3, Igino Andrighetto4, M. Catia Sorgato1,5, Alessandro Bertoli1*
1 Dipartimento di Chimica Biologica, Università di Padova, Padova, Italy, 2 Istituto Sperimentale per la Nutrizione delle Piante, Gorizia, Italy, 3 Istituto Sperimentale per la Nutrizione delle Piante, Roma, Italy, 4 Istituto Zooprofilattico Sperimentale delle Venezie, Legnaro, Italy, 5 CNR Istituto di Neuroscienze, Padova, Italy
Abstract Scrapie and chronic wasting disease are contagious prion diseases affecting sheep and cervids, respectively. Studies have indicated that horizontal transmission is important in sustaining these epidemics, and that environmental contamination plays an important role in this. In the perspective of detecting prions in soil samples from the field by more direct methods than animal-based bioassays, we have developed a novel immuno-based approach that visualises in situ the major component (PrPSc) of prions sorbed onto agricultural soil particles. Importantly, the protocol needs no extraction of the protein from soil. Using a cell-based assay of infectivity, we also report that samples of agricultural soil, or quartz sand, acquire prion infectivity after exposure to whole brain homogenates from prion-infected mice. Our data provide further support to the notion that prion-exposed soils retain infectivity, as recently determined in Syrian hamsters intracerebrally or orally challanged with contaminated soils. The cell approach of the potential infectivity of contaminated soil is faster and cheaper than classical animal-based bioassays. Although it suffers from limitations, e.g. it can currently test only a few mouse prion strains, the cell model can nevertheless be applied in its present form to understand how soil composition influences infectivity, and to test prion-inactivating procedures.
now, something i have pondered long about, with the atypical BSE in Texas and Alabama, where, as far as i know, those farms WERE NOT quarantined for 5 years due to an atypical TSE. HOWEVER, the farms of the atypical scrapie from where the mad sheep of mad river valley occurred, these farms were quarantined. ...
----- Original Message -----
From: Terry S. Singeltary Sr.
Sent: Sunday, February 25, 2007 12:35 PM
Subject: FOIA REQUEST FOR ATYPICAL TSE INFORMATION ON VERMONT SHEEP
I respectfully request the final results of the mouse bio-assays test that were to have supposedly began 2+ years late, 5 years ago, on the imported sheep from Belgium ?
WHAT happened to the test results and MOUSE BIO-ASSAYS of those imported sheep from Belgium that were confiscated and slaughtered from the Faillace's, what sort of TSE did these animals have ?
WERE they atypical scrapie, BSE, and or typical scrapie ?
HOW much longer will you refuse to give us this information ? and for what reason ?
WHY is it that the Farm of the Mad Sheep of Mad River Valley were quarantined for 5 years, but none of these farms from Texas and Alabama with Atypical TSE in the Bovine, they have not been quarantined for 5 years,why not, with the real risk of BSE to sheep, whom is to say this was not BSE ?
full text ;
Monday, September 1, 2008 RE-FOIA OF DECLARATION OF EXTRAORDINARY EMERGENCY BECAUSE OF AN ATYPICAL T.S.E. (PRION DISEASE) OF FOREIGN ORIGIN IN THE UNITED STATES [No. 00-072-1] September 1, 2008
Greetings again BSE-L members,
I had a pleasant surprise this past Saturday. I got an unexpected package from O.I.G. on my old F.O.I.A. request, of the final test results of the infamous mad sheep of mad river valley. IF you all remember, back on Thu, 24 Apr 2008 15:00:20 -0500 I wrote ;
snip...full text ;
i remember a few years back ???
that a study showed the prion uptake in a tomato plant, not that this would surprise me ;
56. Members considered that there is no evidence that crops grown on the land which received composted excreta from BSE-challenged animals pose a TSE risk to humans or animals. One member suggested that, as some of these animals are orally challenged with high doses of BSE-infected materials, and the distribution of infectivity in the digestive system is not completely understood, it might be premature to conclude that there is no infective agent in the manure. Furthermore, an unpublished study had indicated low level absorption of PrP from soil by tomato plants although it should be noted that this study had not been repeated. Details of this work would be sent to the SEAC Secretary. Dr Matthews explained that most of the manure from animals challenged with high doses of BSE had already been composted and used for coppicing. Members agreed that the risks from disposal of residual manure from experimental animals would be much less than historic risks of on farm contamination from naturally infected animals at the height of the BSE epidemic.
disturbing to say the least. ...TSS
Tuesday, January 13, 2009
Antemortem detection of PrPCWD in preclinical, ranch-raised Rocky Mountain elk (Cervus elaphus nelsoni) by biopsy of the rectal mucosa Full Scientific Reports
Saturday, January 10, 2009
Chronic Wasting Disease Investigation Update Michigan December 18, 2008
Sunday, September 07, 2008
CWD LIVE TEST, and the political aspects or fallout of live testing for BSE in cattle in the USA
2008 CWD Laboratory Testing for Wild White-tailed Deer
Wednesday, January 07, 2009
CWD to tighten taxidermy rules Hunters need to understand regulations
Monday, January 05, 2009
CWD, GAME FARMS, BAITING, AND POLITICS
Thursday, December 25, 2008 Lions and Prions and Deer Demise
Tuesday, January 06, 2009
CWD Update 93 December 29, 2008
Tuesday, September 09, 2008 CWD MICHIGAN UPDATE September 5, 2008
Monday, August 25, 2008 CWD FIRST DOCUMENTED IN MICHIGAN