Thursday, August 08, 2013

Characterization of the first case of naturally occurring chronic wasting disease in a captive red deer (Cervus elaphus) in North America

AD.12: Characterization of the first case of naturally occurring chronic wasting disease in a captive red deer (Cervus elaphus) in North America


Aaron D.Lehmkuhl.1 Bruce V. Thomsen,1 Katherine I. O'Rourke.3 Aru Balachandran,4 Justin J. Greenlee2 and Mark Hall1


'National Veterinary Services Laboratories; Ames,IA USA; 2National Animal Disease Center; Ames, IA USA; 3Animal Disease Research Unit; Pullman, WA USA; 4National and OIE Reference Laboratory for Scrapie and CWD; Ottawa, ON Canada


Chronic wasting disease (CWD) is a transmissible spongiform encephalopathy (TSE) affecting cervids that is caused by the accumulation of an abnormal prion protein. CWD has been diagnosed in captive and free-ranging elk (Cervus canadensis), mule deer (Odocoileus hemionus), white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) and moose (Alces aIces) in North America. This report describes the identification and characterization of the first case of CWD in a naturally infected, captive red deer in North America.









Tuesday, April 16, 2013


Cervid Industry Unites To Set Direction for CWD Reform and seem to ignore their ignorance and denial in their role in spreading Chronic Wasting Disease





Tuesday, December 18, 2012


A Growing Threat How deer breeding could put public trust wildlife at risk





please see what the U.K. DEFRA recently said ABOUT CWD RISK FACTORS ;



Friday, December 14, 2012


DEFRA U.K. What is the risk of Chronic Wasting Disease CWD being introduced into Great Britain? A Qualitative Risk Assessment October 2012




In the USA, under the Food and Drug Administration’s BSE Feed Regulation (21 CFR 589.2000) most material (exceptions include milk, tallow, and gelatin) from deer and elk is prohibited for use in feed for ruminant animals. With regards to feed for non-ruminant animals, under FDA law, CWD positive deer may not be used for any animal feed or feed ingredients. For elk and deer considered at high risk for CWD, the FDA recommends that these animals do not enter the animal feed system. However, this recommendation is guidance and not a requirement by law.


Animals considered at high risk for CWD include:


1) animals from areas declared to be endemic for CWD and/or to be CWD eradication zones and


2) deer and elk that at some time during the 60-month period prior to slaughter were in a captive herd that contained a CWD-positive animal.


Therefore, in the USA, materials from cervids other than CWD positive animals may be used in animal feed and feed ingredients for non-ruminants.


The amount of animal PAP that is of deer and/or elk origin imported from the USA to GB can not be determined, however, as it is not specified in TRACES. It may constitute a small percentage of the 8412 kilos of non-fish origin processed animal proteins that were imported from US into GB in 2011.


Overall, therefore, it is considered there is a __greater than negligible risk___ that (nonruminant) animal feed and pet food containing deer and/or elk protein is imported into GB.


There is uncertainty associated with this estimate given the lack of data on the amount of deer and/or elk protein possibly being imported in these products.




36% in 2007 (Almberg et al., 2011). In such areas, population declines of deer of up to 30 to 50% have been observed (Almberg et al., 2011). In areas of Colorado, the prevalence can be as high as 30% (EFSA, 2011).


The clinical signs of CWD in affected adults are weight loss and behavioural changes that can span weeks or months (Williams, 2005). In addition, signs might include excessive salivation, behavioural alterations including a fixed stare and changes in interaction with other animals in the herd, and an altered stance (Williams, 2005). These signs are indistinguishable from cervids experimentally infected with bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE).


Given this, if CWD was to be introduced into countries with BSE such as GB, for example, infected deer populations would need to be tested to differentiate if they were infected with CWD or BSE to minimise the risk of BSE entering the human food-chain via affected venison.




The rate of transmission of CWD has been reported to be as high as 30% and can approach 100% among captive animals in endemic areas (Safar et al., 2008).




In summary, in endemic areas, there is a medium probability that the soil and surrounding environment is contaminated with CWD prions and in a bioavailable form. In rural areas where CWD has not been reported and deer are present, there is a greater than negligible risk the soil is contaminated with CWD prion.




In summary, given the volume of tourists, hunters and servicemen moving between GB and North America, the probability of at least one person travelling to/from a CWD affected area and, in doing so, contaminating their clothing, footwear and/or equipment prior to arriving in GB is greater than negligible. For deer hunters, specifically, the risk is likely to be greater given the increased contact with deer and their environment. However, there is significant uncertainty associated with these estimates.




Therefore, it is considered that farmed and park deer may have a higher probability of exposure to CWD transferred to the environment than wild deer given the restricted habitat range and higher frequency of contact with tourists and returning GB residents.



snip... see full text report here ;



Friday, December 14, 2012


DEFRA U.K. What is the risk of Chronic Wasting Disease CWD being introduced into Great Britain? A Qualitative Risk Assessment October 2012




snip...see my full submission to the state of Missouri on CWD here ;



Sunday, June 09, 2013


Missouri House forms 13-member Interim Committee on the Cause and Spread of Chronic Wasting Disease CWD




Thursday, July 11, 2013


The New Hornographers: The Fight Over the Future of Texas Deer, Captive shooting pens, and the CWD TSE prion disease




Tuesday, July 02, 2013


National Rifle Association and the Unified Sportsman of Florida support a Florida ban on the importation of captive deer and cervids into Florida




Monday, June 24, 2013


The Effects of Chronic Wasting Disease on the Pennsylvania Cervid Industry Following its Discovery




Thursday, June 20, 2013


atypical, BSE, CWD, Scrapie, Captive Farmed shooting pens (livestock), Wild Cervids, Rectal Mucosa Biopsy 2012 USAHA Proceedings, and CJD TSE prion Update




Wednesday, May 15, 2013


Intranasal Inoculation of White-Tailed Deer (Odocoileus virginianus) with Lyophilized Chronic Wasting Disease Prion Particulate Complexed to Montmorillonite Clay Research Article




Friday, February 08, 2013


*** Behavior of Prions in the Environment: Implications for Prion Biology




please remember, captive cervids are now considered _livestock_ $$$


Final Rule: Traceability for Livestock Moved Interstate January 11, 2013 Summary of General Requirements by Species Effective Date: March 11, 2013 The Traceability for Livestock Moved Interstate rule establishes minimum national official identification and documentation requirements for the traceability of livestock moving interstate. The species covered in the rule include cattle and bison, sheep and goats, swine, horses and other equines, captive cervids (e.g., deer and elk), and poultry. The covered animals moved interstate, unless otherwise exempt, would have to be officially identified and accompanied by an interstate certificate of veterinary inspection (ICVI) or other movement document. The requirements do not apply to livestock moving:




Friday, December 14, 2012


IOWA Second Deer Positive for CWD at Davis County Hunting Preserve Captive Shooting Pen




Friday, September 21, 2012


Chronic Wasting Disease CWD raises concerns about deer farms in Iowa




Tuesday, September 11, 2012


Agreement Reached with Owner to De-Populate CWD Deer at Davis County Hunting Preserve Iowa




Wednesday, September 05, 2012


Additional Facility in Pottawatamie County Iowa Under Quarantine for CWD after 5 deer test positive




Friday, July 20, 2012


CWD found for first time in Iowa at hunting preserve




Wednesday, July 31, 2013


Iowa Brakke Family Farmed CWD livestock update July 3, 2013




Sunday, July 21, 2013


*** As Chronic Wasting Disease CWD rises in deer herd, what about risk for humans?







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