Sunday, September 01, 2013

hunting over gut piles and CWD TSE prion disease

hunting over gut piles and CWD TSE prion disease, a reminder...just saying


 Interspecies Transmission of Chronic Wasting Disease Wisconsin Species Likely to be Exposed


Background Recent studies indicate that chronic wasting disease (CWD) may be transmitted to deer by direct contact, from fecal or urine contamination, or through environmental contamination associated with carcasses of infected deer. The potential for environmental contamination with CWD provides a potential source for transmission to wildlife that share habitat with white-tailed deer. Carcasses of deer will also be consumed by wildlife, but little is known about the frequency and range of species that eat deer carrion and could be exposed to CWD from an infected carcass. In Wisconsin, the primary carrion consumers will likely include Eastern coyote (Canis latrans), red fox (Vulpes vulpes), common raccoon (Procyon lotor), striped skunk (Mephitis mephitis) and Virginia opossum (Didelphis virginiana). Although these species may consume infected deer tissue, it is unknown whether CWD can successfully cross the species barrier to infect these animals.




see full text with slides, and thanks for your hard work !...tss






Monday, July 13, 2009


Deer Carcass Decomposition and Potential Scavenger Exposure to Chronic Wasting Disease Journal of Wildlife Management 73(5):655-662. 2009 doi: 10.2193/2008-282


Deer Carcass Decomposition and Potential Scavenger Exposure to Chronic Wasting Disease Christopher S. Jennelle1a, Michael D. Samuelb, Cherrie A. Noldenc, and Elizabeth A. Berkleyd


aDepartment of Forest and Wildlife Ecology, University of Wisconsin, 1630 Linden Drive, Madison, WI 53706, USA


bUnited States Geological Survey, Wisconsin Cooperative Wildlife Research Unit, University of Wisconsin, 1630 Linden Drive, Madison, WI 53706, USA


cDepartment of Forest and Wildlife Ecology, University of Wisconsin, 1630 Linden Drive, Madison, WI 53706, USA


dDepartment of Forest and Wildlife Ecology, University of Wisconsin, 1630 Linden Drive, Madison, WI 53706, USA


1E-mail: mhtml:%7B33B38F65-8D2E-434D-8F9B-8BDCD77D3066%7Dmid://00000092/!




Chronic wasting disease (CWD) is a transmissible spongiform encephalopathy afflicting the Cervidae family in North America, causing neurodegeneration and ultimately death. Although there are no reports of natural cross-species transmission of CWD to noncervids, infected deer carcasses pose a potential risk of CWD exposure for other animals. We placed 40 disease-free white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) carcasses and 10 gut piles in the CWD-affected area of Wisconsin (USA) from September to April in 2003 through 2005. We used photos from remotely operated cameras to characterize scavenger visitation and relative activity. To evaluate factors driving the rate of carcass removal (decomposition), we used Kaplan–Meier survival analysis and a generalized linear mixed model. We recorded 14 species of scavenging mammals (6 visiting species) and 14 species of scavenging birds (8 visiting species). Prominent scavengers included American crows (Corvus brachyrhynchos), raccoons (Procyon lotor), and Virginia opossums (Didelphis virginiana). We found no evidence that deer consumed conspecific remains, although they visited gut piles more often than carcasses relative to temporal availability in the environment. Domestic dogs, cats, and cows either scavenged or visited carcass sites, which could lead to human exposure to CWD. Deer carcasses persisted for 18 days to 101 days depending on the season and year, whereas gut piles lasted for 3 days. Habitat did not influence carcass decomposition, but mammalian and avian scavenger activity and higher temperatures were positively associated with faster removal. Infected deer carcasses or gut piles can serve as potential sources of CWD prions to a variety of scavengers. In areas where surveillance for CWD exposure is practical, management agencies should consider strategies for testing primary scavengers of deer carcass material.





Friday, August 8, 2008


PS 76-59: White-tailed deer carcass decomposition and risk of chronic wasting disease exposure to scavenger communities in Wisconsin


Chris S. Jennelle, Michael D. Samuel, Cherrie A. Nolden, and Elizabeth A. Berkley. University of Wisconsin




Chronic wasting disease (CWD) is an infectious transmissible spongiform encephalopathy (TSE) afflicting members of the family Cervidae, and causes neurodegeneration and ultimately death. While there have been no reports of natural cross-species transmission of CWD outside this group, we addressed the role of white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) carcasses as environmental sources of CWD in Wisconsin. Our objectives were to estimate rates of deer carcass and gut pile decomposition in the environment, characterize vertebrate scavenger communities, and quantify the relative activity of scavengers to determine CWD exposure risk. We placed 40 disease-free deer carcasses and nine gut piles in the CWD-affected area of Wisconsin from September to April in 2003 through 2005. We used photos from remotely operated cameras to characterize scavenger communities and relative activity. We used Kaplan-Meier survival analysis and a generalized linear mixed model to quantify the driving factors and rate of carcass removal (decomposition) from the environment.




We recorded 14 species of scavenging mammals (six visiting species), and eight species of scavenging birds (14 visiting species). Prominent scavengers included American crows (Corvus brachyrhynchos), raccoons (Procyon lotor), and Virginia opossums (Didelphis virginiana). We found no evidence that deer directly consumed conspecific remains, although they visited them frequently. Domestic dogs (Canis familiaris), cats (Felis catus), and cows (Bos spp.) either scavenged or visited carcass sites, which could increase exposure risk of CWD to humans and human food supplies. Deer carcasses persisted for a median of 18 to 101 days, while gut piles lasted for a median of three days. Habitat did not influence carcass decomposition, but mammalian and avian scavenger activity and higher temperatures (proxy for microbial and arthropod activity) were associated with greater rates of carcass removal. Infected deer carcasses serve as environmental sources of CWD prions to a wide variety of mammalian and avian scavengers. Such sources of infectious material likely influence the maintenance and spread of CWD (in particular), and should be considered in the dynamics of other disease systems as well. Prudence would dictate the use of preemptive management strategies, and we highlight strategies for carcass disposal to mitigate the influence of carcasses as environmental sources of infectious diseases.


See more of PS 76 - Latebreaking: Disease and Epidemiology See more of Latebreakers


See more of The 93rd ESA Annual Meeting (August 3 -- August 8, 2008)









 Title: Chronic wasting disease in bank voles: characterisation of the shortest incubation time model for prion diseases




item Di Bari, Michele - item Nonno, Romolo - item Castilla, Joaquín - item D'Agostino, Claudia - item Pirisinu, Laura - item Riccardi, Geraldina - item Conte, Michela - item Richt, Juergen item Kunkle, Robert item Langeveld, Jan - item Vaccari, Gabriele - item Agrimi, Umberto -


 Submitted to: PLoS Pathogens Publication Type: Peer Reviewed Journal Publication Acceptance Date: January 14, 2013 Publication Date: March 7, 2013 Repository URL: Citation: Di Bari, M.A., Nonno, R., Castilla, J., D'Agostino, C., Pirisinu, L., Riccardi, G., Conte, M., Richt, J., Kunkle, R., Langeveld, J., Vaccari, G., Agrimi, U. 2013. Chronic wasting disease in bank voles: characterisation of the shortest incubation time model for prion diseases. PLoS Pathogens. 9(3):e1003219.


Interpretive Summary: Chronic wasting disease (CWD) is a prion disease that affects free-ranging and captive cervids and is slowly spreading in certain regions of the United States and Canada. Animal models are of key importance in the study of prion diseases but their development for CWD has long been hampered by its very inefficient transmission to wild-type mice traditionally used in research. Significant progress was made following genetic manipulation of laboratory mice making them transgenic (mice that over-express the cervid prion genes instead of mouse prion genes). Studies reported here show that the bank vole (Myodes glareolus), a wild rodent species that has been demonstrated to be susceptible to many animal and human prion diseases, is also unique in its susceptibility to CWD from elk, mule deer and white-tailed deer. Moreover, experimental studies reported here found passage of CWD to bank voles led to the isolation of a prion strain with peculiar characteristics; most notable are the unprecedented short incubation and survival times, respectively of 25-28 and ~35 days. Development of a rapid animal model for prion diseases that leads to disease in less than one month represents a significant tool for investigating, neurodegenerative diseases (like prion diseases) where no known treatments or cures exist.


Technical Abstract: In order to assess the susceptibility of bank voles to chronic wasting disease (CWD), we inoculated voles carrying isoleucine or methionine at codon 109 (Bv109I and Bv109M, respectively) with CWD isolates from elk, mule deer and white-tailed deer. Efficient transmission rate (100%) was observed with mean survival times ranging from 156 to 281 days post inoculation. Subsequent passages in Bv109I allowed us to isolate from all CWD sources the same vole-adapted CWD strain (Bv**I/ICWD), typified by unprecedented short incubation times of 25-28 days and survival times of ~35 days. Neuropathological and molecular characterisation of Bv**I/ICWD showed that the classical features of mammalian prion diseases were all recapitulated in less than one month after intracerebral inoculation. Bv**I/ICWD was characterised by a mild and discrete distribution of spongiosis and relatively low levels of protease-resistant PrP**Sc (PrP**res) in the same brain regions. Despite the low PrP**res levels and the short time lapse available for its accumulation, end-point titration revealed that brains from terminally-ill voles contained up to 108,4 i.c. ID50 infectious units per gram. Bv**I/ICWD was efficiently replicated by protein misfolding cyclic amplification (PMCA) and the infectivity faithfully generated in vitro, as demonstrated by the preservation of the peculiar Bv**I/ICWD strain features on re-isolation in Bv109I. Overall, we provide evidence that the same CWD strain was isolated in Bv109I from the three-cervid species. Bv**I/ICWD showed unique characteristics of "'virulence"', low PrP**res accumulation and high infectivity, thus providing exceptional opportunities to improve basic knowledge of the relationship between PrP**Sc, neurodegeneration and infectivity.


Project Team Nicholson, Eric Kunkle, Robert Greenlee, Justin Publications Publications Related National Programs Animal Health (103) Last Modified: 09/01/2013




Sunday, July 07, 2013


Could avian scavengers translocate infectious prions to disease-free areas initiating new foci of chronic wasting disease?


Prion. 2013 Jul 3;7(4). [Epub ahead of print]




The results of this study indicate raccoons are susceptible to infection with bovine-passaged TME, but not hamster-adapted DY and HY strains. RacTME and bovTME exhibited similar clinicopathologic and immunohistochemical characteristics, suggesting a commonality in the TME isolates or host response to the agent.




Prion diseases


Although naturally occurring transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (TSEs) have not been reported in the raccoon, reports of successful experimental transmission of similar spongiform diseases, transmissible encephalopathy of mink (TME) and sheep scrapie, have been documented in this species21,49,52,53 by intracerebral (IC) and oral inoculations.21 In the IC-infected route, the raccoons were administered TME and developed a rapidly progressive disease within 190 days, whereas the orally infected raccoon developed neurologic signs after 306 days, which included weakness, behavior change, and incoordination. Scrapie-infected raccoons required a 2-year period to develop the disease when inoculated by the IC route.49,52,53 Microscopically, the lesions were identical in both groups (TME and scrapie) and consisted of widespread vacuolar changes, neuronal degeneration, and astrocytosis in the brain (except in cerebellum). Neuronal vacuolar changes, although described in scrapie and related diseases including naturally occurring TME, were rare.49,52,53




"CWD has been transmitted to cattle after intracerebral inoculation, although the infection rate was low (4 of 13 animals [Hamir et al. 2001]). This finding raised concerns that CWD prions might be transmitted to cattle grazing in contaminated pastures."


 Please see ;


Within 26 months post inoculation, 12 inoculated animals had lost weight, revealed abnormal clinical signs, and were euthanatized. Laboratory tests revealed the presence of a unique pattern of the disease agent in tissues of these animals. These findings demonstrate that when CWD is directly inoculated into the brain of cattle, 86% of inoculated cattle develop clinical signs of the disease.





"although the infection rate was low (4 of 13 animals [Hamir et al. 2001])."


shouldn't this be corrected, 86% is NOT a low rate. ...


kindest regards,


Terry S. Singeltary Sr. P.O. Box 42 Bacliff, Texas USA 77518




----- Original Message -----


From: David Colby




Cc: stanley@XXXXXXXX


Sent: Tuesday, March 01, 2011 8:25 AM


Subject: Re: FW: re-Prions David W. Colby1,* and Stanley B. Prusiner1,2 + Author Affiliations


Dear Terry Singeltary,


Thank you for your correspondence regarding the review article Stanley Prusiner and I recently wrote for Cold Spring Harbor Perspectives. Dr. Prusiner asked that I reply to your message due to his busy schedule. We agree that the transmission of CWD prions to beef livestock would be a troubling development and assessing that risk is important. In our article, we cite a peer-reviewed publication reporting confirmed cases of laboratory transmission based on stringent criteria. The less stringent criteria for transmission described in the abstract you refer to lead to the discrepancy between your numbers and ours and thus the interpretation of the transmission rate. We stand by our assessment of the literature--namely that the transmission rate of CWD to bovines appears relatively low, but we recognize that even a low transmission rate could have important implications for public health and we thank you for bringing attention to this matter.


Warm Regards, David Colby




David Colby, PhDAssistant ProfessorDepartment of Chemical EngineeringUniversity of Delaware














Wednesday, September 08, 2010









DEFRA Department for Environment, Food & Rural Affairs


Area 307, London, SW1P 4PQ Telephone: 0207 904 6000 Direct line: 0207 904 6287 E-mail:




 Mr T S Singeltary P.O. Box 42 Bacliff Texas USA 77518


 21 November 2001


 Dear Mr Singeltary




Thank you for e-mail regarding the hounds survey. I am sorry for the long delay in responding.


As you note, the hound survey remains unpublished. However the Spongiform Encephalopathy Advisory Committee (SEAC), the UK Government's independent Advisory Committee on all aspects related to BSE-like disease, gave the hound study detailed consideration at their meeting in January 1994. As a summary of this meeting published in the BSE inquiry noted, the Committee were clearly concerned about the work that had been carried out, concluding that there had clearly been problems with it, particularly the control on the histology, and that it was more or less inconclusive. However was agreed that there should be a re-evaluation of the pathological material in the study.


Later, at their meeting in June 95, The Committee re-evaluated the hound study to see if any useful results could be gained from it. The Chairman concluded that there were varying opinions within the Committee on further work. It did not suggest any further transmission studies and thought that the lack of clinical data was a major weakness.


Overall, it is clear that SEAC had major concerns about the survey as conducted. As a result it is likely that the authors felt that it would not stand up to r~eer review and hence it was never published. As noted above, and in the detailed minutes of the SEAC meeting in June 95, SEAC considered whether additional work should be performed to examine dogs for evidence of TSE infection. Although the Committee had mixed views about the merits of conducting further work, the Chairman noted that when the Southwood Committee made their recommendation to complete an assessment of possible spongiform disease in dogs, no TSEs had been identified in other species and hence dogs were perceived as a high risk population and worthy of study. However subsequent to the original recommendation, made in 1990, a number of other species had been identified with TSE ( e.g. cats) so a study in hounds was less



As this study remains unpublished, my understanding is that the ownership of the data essentially remains with the original researchers. Thus unfortunately, I am unable to help with your request to supply information on the hound survey directly. My only suggestion is that you contact one of the researchers originally involved in the project, such as Gerald Wells. He can be contacted at the following address.


Dr Gerald Wells, Veterinary Laboratories Agency, New Haw, Addlestone, Surrey, KT 15 3NB, UK


You may also wish to be aware that since November 1994 all suspected cases of spongiform encephalopathy in animals and poultry were made notifiable. Hence since that date there has been a requirement for vets to report any suspect SE in dogs for further investigation. To date there has never been positive identification of a TSE in a dog.


I hope this is helpful


Yours sincerely 4








I am sorry, but I really could have been a co-signatory of Gerald's minute.


I do NOT think that we can justify devoting any resources to this study, especially as larger and more important projects such as the pathogenesis study will be quite demanding.


If there is a POLITICAL need to continue with the examination of hound brains then it should be passed entirely to the VI Service.


J W WILESMITH Epidemiology Unit 18 October 1991


Mr. R Bradley


cc: Mr. G A H Wells




3.3. Mr R J Higgins in conjunction with Mr G A Wells and Mr A C Scott would by the end of the year, indentify the three brains that were from the ''POSITIVE'' end of the lesion spectrum.




TSE in dogs have not been documented simply because OF THE ONLY STUDY, those brain tissue samples were screwed up too. see my investigation of this here, and to follow, later follow up, a letter from defra, AND SEE SUSPICIOUS BRAIN TISSUE SAF's. ...TSS






GAH WELLS (very important statement here...TSS)




AS implied in the Inset 25 we must not _ASSUME_ that transmission of BSE to other species will invariably present pathology typical of a scrapie-like disease.






76 pages on hound study;








OR-09: Canine spongiform encephalopathy—A new form of animal prion disease


Monique David, Mourad Tayebi UT Health; Houston, TX USA


It was also hypothesized that BSE might have originated from an unrecognized sporadic or genetic case of bovine prion disease incorporated into cattle feed or even cattle feed contaminated with prion-infected human remains.1 However, strong support for a genetic origin of BSE has recently been demonstrated in an H-type BSE case exhibiting the novel mutation E211K.2 Furthermore, a specific prion protein strain causing BSE in cattle is believed to be the etiological agent responsible for the novel human prion disease, variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (vCJD).3 Cases of vCJD have been identified in a number countries, including France, Italy, Ireland, the Netherlands, Canada, Japan, US and the UK with the largest number of cases. Naturally occurring feline spongiform encephalopathy of domestic cats4 and spongiform encephalopathies of a number of zoo animals so-called exotic ungulate encephalopathies5,6 are also recognized as animal prion diseases, and are thought to have resulted from the same BSE-contaminated food given to cattle and humans, although and at least in some of these cases, a sporadic and/or genetic etiology cannot be ruled out. The canine species seems to display resistance to prion disease and no single case has so far been reported.7,8 Here, we describe a case of a 9 week old male Rottweiler puppy presenting neurological deficits; and histological examination revealed spongiform vacuolation characteristic of those associated with prion diseases.9 Initial biochemical studies using anti-PrP antibodies revealed the presence of partially proteinase K-resistant fragment by western blotting. Furthermore, immunohistochemistry revealed spongiform degeneration consistent with those found in prion disease and displayed staining for PrPSc in the cortex.


Of major importance, PrPSc isolated from the Rottweiler was able to cross the species barrier transmitted to hamster in vitro with PMCA and in vivo (one hamster out of 5). Futhermore, second in vivo passage to hamsters, led to 100% attack rate (n = 4) and animals displayed untypical lesional profile and shorter incubation period.


In this study, we show that the canine species might be sensitive to prion disease and that PrPSc isolated from a dog can be transmitted to dogs and hamsters in vitro using PMCA and in vivo to hamsters.


If our preliminary results are confirmed, the proposal will have a major impact on animal and public health and would certainly lead to implementing new control measures for ‘canine spongiform encephalopathy’ (CSE).


References 1. Colchester AC, Colchester NT. The origin of bovine spongiform encephalopathy: the human prion disease hypothesis. Lancet 2005; 366:856-61; PMID:16139661; http://


2. Richt JA, Hall SM. BSE case associated with prion protein gene mutation. PLoS Pathog 2008; 4:e1000156; PMID:18787697; ppat.1000156.


3. Collinge J. Human prion diseases and bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE). Hum Mol Genet 1997; 6:1699-705; PMID:9300662; hmg/6.10.1699.


4. Wyatt JM, Pearson GR, Smerdon TN, Gruffydd-Jones TJ, Wells GA, Wilesmith JW. Naturally occurring scrapie-like spongiform encephalopathy in five domestic cats. Vet Rec 1991; 129:233-6; PMID:1957458;


5. Jeffrey M, Wells GA. Spongiform encephalopathy in a nyala (Tragelaphus angasi). Vet Pathol 1988; 25:398-9; PMID:3232315;


6. Kirkwood JK, Wells GA, Wilesmith JW, Cunningham AA, Jackson SI. Spongiform encephalopathy in an arabian oryx (Oryx leucoryx) and a greater kudu (Tragelaphus strepsiceros). Vet Rec 1990; 127:418-20; PMID:2264242.


7. Bartz JC, McKenzie DI, Bessen RA, Marsh RF, Aiken JM. Transmissible mink encephalopathy species barrier effect between ferret and mink: PrP gene and protein analysis. J Gen Virol 1994; 75:2947-53; PMID:7964604; 75-11-2947.


8. Lysek DA, Schorn C, Nivon LG, Esteve-Moya V, Christen B, Calzolai L, et al. Prion protein NMR structures of cats, dogs, pigs, and sheep. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 2005; 102:640-5; PMID:15647367;


9. Budka H. Neuropathology of prion diseases. Br Med Bull 2003; 66:121-30; PMID:14522854;




Monday, March 26, 2012






AD.63: Susceptibility of domestic cats to chronic wasting disease


Amy V.Nalls,1 Candace Mathiason,1 Davis Seelig,2 Susan Kraft,1 Kevin Carnes,1 Kelly Anderson,1 Jeanette Hayes-Klug1 and Edward A. Hoover1


1Colorado State University; Fort Collins, CO USA; 2University of Minnesota; Saint Paul, MN USA


Domestic and nondomestic cats have been shown to be susceptible to feline spongiform encephalopathy (FSE), almost certainly caused by consumption of bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE)-contaminated meat. Because domestic and free-ranging nondomestic felids scavenge cervid carcasses, including those in areas affected by chronic wasting disease (CWD), we evaluated the susceptibility of the domestic cat (Felis catus) to CWD infection experimentally. Cohorts of 5 cats each were inoculated either intracerebrally (IC) or orally (PO) with CWD-infected deer brain. At 40 and 42 mo post-inoculation, two IC-inoculated cats developed signs consistent with prion disease, including a stilted gait, weight loss, anorexia, polydipsia, patterned motor behaviors, head and tail tremors, and ataxia, and progressed to terminal disease within 5 mo. Brains from these two cats were pooled and inoculated into cohorts of cats by IC, PO, and intraperitoneal and subcutaneous (IP/SC) routes. Upon subpassage, feline-adapted CWD (FelCWD) was transmitted to all IC-inoculated cats with a decreased incubation period of 23 to 27 mo. FelCWD was detected in the brains of all the symptomatic cats by western blotting and immunohistochemistry and abnormalities were seen in magnetic resonance imaging, including multifocal T2 fluid attenuated inversion recovery (FLAIR) signal hyper-intensities, ventricular size increases, prominent sulci, and white matter tract cavitation. Currently, 3 of 4 IP/SQ and 2 of 4 PO inoculared cats have developed abnormal behavior patterns consistent with the early stage of feline CWD. These results demonstrate that CWD can be transmitted and adapted to the domestic cat, thus raising the issue of potential cervid-to- feline transmission in nature.





PO-081: Chronic wasting disease in the cat— Similarities to feline spongiform encephalopathy (FSE)







PO-081: Chronic wasting disease in the cat— Similarities to feline spongiform encephalopathy (FSE)





Thursday, May 31, 2012


CHRONIC WASTING DISEASE CWD PRION2012 Aerosol, Inhalation transmission, Scrapie, cats, species barrier, burial, and more




Monday, August 8, 2011


Susceptibility of Domestic Cats to CWD Infection




Friday, November 09, 2012


*** Chronic Wasting Disease CWD in cervidae and transmission to other species




Sunday, November 11, 2012


*** Susceptibilities of Nonhuman Primates to Chronic Wasting Disease November 2012




Friday, December 14, 2012


Susceptibility Chronic Wasting Disease (CWD) in wild cervids to Humans 2005 - December 14, 2012




Sunday, August 25, 2013


Prion2013 Chronic Wasting Disease CWD risk factors, humans, domestic cats, blood, and mother to offspring transmission





Sunday, September 1, 2013


Evaluation of the Zoonotic Potential of Transmissible Mink Encephalopathy


We previously described the biochemical similarities between PrPres derived from L-BSE infected macaque and cortical MM2 sporadic CJD: those observations suggest a link between these two uncommon prion phenotypes in a primate model (it is to note that such a link has not been observed in other models less relevant from the human situation as hamsters or transgenic mice overexpressing ovine PrP [28]). We speculate that a group of related animal prion strains (L-BSE, c-BSE and TME) would have a zoonotic potential and lead to prion diseases in humans with a type 2 PrPres molecular signature (and more specifically type 2B for vCJD)




Together with previous experiments performed in ovinized and bovinized transgenic mice and hamsters [8,9] indicating similarities between TME and L-BSE, the data support the hypothesis that L-BSE could be the origin of the TME outbreaks in North America and Europe during the mid-1900s.







kind regards, terry


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