Thursday, July 10, 2014

supercalifragilisticexpialidocious or superovulationcwdtsepriondocious ?

supercalifragilisticexpialidocious or superovulationcwdtsepriondocious ?
Superovulation and embryo recovery in Red deer (Cervus elaphus ) hinds.
Fennessy PF1, Fisher MW, Shackell GH, Mackintosh CG. Author information 1Invermay Agricultural Centre Private Bag Mosgiel New Zealand.
In two experiments, Red deer hinds were synchronized with intravaginal progesterone and were given 4 d of treatment (3 d before progesterone withdrawal and 1 d after) with an ovine follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) preparation which had a claimed low level of luteinizing hormone (LH) contamination. In Experiment 1, 12 hinds received one of four FSH levels by osmotic minipump. Hinds were run with fertile stags, and laparotomy and embryo recovery were performed 9 d after progesterone withdrawal. The ovulation rates (mean of three hinds per dosage) were 1.0, 2.0, 4.3 and 15.3 (number of corpora lutea counted) for estimated daily dosages rates of 0.036, 0.071, 0.11 and 0.14 units FSH preparation/day; the response to the increasing dosage was exponential (P<0 .01="" 0.14="" 11.0="" 18="" 1="" 2="" 3.0="" 34="" 38="" 47="" 63="" 72="" a="" all="" an="" and="" be="" being="" better="" both="" breeding="" by="" considered="" day="" deer="" difference="" div="" eight="" either="" estrus="" experiment="" fertilized="" flushing="" for="" fsh="" function="" higher="" hinds="" improved="" in="" injection.="" intramuscular="" later="" mean="" minipump="" of="" on="" only="" or="" ova="" overall="" ovulation="" p="" performed="" perhaps="" preparation="" previously="" profile="" progesterone="" quality.="" rate="" rates="" received="" recorded="" recovered="" recovery="" red="" respectively="" results="" season="" significant="" significantly="" synchronization.="" than="" that="" the="" those="" to="" transferable="" units="" used="" was="" were="" with="">
>> ovine follicle stimulating hormone (FSH)
F8174 Sigma Follicle Stimulating Hormone from sheep pituitary Synonym: FSH
Louping-ill vaccine sheep scrapie blunder
Vaccine for issue had to be free from detectable, living virus and capable of protecting sheep against a test dose of virus applied subcutaneously. The 1935 vaccine conformed to these standards and was issued for inoculation in March as three separate batches labelled 1, 2, and 3. The tissues of 140 sheep were employed to make batch 1 of which 22,270 doses were used; 114 to make batch 2 of which 18,000 doses were used and 44 to make batch 3 of which 4,360 doses were used. All the sheep tissues incorporated in the vaccine were obtained from yearling sheep. During 1935 and 1936 the vaccine proved highly efficient in the prevention of loup-ill and no user observed an ill-effect in the inoculated animals. In September, 1937, two and a half years after vaccinating the sheep, two owners complained that scrapie, a disease which had not before been observed in the Blackface breed, was appearing in their stock of Blackface sheep and further that it was confined to animals vaccinated with louping-ill vaccine in 1935. At that stage it was difficult to conceive that the occurrence could be associated with the injection of the vaccine but in view of the implications, I visited most of the farms on which sheep had been vaccinated in 1935. It was at this point that the investigation reached its dramatic phase; I shall not forget the profound effect on my emotions when I visited these farms and was warmly welcomed because of the great benefits resulting from the application of louping-ill vaccine, wheras the chief purpose of my visit was to determine if scrapie was appearing in the inoculated sheep. The enquiry made the position clear. Scrapie was developing in the sheep vaccinated in 1935 and it was only in a few instances that the owner was associating the occurrence with louping-ill vaccination. The disease was affecting all breeds and it was confined to the animals vaccinated with batch 2. This was clearly demonstrated on a number of farms on which batch 1 had been used to inoculate the hoggs in 1935 and batch 2 to inoculate the ewes. None of the hoggs, which at this time were three- year-old ewes. At this time it was difficult to forecast whether all of the 18,000 sheep which had received batch 2 vaccine would develop scrapie. It was fortunate, however, that the majority of the sheep vaccinated with batch 2 were ewes and therfore all that were four years old and upwards at the time of vaccination had already been disposed of and there only remained the ewes which had been two to three years old at the time of vaccination, consequently no accurate assessment of the incidence of scrapie could be made. On a few farms, however, where vaccination was confined to hoggs, the incidence ranged from 1 percent, to 35 percent, with an average of about 5 percent. Since batch 2 vaccine had been incriminated as a probable source of scrapie infection, an attempt was made to trace the origin of the 112 sheep whose tissues had been included in the vaccine. It was found that they had been supplied by three owners and that all were of the Blackface or Greyface breed with the exception of eight which were Cheviot lambs born in 1935 from ewes which had been in contact with scrapie infection. Some of these contact ewes developed scrapie in 1936-37 and three surviving fellow lambs to the eight included in the batch 2 vaccine of 1935 developed scrapie, one in September, 1936, one in February, 1937, and one in November, 1937. There was, therefore, strong presumptive evidence that the eight Cheviot lambs included in the vaccine althought apparently healthy were, in fact, in the incubative stage of a scrapie infection and that in their tissues there was an infective agent which had contaminated the batch 2 vaccine, rendering it liable to set up scrapie. If that assumption was correct then the evidence indicated that:-
(1) the infective agent of scrapie was present in the brain, spinal cord and or spleen of infected sheep: (2) it could withstand a concentration of formalin of 0-35 percent, which inactivated the virus of louping-ill: (3) it could be transmitted by subcutaneous inoculation; (4) it had an incubative period of two years and longer.
see part of old report I received;
see vaccines;
(It was noted with concern that hormone extracts could be manufactured by a veterinary surgeon for administration to animals under his care without any Medicines Act Control.)
This was used to help cows super ovulate.
*** This tissue was considered to be of greatest risk of containing BSE and consequently transmitting the disease. ***
Considered to be of great risk.
I was quite prepared to believe in unofficial pituitary hormones, also in the 1970's, whether as described by Dr. Little, or in other circumstances, for animal use.
The fact that there were jars of pituitaries (or extract) around on shelves is attested by the still potent 1943 pituitaries, described in Stockell Hartree et al. (J/RF/17/291) which had come from the lab. at Mill Hill. Having taken the trouble to collect them, they were not lightly thrown out...
B.S.E. and Veterinary Medicines
Thank you very much indeed for your letter of the 26th of January outlining to me the various steps that are proposing to take in order to reduce the risk from B.S.E. in veterinary medicines. It is, as you say, and extremely difficult problem. ....
Draft cover letter to product licence holders (considered by Human and Vet Medicines including deer)
7. Any Other Business
8 June 1988 Internal CVL meeting to discuss the implications of BSE to Biologicals Products containing bovine extracted material (Annex 6). (YB 88/06.08/11.1-11.2) Following a detailed review of situation the following recommendations were made:
1. Specific concern over use of pituitary gland products by veterinary surgeons and companies. Paper to be produced for Tolworth (Veterinary Medicines Division).
2. Urgent review of all products both immunological and pharmaceutical for possible inclusion of ingredients of bovine origin.
3. Draft guidelines to be presented in full to the National Office of Animal Health (NOAH), the trade body representing the Veterinary Medicines part of the pharmaceutical industry, at next meeting on 11 July 1988
2. We have identified one problem over where we are unable to act and this is the use of gonadotrophins in embryo transfer work. Some veterinary surgeons are quite legally using this exemption from the Medicines Act contained in Section 9(2) to prepare gonadotrophins from pituitary glands from various species, including cattle. These hormones are used to stimulate superovulation in donor cows.
3.2 Minute 5.3 - 5.4 Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy
It was reported that some replies had been received from Companies using pituitary glands in their products. Copies of the BSE document had also been sent to DHSS and NIBSC.
and then another 3 + pages of blank space. ...TSS
There are three areas of particular concern, vaccines (including emergency vaccines), pharmaceuticals which are covered by MA licences and unlicenses hormonal products produced under exemptions claimed under (Section 9(2) Medicines Act).
1) Vaccines
another 6 pages of blank space. ...TSS
Medicines Act - Veterinary Products Committee
Subject: BSE--U.S. 50 STATE CONFERENCE CALL Jan. 9, 2001 Date: Tue, 9 Jan 2001 16:49:00 -0800 From: "Terry S. Singeltary Sr." Reply-To: Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy To:
[host Richard Barns] and now a question from Terry S. Singeltary of CJD Watch.
[TSS] yes, thank you, U.S. cattle, what kind of guarantee can you give for serum or tissue donor herds?
[no answer, you could hear in the back ground, mumbling and 'we can't. have him ask the question again.]
[host Richard] could you repeat the question?
[TSS] U.S. cattle, what kind of guarantee can you give for serum or tissue donor herds?
[not sure whom ask this] what group are you with?
[TSS] CJD Watch, my Mom died from hvCJD and we are tracking CJD world-wide.
[not sure who is speaking] could you please disconnect Mr. Singeltary
[TSS] you are not going to answer my question?
[not sure whom speaking] NO
from this point, i was still connected, got to listen and tape the whole conference. at one point someone came on, a woman, and ask again;
[unknown woman] what group are you with?
[TSS] CJD Watch and my Mom died from hvCJD we are trying to tract down CJD and other human TSE's world wide. i was invited to sit in on this from someone inside the USDA/APHIS and that is why i am here. do you intend on banning me from this conference now?
at this point the conference was turned back up, and i got to finish listening. They never answered or even addressed my one question, or even addressed the issue. BUT, i will try and give you a run-down for now, of the conference.
snip...full text ;
PO-039: A comparison of scrapie and chronic wasting disease in white-tailed deer
Justin Greenlee, Jodi Smith, Eric Nicholson US Dept. Agriculture; Agricultural Research Service, National Animal Disease Center; Ames, IA USA
The results of this study suggest that there are many similarities in the manifestation of CWD and scrapie in WTD after IC inoculation including early and widespread presence of PrPSc in lymphoid tissues, clinical signs of depression and weight loss progressing to wasting, and an incubation time of 21-23 months. Moreover, western blots (WB) done on brain material from the obex region have a molecular profile similar to CWD and distinct from tissues of the cerebrum or the scrapie inoculum. However, results of microscopic and IHC examination indicate that there are differences between the lesions expected in CWD and those that occur in deer with scrapie: amyloid plaques were not noted in any sections of brain examined from these deer and the pattern of immunoreactivity by IHC was diffuse rather than plaque-like.
*** After a natural route of exposure, 100% of WTD were susceptible to scrapie.
Deer developed clinical signs of wasting and mental depression and were necropsied from 28 to 33 months PI. Tissues from these deer were positive for PrPSc by IHC and WB. Similar to IC inoculated deer, samples from these deer exhibited two different molecular profiles: samples from obex resembled CWD whereas those from cerebrum were similar to the original scrapie inoculum. On further examination by WB using a panel of antibodies, the tissues from deer with scrapie exhibit properties differing from tissues either from sheep with scrapie or WTD with CWD. Samples from WTD with CWD or sheep with scrapie are strongly immunoreactive when probed with mAb P4, however, samples from WTD with scrapie are only weakly immunoreactive. In contrast, when probed with mAb’s 6H4 or SAF 84, samples from sheep with scrapie and WTD with CWD are weakly immunoreactive and samples from WTD with scrapie are strongly positive. This work demonstrates that WTD are highly susceptible to sheep scrapie, but on first passage, scrapie in WTD is differentiable from CWD.
*** After a natural route of exposure, 100% of white-tailed deer were susceptible to scrapie.
kind regards, terry


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