Tuesday, February 23, 2016

ARKANSAS Detects First Chronic Wasting Disease CWD in a wild elk

News Details All News Items


AGFC commission meeting Date 02/23/2016 Description You are hereby notified that Commissioners of the Arkansas Game and Fish Commission will meet on the following dates and times to consider any business that may be brought before the Commission. Unless otherwise stated, meetings will be held at the AGFC offices, 2 Natural Resources Drive in Little Rock.


Tuesday, Feb. 23 5:30 p.m. Meeting by conference call to discuss confirmation of chronic wasting disease in a wild Arkansas elk.



Chronic Wasting Disease Found in Arkansas


An elk harvested near Pruitt on the Buffalo National River during the October 2015 hunting season tested positive for chronic wasting disease.


This is the first time an animal in Arkansas has tested positive for the disease, which is fatal to elk and white-tailed deer. According to the AGFC's CWD response plan, created in 2006, samples from elk and deer in the area will be taken to determine the prevalence of the disease and a future course of action.


A multi-county CWD management zone will be established, and public meetings in the area will be scheduled to discuss plans and answer questions.


Biologists don’t know how the disease reached northern Arkansas. The local herd began with 112 elk from Colorado and Nebraska, relocated between 1981-85.


“(CWD) would have raised its ugly head a lot sooner than now,” said Don White, a wildlife ecologist at the University of Arkansas Agriculture Experiment Station in Monticello. “It's extremely unlikely that it came from those 112 elk.”


More than 200 elk harvested in Arkansas since 1997 have been tested for CWD. The AGFC also routinely gathers samples from white-tailed deer across the state to test for the disease.



Arkansas Game and Fish Commission Chronic Wasting Disease Response Plan


??? One of the subjects confessed to taking a fourth deer in Texas, which was wasted and dumped in Arkansas. ???


Wrong State of Mind


A Bowie County game warden received a call from Arkansas Game and Fish officers in reference to a truck they had stopped that was traveling east on Interstate 30 from Texas. The vehicle contained 10 whitetail deer, a bobcat and a turkey breast that had all been harvested in Central Texas. It is illegal to transport a deer with bones from a chronic wasting disease state into the state of Arkansas. Since the wildlife officers in Arkansas were not entirely familiar with Texas laws, they requested the Bowie County warden to inspect the subject’s game for any Texas violations. The warden inspected the deer at the Arkansas Game and Fish district office and wrote several citations for tagging proof-of-sex violations. The state of Arkansas filed several cases for transporting deer with bone still attached, seized all of the animals and parts for their violations, and tested the deer for chronic wasting disease.


Don’t Mess With Texas... or Arkansas


A Gregg County game warden responded to a Longview Animal Control call regarding a decaying doe hanging in a resident’s tree. When the warden located the deer, he also discovered an additional untagged doe behind the property and an untagged nine-point buck. Two of the four individuals interviewed claimed they harvested the two deer in Arkansas. One of the subjects confessed to taking a fourth deer in Texas, which was wasted and dumped in Arkansas. When questioned about the discrepancy between their harvest dates versus the date printed on their Arkansas hunting licenses, two of the subjects acknowledged hunting without a license. The warden then contacted Arkansas Game and Fish Commission wildlife officers who advised that they were pursuing more than $2,500 in charges. They also said that two of the men face one year suspensions, while another would receive a lifetime hunting license suspension in Arkansas. Civil restitution and multiple charges were filed, including no hunting license; hunting during closed season; failure to keep game in edible condition; untagged deer; and no harvest log. Investigation is ongoing and cases pending.



Cervid Carcass Importation Restrictions In 2013, the AGFC adopted regulations to prevent CWD from spreading into the state through mishandled cervid carcasses. Cervids include any member of the Cervidae family, including white-tailed deer, elk, moose, red deer, sika deer, fallow deer, mule deer and caribou.


According to Code 05.26 of the Arkansas Game and Fish Commission Code Book, it is unlawful to import, transport or possess any portion of a cervid carcass originating from any area outside the boundaries of Arkansas, with the following exceptions:


Meat that has been completely deboned. Antlers, antlers attached to cleaned skull plates or cleaned skulls where no tissue is attached to the skull. Cleaned teeth. Finished taxidermy and antler products. Hides and tanned products. Other portions of deer originating from the land between the Mississippi River levees in Tennessee and Mississippi.


Deer or elk harvested in commercial wildlife hunting resorts in Arkansas may be transported or possessed only after a CWD sample is collected.





I knew this was coming. I had sent out a warning to Arkansas on July 11, 2015. see;


From: Terry S. Singeltary Sr.


Sent: Saturday, July 11, 2015 5:26 PM


To: askAGFC@agfc.state.ar.us Cc: nledbetter@agfc.state.ar.us ; kastephens@agfc.state.ar.us ; srwilson@agfc.state.ar.us ; jfwilliams@agfc.state.ar.us




what you don’t know, and what they will not tell you about CWD...it’s not pretty...terry


Longitudinal Detection of Prion Shedding in Saliva and Urine by CWD-Infected Deer by RT-QuIC


Davin M. Henderson1, Nathaniel D. Denkers1, Clare E. Hoover1, Nina Garbino1, Candace K. Mathiason1 and Edward A. Hoover1# + Author Affiliations


1Prion Research Center, Department of Microbiology, Immunology, and Pathology, College of Veterinary Medicine and Biomedical Sciences, Colorado State University, Fort Collins, CO 80523 ABSTRACT Chronic Wasting Disease (CWD) is an emergent, rapidly spreading prion disease of cervids. Shedding of infectious prions in saliva and urine is thought to be an important factor in CWD transmission. To help elucidate this issue, we applied an in vitro amplification assay to determine the onset, duration, and magnitude of prion shedding in longitudinally collected saliva and urine samples from CWD-exposed white-tailed deer. We detected prion shedding as early as 3 months after CWD exposure and sustained shedding throughout the disease course. We estimated that a 50% lethal dose (LD50) for cervidized transgenic mice would be contained in 1 ml of infected deer saliva or 10 ml or urine. Given the average course of infection and daily production of these body fluids, an infected deer would shed thousands of prion infectious dosesover the course of CWD infection. The direct and indirect environmental impact of this magnitude of prion shedding for cervid and non-cervid species is surely significant.


Importance: Chronic wasting disease (CWD) is an emerging and uniformly fatal prion disease affecting free ranging deer and elk and now recognized in 22 United States and 2 C anadian Provinces. It is unique among prion diseases in that it is transmitted naturally though wild populations. A major hypothesis for CWD's florid spread is that prions are shed in excreta and transmitted via direct or indirect environmental contact. Here we use a rapid in vitro assay to show that infectious doses of CWD prions are in fact shed throughout the multi-year disease course in deer. This finding is an important advance in assessing the risks posed by shed CWD prions to animals as well as humans.




↵#To whom correspondence should be addressed: Edward A. Hoover, Prion Research Center, Department of Microbiology, Immunology and Pathology, Colorado State University, Fort Collins, Colorado, US Email: edward.hoover@colostate.edu



cwd environmental load factor in the land and surrounding plants and objects.


transportation of cervids and HUMANS from cwd zone should be regarded as a great risk factor, and environmental contamination.




Using in vitro prion replication for high sensitive detection of prions and prionlike proteins and for understanding mechanisms of transmission.


Claudio Soto


Mitchell Center for Alzheimer's diseases and related Brain disorders, Department of Neurology, University of Texas Medical School at Houston.




***Recently, we have been using PMCA to study the role of environmental prion contamination on the horizontal spreading of TSEs. These experiments have focused on the study of the interaction of prions with plants and environmentally relevant surfaces. Our results show that plants (both leaves and roots) bind tightly to prions present in brain extracts and excreta (urine and feces) and retain even small quantities of PrPSc for long periods of time. Strikingly, ingestion of prioncontaminated leaves and roots produced disease with a 100% attack rate and an incubation period not substantially longer than feeding animals directly with scrapie brain homogenate. Furthermore, plants can uptake prions from contaminated soil and transport them to different parts of the plant tissue (stem and leaves). Similarly, prions bind tightly to a variety of environmentallyrelevant surfaces, including stones, wood, metals, plastic, glass, cement, etc. Prion contaminated surfaces efficiently transmit prion disease when these materials were directly injected into the brain of animals and strikingly when the contaminated surfaces were just placed in the animal cage. These findings demonstrate that environmental materials can efficiently bind infectious prions and act as carriers of infectivity, suggesting that they may play an important role in the horizontal transmission of the disease.


Since its invention 13 years ago, PMCA has helped to answer fundamental questions of prion propagation and has broad applications in research areas including the food industry, blood bank safety and human and veterinary disease diagnosis.



Wednesday, June 10, 2015


Zoonotic Potential of CWD Prions









Zoonotic Potential of CWD Prions


Liuting Qing1, Ignazio Cali1,2, Jue Yuan1, Shenghai Huang3, Diane Kofskey1, Pierluigi Gambetti1, Wenquan Zou1, Qingzhong Kong1 1Case Western Reserve University, Cleveland, Ohio, USA, 2Second University of Naples, Naples, Italy, 3Encore Health Resources, Houston, Texas, USA


Chronic wasting disease (CWD) is a widespread and expanding prion disease in free-ranging and captive cervid species in North America. The zoonotic potential of CWD prions is a serious public health concern. Current literature generated with in vitro methods and in vivo animal models (transgenic mice, macaques and squirrel monkeys) reports conflicting results. The susceptibility of human CNS and peripheral organs to CWD prions remains largely unresolved. In our earlier bioassay experiments using several humanized transgenic mouse lines, we detected protease-resistant PrPSc in the spleen of two out of 140 mice that were intracerebrally inoculated with natural CWD isolates, but PrPSc was not detected in the brain of the same mice. Secondary passages with such PrPSc-positive CWD-inoculated humanized mouse spleen tissues led to efficient prion transmission with clear clinical and pathological signs in both humanized and cervidized transgenic mice. Furthermore, a recent bioassay with natural CWD isolates in a new humanized transgenic mouse line led to clinical prion infection in 2 out of 20 mice. ***These results indicate that the CWD prion has the potential to infect human CNS and peripheral lymphoid tissues and that there might be asymptomatic human carriers of CWD infection.




***These results indicate that the CWD prion has the potential to infect human CNS and peripheral lymphoid tissues and that there might be asymptomatic human carriers of CWD infection.***




P.105: RT-QuIC models trans-species prion transmission


Kristen Davenport, Davin Henderson, Candace Mathiason, and Edward Hoover Prion Research Center; Colorado State University; Fort Collins, CO USA


The propensity for trans-species prion transmission is related to the structural characteristics of the enciphering and heterologous PrP, but the exact mechanism remains mostly mysterious. Studies of the effects of primary or tertiary prion protein structures on trans-species prion transmission have relied primarily upon animal bioassays, making the influence of prion protein structure vs. host co-factors (e.g. cellular constituents, trafficking, and innate immune interactions) difficult to dissect. As an alternative strategy, we used real-time quakinginduced conversion (RT-QuIC) to investigate trans-species prion conversion.


To assess trans-species conversion in the RT-QuIC system, we compared chronic wasting disease (CWD) and bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) prions, as well as feline CWD (fCWD) and feline spongiform encephalopathy (FSE). Each prion was seeded into each host recombinant PrP (full-length rPrP of white-tailed deer, bovine or feline). We demonstrated that fCWD is a more efficient seed for feline rPrP than for white-tailed deer rPrP, which suggests adaptation to the new host.


Conversely, FSE maintained sufficient BSE characteristics to more efficiently convert bovine rPrP than feline rPrP. Additionally, human rPrP was competent for conversion by CWD and fCWD. ***This insinuates that, at the level of protein:protein interactions, the barrier preventing transmission of CWD to humans is less robust than previously estimated.




***This insinuates that, at the level of protein:protein interactions, the barrier preventing transmission of CWD to humans is less robust than previously estimated.***




O.05: Transmission of prions to primates after extended silent incubation periods: Implications for BSE and scrapie risk assessment in human populations


Emmanuel Comoy, Jacqueline Mikol, Val erie Durand, Sophie Luccantoni, Evelyne Correia, Nathalie Lescoutra, Capucine Dehen, and Jean-Philippe Deslys Atomic Energy Commission; Fontenay-aux-Roses, France


Prion diseases (PD) are the unique neurodegenerative proteinopathies reputed to be transmissible under field conditions since decades. The transmission of Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy (BSE) to humans evidenced that an animal PD might be zoonotic under appropriate conditions. Contrarily, in the absence of obvious (epidemiological or experimental) elements supporting a transmission or genetic predispositions, PD, like the other proteinopathies, are reputed to occur spontaneously (atpical animal prion strains, sporadic CJD summing 80% of human prion cases). Non-human primate models provided the first evidences supporting the transmissibiity of human prion strains and the zoonotic potential of BSE. Among them, cynomolgus macaques brought major information for BSE risk assessment for human health (Chen, 2014), according to their phylogenetic proximity to humans and extended lifetime. We used this model to assess the zoonotic potential of other animal PD from bovine, ovine and cervid origins even after very long silent incubation periods. *** We recently observed the direct transmission of a natural classical scrapie isolate to macaque after a 10-year silent incubation period, ***with features similar to some reported for human cases of sporadic CJD, albeit requiring fourfold longe incubation than BSE. Scrapie, as recently evoked in humanized mice (Cassard, 2014), ***is the third potentially zoonotic PD (with BSE and L-type BSE), ***thus questioning the origin of human sporadic cases. We will present an updated panorama of our different transmission studies and discuss the implications of such extended incubation periods on risk assessment of animal PD for human health.




***thus questioning the origin of human sporadic cases...TSS





Friday, January 30, 2015


*** Scrapie: a particularly persistent pathogen ***



Tuesday, December 16, 2014


*** Evidence for zoonotic potential of ovine scrapie prions


Hervé Cassard,1, n1 Juan-Maria Torres,2, n1 Caroline Lacroux,1, Jean-Yves Douet,1, Sylvie L. Benestad,3, Frédéric Lantier,4, Séverine Lugan,1, Isabelle Lantier,4, Pierrette Costes,1, Naima Aron,1, Fabienne Reine,5, Laetitia Herzog,5, Juan-Carlos Espinosa,2, Vincent Beringue5, & Olivier Andréoletti1, Affiliations Contributions Corresponding author Journal name: Nature Communications Volume: 5, Article number: 5821 DOI: doi:10.1038/ncomms6821 Received 07 August 2014 Accepted 10 November 2014 Published 16 December 2014 Article tools Citation Reprints Rights & permissions Article metrics




Although Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy (BSE) is the cause of variant Creutzfeldt Jakob disease (vCJD) in humans, the zoonotic potential of scrapie prions remains unknown. Mice genetically engineered to overexpress the human ​prion protein (tgHu) have emerged as highly relevant models for gauging the capacity of prions to transmit to humans. These models can propagate human prions without any apparent transmission barrier and have been used used to confirm the zoonotic ability of BSE. Here we show that a panel of sheep scrapie prions transmit to several tgHu mice models with an efficiency comparable to that of cattle BSE. ***The serial transmission of different scrapie isolates in these mice led to the propagation of prions that are phenotypically identical to those causing sporadic CJD (sCJD) in humans. ***These results demonstrate that scrapie prions have a zoonotic potential and raise new questions about the possible link between animal and human prions.


Subject terms: Biological sciences• Medical research At a glance



see more here ;



Friday, December 14, 2012


DEFRA U.K. What is the risk of Chronic Wasting Disease CWD being introduced into Great Britain? A Qualitative Risk Assessment October 2012




In the USA, under the Food and Drug Administration’s BSE Feed Regulation (21 CFR 589.2000) most material (exceptions include milk, tallow, and gelatin) from deer and elk is prohibited for use in feed for ruminant animals. With regards to feed for non-ruminant animals, under FDA law, CWD positive deer may not be used for any animal feed or feed ingredients. For elk and deer considered at high risk for CWD, the FDA recommends that these animals do not enter the animal feed system. However, this recommendation is guidance and not a requirement by law.


Animals considered at high risk for CWD include:


1) animals from areas declared to be endemic for CWD and/or to be CWD eradication zones and


2) deer and elk that at some time during the 60-month period prior to slaughter were in a captive herd that contained a CWD-positive animal.


Therefore, in the USA, materials from cervids other than CWD positive animals may be used in animal feed and feed ingredients for non-ruminants.


The amount of animal PAP that is of deer and/or elk origin imported from the USA to GB can not be determined, however, as it is not specified in TRACES. It may constitute a small percentage of the 8412 kilos of non-fish origin processed animal proteins that were imported from US into GB in 2011.


Overall, therefore, it is considered there is a __greater than negligible risk___ that (nonruminant) animal feed and pet food containing deer and/or elk protein is imported into GB.


There is uncertainty associated with this estimate given the lack of data on the amount of deer and/or elk protein possibly being imported in these products.




36% in 2007 (Almberg et al., 2011). In such areas, population declines of deer of up to 30 to 50% have been observed (Almberg et al., 2011). In areas of Colorado, the prevalence can be as high as 30% (EFSA, 2011). The clinical signs of CWD in affected adults are weight loss and behavioural changes that can span weeks or months (Williams, 2005). In addition, signs might include excessive salivation, behavioural alterations including a fixed stare and changes in interaction with other animals in the herd, and an altered stance (Williams, 2005). These signs are indistinguishable from cervids experimentally infected with bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE). Given this, if CWD was to be introduced into countries with BSE such as GB, for example, infected deer populations would need to be tested to differentiate if they were infected with CWD or BSE to minimise the risk of BSE entering the human food-chain via affected venison.




The rate of transmission of CWD has been reported to be as high as 30% and can approach 100% among captive animals in endemic areas (Safar et al., 2008).




In summary, in endemic areas, there is a medium probability that the soil and surrounding environment is contaminated with CWD prions and in a bioavailable form. In rural areas where CWD has not been reported and deer are present, there is a greater than negligible risk the soil is contaminated with CWD prion.




In summary, given the volume of tourists, hunters and servicemen moving between GB and North America, the probability of at least one person travelling to/from a CWD affected area and, in doing so, contaminating their clothing, footwear and/or equipment prior to arriving in GB is greater than negligible. For deer hunters, specifically, the risk is likely to be greater given the increased contact with deer and their environment. However, there is significant uncertainty associated with these estimates.




Therefore, it is considered that farmed and park deer may have a higher probability of exposure to CWD transferred to the environment than wild deer given the restricted habitat range and higher frequency of contact with tourists and returning GB residents.





Friday, December 14, 2012


DEFRA U.K. What is the risk of Chronic Wasting Disease CWD being introduced into Great Britain? A Qualitative Risk Assessment October 2012



I strenuously once again urge the FDA and its industry constituents, to make it MANDATORY that all ruminant feed be banned to all ruminants, and this should include all cervids as soon as possible for the following reasons...




In the USA, under the Food and Drug Administrations BSE Feed Regulation (21 CFR 589.2000) most material (exceptions include milk, tallow, and gelatin) from deer and elk is prohibited for use in feed for ruminant animals. With regards to feed for non-ruminant animals, under FDA law, CWD positive deer may not be used for any animal feed or feed ingredients. For elk and deer considered at high risk for CWD, the FDA recommends that these animals do not enter the animal feed system.


***However, this recommendation is guidance and not a requirement by law.




31 Jan 2015 at 20:14 GMT


*** Ruminant feed ban for cervids in the United States? ***


31 Jan 2015 at 20:14 GMT





Pathological Prion Protein (PrPTSE) in Skeletal Muscles of Farmed and Free Ranging White-Tailed Deer Infected with Chronic Wasting Disease


***The presence and seeding activity of PrPTSE in skeletal muscle from CWD-infected cervids suggests prevention of such tissue in the human diet as a precautionary measure for food safety, pending on further clarification of whether CWD may be transmissible to humans.



Prions in Skeletal Muscles of Deer with Chronic Wasting Disease Rachel C. Angers1,*, Shawn R. Browning1,*,†, Tanya S. Seward2, Christina J. Sigurdson4,‡, Michael W. Miller5, Edward A. Hoover4, Glenn C. Telling1,2,3,§ snip...


Abstract The emergence of chronic wasting disease (CWD) in deer and elk in an increasingly wide geographic area, as well as the interspecies transmission of bovine spongiform encephalopathy to humans in the form of variant Creutzfeldt Jakob disease, have raised concerns about the zoonotic potential of CWD. Because meat consumption is the most likely means of exposure, it is important to determine whether skeletal muscle of diseased cervids contains prion infectivity. Here bioassays in transgenic mice expressing cervid prion protein revealed the presence of infectious prions in skeletal muscles of CWD-infected deer, demonstrating that humans consuming or handling meat from CWD-infected deer are at risk to prion exposure.



Friday, May 22, 2015


*** Chronic Wasting Disease and Program Updates - 2014 NEUSAHA Annual Meeting 12-14 May 2014



Wednesday, July 01, 2015


TEXAS Chronic Wasting Disease Detected in Medina County Captive Deer



Wednesday, July 01, 2015


*** DRAFT Virginia Deer Management Plan 2015-2024 (*** bans urine scents do to CWD 2015) ***



Thursday, July 09, 2015


TEXAS Chronic Wasting Disease (CWD) Herd Plan for Trace-Forward Exposed Herd with Testing of Exposed Animals




 ***Immediate and Ongoing Detection of Prions in the Blood of Hamsters and Deer following Oral, Nasal, or Blood Inoculations


Alan M. Eldera, Davin M. Hendersona, Amy V. Nallsa, Edward A. Hoovera, Anthony E. Kincaidb,c, Jason C. Bartzb and Candace K. Mathiasona aDepartment of Microbiology, Immunology and Pathology, Colorado State University, Fort Collins, Colorado, USA bMedical Microbiology and Immunology, Creighton University, Omaha, Nebraska, USA cDepartment of Pharmacy Sciences, Creighton University, Omaha, Nebraska, USA S. Perlman, Editor + Author Affiliations





Strain characteristics of the in vitro-adapted rabbit and dog BSE agent remained invariable with respect to the original cattle BSE prion, suggesting that the naturally low susceptibility of rabbits and dogs to prion infections should not alter their zoonotic potential if these animals became infected with BSE.




Neurobiology of Disease


Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy Induces Misfolding of Alleged Prion-Resistant Species Cellular Prion Protein without Altering Its Pathobiological Features


Enric Vidal3, Natalia Fernández-Borges1, Belén Pintado4, Montserrat Ordóñez3, Mercedes Márquez6, Dolors Fondevila5,6, Juan María Torres7, Martí Pumarola5,6, and Joaquín Castilla1,2 + Author Affiliations


1CIC bioGUNE, 48160 Derio, Bizkaia, Spain,


2IKERBASQUE, Basque Foundation for Science, 48011 Bilbao, Bizkaia, Spain,


3Centre de Recerca en Sanitat Animal, Campus de la Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona (UAB)-IRTA, 08193 Bellaterra, Barcelona, Spain,


4Centro Nacional de Biotecnología, Campus de Cantoblanco, 28049 Cantoblanco, Madrid, Spain,


5Department of Animal Medicine and Surgery, Veterinary Faculty, UAB, 08193 Bellaterra (Cerdanyola del Vallès), Barcelona, Spain,


6Murine Pathology Unit, Centre de Biotecnologia Animal i Teràpia Gènica, UAB, 08193 Bellaterra (Cerdanyola del Vallès), Barcelona, Spain, and


7Centro de Investigación en Sanidad Animal-Instituto Nacional de Investigación y Tecnología Agraria y Alimentaria, 28130 Valdeolmos, Madrid, Spain


Author contributions: E.V., N.F.-B., and J.C. designed research; E.V., N.F.-B., B.P., M.O., M.M., D.F., and J.C. performed research; E.V., N.F.-B., B.P., and J.C. contributed unpublished reagents/analytic tools; E.V., N.F.-B., B.P., M.O., M.M., D.F., J.M.T., M.P., and J.C. analyzed data; E.V. and J.C. wrote the paper.




Bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) prions were responsible for an unforeseen epizootic in cattle which had a vast social, economic, and public health impact. This was primarily because BSE prions were found to be transmissible to humans. Other species were also susceptible to BSE either by natural infection (e.g., felids, caprids) or in experimental settings (e.g., sheep, mice). However, certain species closely related to humans, such as canids and leporids, were apparently resistant to BSE. In vitro prion amplification techniques (saPMCA) were used to successfully misfold the cellular prion protein (PrPc) of these allegedly resistant species into a BSE-type prion protein. The biochemical and biological properties of the new prions generated in vitro after seeding rabbit and dog brain homogenates with classical BSE were studied. Pathobiological features of the resultant prion strains were determined after their inoculation into transgenic mice expressing bovine and human PrPC. Strain characteristics of the in vitro-adapted rabbit and dog BSE agent remained invariable with respect to the original cattle BSE prion, suggesting that the naturally low susceptibility of rabbits and dogs to prion infections should not alter their zoonotic potential if these animals became infected with BSE. This study provides a sound basis for risk assessment regarding prion diseases in purportedly resistant species.


Received January 18, 2013. Revision received March 7, 2013. Accepted March 23, 2013. Copyright © 2013 the authors 0270-6474/13/337778-09$15.00/0





DEFRA Department for Environment, Food & Rural Affairs


Area 307, London, SW1P 4PQ Telephone: 0207 904 6000 Direct line: 0207 904 6287 E-mail: h.mcdonagh.defra.gsi.gov.uk




Mr T S Singeltary P.O. Box 42 Bacliff Texas USA 77518


21 November 2001


Dear Mr Singeltary




Thank you for e-mail regarding the hounds survey. I am sorry for the long delay in responding.


As you note, the hound survey remains unpublished. However the Spongiform Encephalopathy Advisory Committee (SEAC), the UK Government's independent Advisory Committee on all aspects related to BSE-like disease, gave the hound study detailed consideration at their meeting in January 1994. As a summary of this meeting published in the BSE inquiry noted, the Committee were clearly concerned about the work that had been carried out, concluding that there had clearly been problems with it, particularly the control on the histology, and that it was more or less inconclusive. However was agreed that there should be a re-evaluation of the pathological material in the study.


Later, at their meeting in June 95, The Committee re-evaluated the hound study to see if any useful results could be gained from it. The Chairman concluded that there were varying opinions within the Committee on further work. It did not suggest any further transmission studies and thought that the lack of clinical data was a major weakness.


Overall, it is clear that SEAC had major concerns about the survey as conducted. As a result it is likely that the authors felt that it would not stand up to r~eer review and hence it was never published. As noted above, and in the detailed minutes of the SEAC meeting in June 95, SEAC considered whether additional work should be performed to examine dogs for evidence of TSE infection. Although the Committee had mixed views about the merits of conducting further work, the Chairman noted that when the Southwood Committee made their recommendation to complete an assessment of possible spongiform disease in dogs, no TSEs had been identified in other species and hence dogs were perceived as a high risk population and worthy of study. However subsequent to the original recommendation, made in 1990, a number of other species had been identified with TSE ( e.g. cats) so a study in hounds was less


critical. For more details see- http://www.bseinquiry, gov.uk/files/yb/1995/06/21005001 .pdf


As this study remains unpublished, my understanding is that the ownership of the data essentially remains with the original researchers. Thus unfortunately, I am unable to help with your request to supply information on the hound survey directly. My only suggestion is that you contact one of the researchers originally involved in the project, such as Gerald Wells. He can be contacted at the following address.


Dr Gerald Wells, Veterinary Laboratories Agency, New Haw, Addlestone, Surrey, KT 15 3NB, UK


You may also wish to be aware that since November 1994 all suspected cases of spongiform encephalopathy in animals and poultry were made notifiable. Hence since that date there has been a requirement for vets to report any suspect SE in dogs for further investigation. To date there has never been positive identification of a TSE in a dog.


I hope this is helpful


Yours sincerely 4








I am sorry, but I really could have been a co-signatory of Gerald's minute.


I do NOT think that we can justify devoting any resources to this study, especially as larger and more important projects such as the pathogenesis study will be quite demanding.


If there is a POLITICAL need to continue with the examination of hound brains then it should be passed entirely to the VI Service.


J W WILESMITH Epidemiology Unit 18 October 1991


Mr. R Bradley


cc: Mr. G A H Wells



3.3. Mr R J Higgins in conjunction with Mr G A Wells and Mr A C Scott would by the end of the year, indentify the three brains that were from the ''POSITIVE'' end of the lesion spectrum.



TSE in dogs have not been documented simply because OF THE ONLY STUDY, those brain tissue samples were screwed up too. see my investigation of this here, and to follow, later follow up, a letter from defra, AND SEE SUSPICIOUS BRAIN TISSUE SAF's. ...TSS





GAH WELLS (very important statement here...TSS)




AS implied in the Inset 25 we must not _ASSUME_ that transmission of BSE to other species will invariably present pathology typical of a scrapie-like disease.






*** IBNC Tauopathy or TSE Prion disease, it appears, no one is sure ***


Posted by flounder on 03 Jul 2015 at 16:53 GMT



76 pages on hound study;





The spongiform changes were not pathognomonic (ie. conclusive proof) for prion disease, as they were atypical, being largely present in white matter rather than grey matter in the brain and spinal cord. However, Tony Scott, then head of electron microscopy work on TSEs, had no doubt that these SAFs were genuine and that these hounds therefore must have had a scrapie-like disease. I reviewed all the sections myself (original notes appended) and although the pathology was not typical, I could not exclude the possibility that this was a scrapie-like disorder, as white matter vacuolation is seen in TSEs and Wallerian degeneration was also present in the white matter of the hounds, another feature of scrapie.


38.I reviewed the literature on hound neuropathology, and discovered that micrographs and descriptive neuropathology from papers on 'hound ataxia' mirrored those in material from Robert Higgins' hound survey. Dr Tony Palmer (Cambridge) had done much of this work, and I obtained original sections from hound ataxia cases from him. This enabled me provisionally to conclude that Robert Higgins had in all probability detected hound ataxia, but also that hound ataxia itself was possibly a TSE. Gerald Wells confirmed in 'blind' examination of single restricted microscopic fields that there was no distinction between the white matter vacuolation present in BSE and scrapie cases, and that occurring in hound ataxia and the hound survey cases.


39.Hound ataxia had reportedly been occurring since the 1930's, and a known risk factor for its development was the feeding to hounds of downer cows, and particularly bovine offal. Circumstantial evidence suggests that bovine offal may also be causal in FSE, and TME in mink. Despite the inconclusive nature of the neuropathology, it was clearly evident that this putative canine spongiform encephalopathy merited further investigation.


40.The inconclusive results in hounds were never confirmed, nor was the link with hound ataxia pursued. I telephoned Robert Higgins six years after he first sent the slides to CVL. I was informed that despite his submitting a yearly report to the CVO including the suggestion that the hound work be continued, no further work had been done since 1991. This was surprising, to say the very least.


41.The hound work could have provided valuable evidence that a scrapie-like agent may have been present in cattle offal long before the BSE epidemic was recognised. The MAFF hound survey remains unpublished.


Histopathological support to various other published MAFF experiments


42.These included neuropathological examination of material from experiments studying the attempted transmission of BSE to chickens and pigs (CVL 1991) and to mice (RVC 1994).



It was thought likely that at least some, and probably all, of the cases in zoo animals were caused by the BSE agent. Strong support for this hypothesis came from the findings of Bruce and others (1994) ( Bruce, M.E., Chree, A., McConnell, I., Foster, J., Pearson, G. & Fraser, H. (1994) Transmission of bovine spongiform encephalopathy and scrapie to mice: strain variation and species barrier. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B 343, 405-411: J/PTRSL/343/405 ), who demonstrated that the pattern of variation in incubation period and lesion profile in six strains of mice inoculated with brain homogenates from an affected kudu and the nyala, was similar to that seen when this panel of mouse strains was inoculated with brain from cattle with BSE. The affected zoo bovids were all from herds that were exposed to feeds that were likely to have contained contaminated ruminant-derived protein and the zoo felids had been exposed, if only occasionally in some cases, to tissues from cattle unfit for human consumption.








Friday, March 8, 2013


Dogs may have been used to make Petfood and animal feed




*** IBNC Tauopathy or TSE Prion disease, it appears, no one is sure ***


Posted by flounder on 03 Jul 2015 at 16:53 GMT



Chronic Wasting Disease Susceptibility of Four North American Rodents


Chad J. Johnson1*, Jay R. Schneider2, Christopher J. Johnson2, Natalie A. Mickelsen2, Julia A. Langenberg3, Philip N. Bochsler4, Delwyn P. Keane4, Daniel J. Barr4, and Dennis M. Heisey2 1University of Wisconsin School of Veterinary Medicine, Department of Comparative Biosciences, 1656 Linden Drive, Madison WI 53706, USA 2US Geological Survey, National Wildlife Health Center, 6006 Schroeder Road, Madison WI 53711, USA 3Wisconsin Department of Natural Resources, 101 South Webster Street, Madison WI 53703, USA 4Wisconsin Veterinary Diagnostic Lab, 445 Easterday Lane, Madison WI 53706, USA *Corresponding author email: cjohnson@svm.vetmed.wisc.edu


We intracerebrally challenged four species of native North American rodents that inhabit locations undergoing cervid chronic wasting disease (CWD) epidemics. The species were: deer mice (Peromyscus maniculatus), white-footed mice (P. leucopus), meadow voles (Microtus pennsylvanicus), and red-backed voles (Myodes gapperi). The inocula were prepared from the brains of hunter-harvested white-tailed deer from Wisconsin that tested positive for CWD. Meadow voles proved to be most susceptible, with a median incubation period of 272 days. Immunoblotting and immunohistochemistry confirmed the presence of PrPd in the brains of all challenged meadow voles. Subsequent passages in meadow voles lead to a significant reduction in incubation period. The disease progression in red-backed voles, which are very closely related to the European bank vole (M. glareolus) which have been demonstrated to be sensitive to a number of TSEs, was slower than in meadow voles with a median incubation period of 351 days. We sequenced the meadow vole and red-backed vole Prnp genes and found three amino acid (AA) differences outside of the signal and GPI anchor sequences. Of these differences (T56-, G90S, S170N; read-backed vole:meadow vole), S170N is particularly intriguing due its postulated involvement in "rigid loop" structure and CWD susceptibility. Deer mice did not exhibit disease signs until nearly 1.5 years post-inoculation, but appear to be exhibiting a high degree of disease penetrance. White-footed mice have an even longer incubation period but are also showing high penetrance. Second passage experiments show significant shortening of incubation periods. Meadow voles in particular appear to be interesting lab models for CWD. These rodents scavenge carrion, and are an important food source for many predator species. Furthermore, these rodents enter human and domestic livestock food chains by accidental inclusion in grain and forage. Further investigation of these species as potential hosts, bridge species, and reservoirs of CWD is required.



Veterinary Pathology Onlinevet.sagepub.com Published online before print February 27, 2014, doi: 10.1177/0300985814524798 Veterinary Pathology February 27, 2014 0300985814524798


Lesion Profiling and Subcellular Prion Localization of Cervid Chronic Wasting Disease in Domestic Cats


D. M. Seelig1⇑ A. V. Nalls1 M. Flasik2 V. Frank1 S. Eaton2 C. K. Mathiason1 E. A. Hoover1 1Department of Microbiology, Immunology, and Pathology, Colorado State University, Fort Collins, CO, USA 2Department of Biomedical Sciences, Colorado State University, Fort Collins, CO, USA D. M. Seelig, University of Minnesota, Department of Veterinary Clinical Sciences, Room 339 VetMedCtrS, 6192A (Campus Delivery Code), 1352 Boyd Ave, St Paul, MN 55108, USA. Email address: dseelig@umn.edu




Chronic wasting disease (CWD) is an efficiently transmitted, fatal, and progressive prion disease of cervids with an as yet to be fully clarified host range. While outbred domestic cats (Felis catus) have recently been shown to be susceptible to experimental CWD infection, the neuropathologic features of the infection are lacking. Such information is vital to provide diagnostic power in the event of natural interspecies transmission and insights into host and strain interactions in interspecies prion infection. Using light microscopy and immunohistochemistry, we detail the topographic pattern of neural spongiosis (the “lesion profile”) and the distribution of misfolded prion protein in the primary and secondary passage of feline CWD (FelCWD). We also evaluated cellular and subcellular associations between misfolded prion protein (PrPD) and central nervous system neurons and glial cell populations. From these studies, we (1) describe the novel neuropathologic profile of FelCWD, which is distinct from either cervid CWD or feline spongiform encephalopathy (FSE), and (2) provide evidence of serial passage-associated interspecies prion adaptation. In addition, we demonstrate through confocal analysis the successful co-localization of PrPD with neurons, astrocytes, microglia, lysosomes, and synaptophysin, which, in part, implicates each of these in the neuropathology of FelCWD. In conclusion, this work illustrates the simultaneous role of both host and strain in the development of a unique FelCWD neuropathologic profile and that such a profile can be used to discriminate between FelCWD and FSE.


prion chronic wasting disease immunohistochemistry interspecies cat feline spongiform encephalopathy transmissible spongiform encephalopathy adaptation species barrier



Monday, August 8, 2011 Susceptibility of Domestic Cats to CWD Infection


Oral.29: Susceptibility of Domestic Cats to CWD Infection


Amy Nalls, Nicholas J. Haley, Jeanette Hayes-Klug, Kelly Anderson, Davis M. Seelig, Dan S. Bucy, Susan L. Kraft, Edward A. Hoover and Candace K. Mathiason†


Colorado State University; Fort Collins, CO USA†Presenting author; Email: ckm@lamar.colostate.edu


Domestic and non-domestic cats have been shown to be susceptible to one prion disease, feline spongiform encephalopathy (FSE), thought to be transmitted through consumption of bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) contaminated meat. Because domestic and free ranging felids scavenge cervid carcasses, including those in CWD affected areas, we evaluated the susceptibility of domestic cats to CWD infection experimentally. Groups of n = 5 cats each were inoculated either intracerebrally (IC) or orally (PO) with CWD deer brain homogenate. Between 40–43 months following IC inoculation, two cats developed mild but progressive symptoms including weight loss, anorexia, polydipsia, patterned motor behaviors and ataxia—ultimately mandating euthanasia. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) on the brain of one of these animals (vs. two age-matched controls) performed just before euthanasia revealed increased ventricular system volume, more prominent sulci, and T2 hyperintensity deep in the white matter of the frontal hemisphere and in cortical grey distributed through the brain, likely representing inflammation or gliosis. PrPRES and widely distributed peri-neuronal vacuoles were demonstrated in the brains of both animals by immunodetection assays. No clinical signs of TSE have been detected in the remaining primary passage cats after 80 months pi. Feline-adapted CWD was sub-passaged into groups (n=4 or 5) of cats by IC, PO, and IP/SQ routes. Currently, at 22 months pi, all five IC inoculated cats are demonstrating abnormal behavior including increasing aggressiveness, pacing, and hyper responsiveness.


*** Two of these cats have developed rear limb ataxia. Although the limited data from this ongoing study must be considered preliminary, they raise the potential for cervid-to-feline transmission in nature.






Susceptibility of domestic cats to chronic wasting disease


Amy V.Nalls,1 Candace Mathiason,1 Davis Seelig,2 Susan Kraft,1 Kevin Carnes,1 Kelly Anderson,1 Jeanette Hayes-Klug1 and Edward A. Hoover1 1Colorado State University; Fort Collins, CO USA; 2University of Minnesota; Saint Paul, MN USA


Domestic and nondomestic cats have been shown to be susceptible to feline spongiform encephalopathy (FSE), almost certainly caused by consumption of bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE)-contaminated meat. Because domestic and free-ranging nondomestic felids scavenge cervid carcasses, including those in areas affected by chronic wasting disease (CWD), we evaluated the susceptibility of the domestic cat (Felis catus) to CWD infection experimentally. Cohorts of 5 cats each were inoculated either intracerebrally (IC) or orally (PO) with CWD-infected deer brain. At 40 and 42 mo post-inoculation, two IC-inoculated cats developed signs consistent with prion disease, including a stilted gait, weight loss, anorexia, polydipsia, patterned motor behaviors, head and tail tremors, and ataxia, and progressed to terminal disease within 5 mo. Brains from these two cats were pooled and inoculated into cohorts of cats by IC, PO, and intraperitoneal and subcutaneous (IP/SC) routes. Upon subpassage, feline-adapted CWD (FelCWD) was transmitted to all IC-inoculated cats with a decreased incubation period of 23 to 27 mo. FelCWD was detected in the brains of all the symptomatic cats by western blotting and immunohistochemistry and abnormalities were seen in magnetic resonance imaging, including multifocal T2 fluid attenuated inversion recovery (FLAIR) signal hyper-intensities, ventricular size increases, prominent sulci, and white matter tract cavitation. Currently, 3 of 4 IP/SQ and 2 of 4 PO inoculared cats have developed abnormal behavior patterns consistent with the early stage of feline CWD.


*** These results demonstrate that CWD can be transmitted and adapted to the domestic cat, thus raising the issue of potential cervid-to- feline transmission in nature.





PO-081: Chronic wasting disease in the cat— Similarities to feline spongiform encephalopathy (FSE)








Wednesday, October 17, 2012


Prion Remains Infectious after Passage through Digestive System of American Crows (Corvus brachyrhynchos)





In conclusion, an analysis of dietary histories revealed statistical associations between various meats/animal products and INCREASED RISK OF CJD. When some account was taken of possible confounding, the association between VEAL EATING AND RISK OF CJD EMERGED AS THE STRONGEST OF THESE ASSOCIATIONS STATISTICALLY. ...




In the study in the USA, a range of foodstuffs were associated with an increased risk of CJD, including liver consumption which was associated with an apparent SIX-FOLD INCREASE IN THE RISK OF CJD. By comparing the data from 3 studies in relation to this particular dietary factor, the risk of liver consumption became non-significant with an odds ratio of 1.2 (PERSONAL COMMUNICATION, PROFESSOR A. HOFMAN. ERASMUS UNIVERSITY, ROTTERDAM). (???...TSS)


snip...see full report ;



Thursday, October 10, 2013


*************CJD REPORT 1994 increased risk for consumption of veal and venison and lamb**************





October 1994


Mr R.N. Elmhirst Chairman British Deer Farmers Association Holly Lodge Spencers Lane BerksWell Coventry CV7 7BZ


Dear Mr Elmhirst,




Thank you for your recent letter concerning the publication of the third annual report from the CJD Surveillance Unit. I am sorry that you are dissatisfied with the way in which this report was published.


The Surveillance Unit is a completely independant outside body and the Department of Health is committed to publishing their reports as soon as they become available. In the circumstances it is not the practice to circulate the report for comment since the findings of the report would not be amended. In future we can ensure that the British Deer Farmers Association receives a copy of the report in advance of publication.


The Chief Medical Officer has undertaken to keep the public fully informed of the results of any research in respect of CJD. This report was entirely the work of the unit and was produced completely independantly of the the Department.


The statistical results reqarding the consumption of venison was put into perspective in the body of the report and was not mentioned at all in the press release. Media attention regarding this report was low key but gave a realistic presentation of the statistical findings of the Unit. This approach to publication was successful in that consumption of venison was highlighted only once by the media ie. in the News at one television proqramme.


I believe that a further statement about the report, or indeed statistical links between CJD and consumption of venison, would increase, and quite possibly give damaging credence, to the whole issue. From the low key media reports of which I am aware it seems unlikely that venison consumption will suffer adversely, if at all.



Thursday, October 10, 2013


*** CJD REPORT 1994 increased risk for consumption of veal and venison and lamb





Thursday, May 26, 2011


Travel History, Hunting, and Venison Consumption Related to Prion Disease Exposure, 2006-2007 FoodNet Population Survey Journal of the American Dietetic Association Volume 111, Issue 6 , Pages 858-863, June 2011. http://transmissiblespongiformencephalopathy.blogspot.com/2011/05/travel-history-hunting-and-venison.html


NOR IS THE FDA recalling this CWD positive elk meat for the well being of the dead elk ;


Wednesday, March 18, 2009


Noah's Ark Holding, LLC, Dawson, MN RECALL Elk products contain meat derived from an elk confirmed to have CWD NV, CA, TX, CO, NY, UT, FL, OK RECALLS AND FIELD CORRECTIONS: FOODS CLASS II



now, let’s see what the authors said about this casual link, personal communications years ago. see where it is stated NO STRONG evidence. so, does this mean there IS casual evidence ???? “Our conclusion stating that we found no strong evidence of CWD transmission to humans”


From: TSS (216-119-163-189.ipset45.wt.net) Subject: CWD aka MAD DEER/ELK TO HUMANS ???


Date: September 30, 2002 at 7:06 am PST From: "Belay, Ermias"


To: Cc: "Race, Richard (NIH)" ; ; "Belay, Ermias"


Sent: Monday, September 30, 2002 9:22 AM




Dear Sir/Madam,


In the Archives of Neurology you quoted (the abstract of which was attached to your email), we did not say CWD in humans will present like variant CJD. That assumption would be wrong. I encourage you to read the whole article and call me if you have questions or need more clarification (phone: 404-639-3091). Also, we do not claim that "no-one has ever been infected with prion disease from eating venison." Our conclusion stating that we found no strong evidence of CWD transmission to humans in the article you quoted or in any other forum is limited to the patients we investigated.


Ermias Belay, M.D. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention


-----Original Message-----




Sent: Sunday, September 29, 2002 10:15 AM


To: rr26k@nih.gov; rrace@niaid.nih.gov; ebb8@CDC.GOV


Subject: TO CDC AND NIH - PUB MED- 3 MORE DEATHS - CWD - YOUNG HUNTERS Sunday, November 10, 2002 6:26 PM ......snip........end..............TSS


Thursday, April 03, 2008


A prion disease of cervids: Chronic wasting disease


2008 1: Vet Res. 2008 Apr 3;39(4):41 A prion disease of cervids: Chronic wasting disease Sigurdson CJ.




*** twenty-seven CJD patients who regularly consumed venison were reported to the Surveillance Center***,


snip... full text ;



*** These results would seem to suggest that CWD does indeed have zoonotic potential, at least as judged by the compatibility of CWD prions and their human PrPC target. Furthermore, extrapolation from this simple in vitro assay suggests that if zoonotic CWD occurred, it would most likely effect those of the PRNP codon 129-MM genotype and that the PrPres type would be similar to that found in the most common subtype of sCJD (MM1).



*** The potential impact of prion diseases on human health was greatly magnified by the recognition that interspecies transfer of BSE to humans by beef ingestion resulted in vCJD. While changes in animal feed constituents and slaughter practices appear to have curtailed vCJD, there is concern that CWD of free-ranging deer and elk in the U.S. might also cross the species barrier. Thus, consuming venison could be a source of human prion disease. Whether BSE and CWD represent interspecies scrapie transfer or are newly arisen prion diseases is unknown. Therefore, the possibility of transmission of prion disease through other food animals cannot be ruled out. There is evidence that vCJD can be transmitted through blood transfusion. There is likely a pool of unknown size of asymptomatic individuals infected with vCJD, and there may be asymptomatic individuals infected with the CWD equivalent. These circumstances represent a potential threat to blood, blood products, and plasma supplies.



Wednesday, July 01, 2015


*** DRAFT Virginia Deer Management Plan 2015-2024 (*** bans urine scents do to CWD 2015) ***



Thursday, July 09, 2015


TEXAS Chronic Wasting Disease (CWD) Herd Plan for Trace-Forward Exposed Herd with Testing of Exposed Animals



Wednesday, March 18, 2015


Chronic Wasting Disease CWD Confirmed Texas Trans Pecos March 18, 2015



Wednesday, March 25, 2015


Chronic Wasting Disease CWD Cases Confirmed In New Mexico 2013 and 2014 UPDATE 2015



Thursday, May 02, 2013


*** Chronic Wasting Disease (CWD) Texas Important Update on OBEX ONLY TEXTING



Monday, February 11, 2013


TEXAS CHRONIC WASTING DISEASE CWD Four New Positives Found in Trans Pecos



Tuesday, July 10, 2012


Chronic Wasting Disease Detected in Far West Texas



Monday, March 26, 2012


Texas Prepares for Chronic Wasting Disease CWD Possibility in Far West Texas



***for anyone interested, here is some history of CWD along the Texas, New Mexico border, and my attempt to keep up with it...terry




see history CWD Texas, New Mexico Border ;


Monday, March 26, 2012





Sunday, October 04, 2009


CWD NEW MEXICO SPREADING SOUTH TO TEXAS 2009 2009 Summary of Chronic Wasting Disease in New Mexico New Mexico Department of Game and Fish



Friday, May 22, 2015


*** Chronic Wasting Disease and Program Updates - 2014 NEUSAHA Annual Meeting 12-14 May 2014



Wednesday, July 01, 2015


TEXAS Chronic Wasting Disease Detected in Medina County Captive Deer



IBNC Tauopathy or TSE Prion disease, it appears, no one is sure


Posted by flounder on 03 Jul 2015 at 16:53 GMT



Self-Propagative Replication of Ab Oligomers Suggests Potential Transmissibility in Alzheimer Disease


Received July 24, 2014; Accepted September 16, 2014; Published November 3, 2014



Singeltary comment ;




Singeltary said he became convinced that BSE is here as he watched his mother, Barbara Poulter of Crystal Beach, dying of sporadic Creutzfeldt-Jakob Disease. The rare, fatal brain disease is sometimes accompanied by severe jerking.


"She would jerk so bad at times, it would take three of us to hold her down," Singeltary said. "They can call it whatever they want, but I know what I saw, and what she went through. `Sporadic' simply means they don't know."


just made a promise to mom (confirmed hvCJD DOD 12/14/97), never forget, and never let them forget...


Terry S. Singeltary Sr.


Wednesday, February 10, 2016


*** Wisconsin Two deer that escaped farm had chronic wasting disease CWD ***



Tuesday, February 23, 2016


Parks and Wildlife begins reducing deer population at Texas Mountain Ranch Chronic Wasting Disease CWD TSE Prion Update



*** I kindly would like to comment on a few statements from the TPWD et al ;



 Terry S. Singeltary Sr. Bacliff, Texas USA 77518 flounder9@verizon.net


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