Sunday, August 20, 2017

Minnesota Fearing spread of CWD, agency pushing animal health board to suspend farmer's license

-----Original Message-----
From: Terry Singeltary
To: Beth.thompson
Cc: tony.kennedy ; CAHFS ; rodmen.smith ; Lou.cornicelli ; michelle.carstensen ; Judy.Randall ; info
Sent: Sat, Aug 19, 2017 10:27 pm
Subject: Minnesota Fearing spread of CWD, agency pushing animal health board to suspend farmer's license

Greetings Dr. Thompson, Minnesota Wildlife Stewards, Officials, Ag, Tony Kennedy Star Tribune et al,

IN reply to the following newspaper article, i kindly wish to then submit the following UPDATED SCIENCE, peer review, and the latest from the PRION 2017 CONFERENCE. you must have sound science, to make sound decisions, relating to the cwd tse prion. i do not advertise or make money from this, i do this freely, as this is for educational use. please use as you wish. i just made a promise to Mom, never forget, and never let them forget...with kindest regards, terry

DNR, fearing spread of CWD, wants owner of troubled deer farm penalized 

Fearing spread of CWD, agency pushing animal health board to suspend farmer's license. 

By Tony Kennedy Star Tribune AUGUST 19, 2017 — 5:05PM TEXT SIZE 0 EMAIL PRINT MORE 

The Minnesota Department of Natural Resources has targeted a troubled Fillmore County deer farm in a case highlighting tension between the DNR and Board of Animal Health as the DNR tries to halt the state’s biggest-ever outbreak of chronic wasting disease (CWD).

In an exchange of letters earlier this month, DNR Commissioner Tom Landwehr requested that the Board of Animal Health immediately suspend the deer farming license of a Spring Valley man and quarantine the farmer’s small, captive deer herd. The farm, which is said by the DNR to have unintelligible records and an unresolved escape of penned whitetails, is located near the wooded hills where 10 CWD-infected wild deer were discovered starting last fall.

State veterinarian Beth Thompson, who heads the Board of Animal Health, responded to Landwehr’s Aug. 10 letter one day later. She called certain DNR actions and observations into question and asked Landwehr to refrain from blaming deer farmers for spreading CWD to wild game.

The Star Tribune obtained the letters in a public records request.

“Assumptions about CWD in any population, farmed or wild, is only damaging to both agencies and is misleading the citizens of Minnesota,’’ Thompson wrote.

In an interview Friday, Thompson said her agency is still deciding how to deal with the farm. And while DNR officials fret over the possibility that farmed deer are spreading CWD to wild deer, Thompson wonders if farmed deer in Fillmore County’s endemic zone are contracting CWD from the wild population.

Asked Friday if the animal health board’s relationship with the DNR over CWD control is strained, Thompson said: “Both agencies are very passionate about what we do. … Does that come across as tension? It probably does.’’

Landwehr said Friday that the Spring Valley farm “is a really good example of a really bad operation.’’ If Minnesota really cares about the health of its invaluable wild deer population, he said, the farmer’s license should be revoked.

“We can’t do the things I wish we could so we rely on the Board of Animal Health to help us in the strongest way possible,’’ Landwehr said. Infected captive deer “have been vectors of CWD in the past,’’ he said.

The commissioner said tension between the DNR and Board of Animal Health stems from different clientele. The board serves deer farmers, and the DNR serves “all of Minnesota,’’ Landwehr said. A badly managed farm shouldn’t be allowed to jeopardize the health of a wild herd that “dwarfs the value of all the [deer] farms combined,’’ he said.

Landwehr said he is glad the Board of Animal Health’s oversight practices will soon by evaluated by the Office of the Legislative Auditor.

Judy Randall, deputy legislative auditor, said one focus of the audit will be the relationship between the DNR and Board of Animal Health. The agencies have split powers assigned by the Legislature. Legislative Auditor Jim Nobles said the evaluation is likely to start in mid-October and should finish by early March.

Lou Cornicelli, wildlife research manager for Minnesota, said the DNR’s investigation of the Spring Valley deer farm hasn’t found a link to the CWD outbreak in Fillmore County’s wild deer. But the disease has been discovered previously on deer farms in Minnesota, most recently in herds in Meeker and Crow Wing counties, where the DNR is now on the lookout for new outbreaks.

Michelle Carstensen, DNR wildlife health program supervisor, said she and Cornicelli turned to the Board of Animal Health early in last year’s CWD outbreak, asking if any deer farms in Fillmore County were problematic.

“The answer was ‘Nope, they’re all great,’ ” Carstensen said.

But when CWD investigators heard rumors about escaped captive deer and observed two dead deer with markings suggesting they were once ear-tagged as livestock, the DNR asked to review for itself the board’s records of deer farms in Fillmore County.

“Of the farms we looked at, we’ve seen a lot of issues with compliance,’’ Carstensen said.

Once the DNR sought to review the board’s data, she said, the board downgraded the status of at least two farms.

Dr. Linda Glaser, a senior veterinarian at the Board of Health, has been reviewing deer farm records at the agency since June, when she began oversight responsibilities for deer farms. She replaced Dr. Paul Anderson, who retired.

Glaser declined to comment on the Spring Valley deer farm under investigation by the DNR.

According to Landwehr’s letter, DNR officers found “irregularities’’ in records kept by the Spring Valley farm, prompting an inspection July 20. Inspectors discovered that a June windstorm had damaged a fence, allowing all deer to escape. Farms are required to promptly report escapes, but the farmer in Spring Valley waited three weeks, the letter said. The farmer did not try to recapture the animals, as required, the letter said.

“Record-keeping is so poor that DNR officers believe that it is impossible for [the farmer] to determine the number of deer that are still at large,’’ Landwehr wrote.

The letter noted the farmer’s failure to mark his herd with ear tags, as required by law. In addition, the farmer never heeded an order to repair his fence, the letter said.

Landwehr wrote that DNR conservation officers were compelled to shoot deer that they believed had escaped from the farm to “protect the wild deer population from potential exposure to CWD or other diseases.’’ His letter said the farmer interfered with those efforts.

But in her rejoinder, Thompson said the farm’s enclosure was fixed and that the farmer told the board that DNR officers scattered a group of escaped deer when the deer were in position to be tranquilized. She also cast doubt on a report by DNR officers that some deer inside the Spring Valley farm may have been wild deer because they didn’t act like farm-raised deer.

Asked why the Board of Animal Health and DNR couldn’t agree on whether the farmer’s fence was repaired, Thompson said, “I can’t speak to where Commissioner Landwehr got his information.’’

Thompson noted in her letter to Landwehr that the farmer received a $250 fine and that the board dropped his status to stop him from moving deer off the farm.

Lt. Col. Rodmen Smith, who heads the DNR’s enforcement division, said the DNR’s investigation of the Spring Valley farm is “moving forward.’’

*** Spraker suggested an interesting explanation for the occurrence of CWD. The deer pens at the Foot Hills Campus were built some 30-40 years ago by a Dr. Bob Davis. At or abut that time, allegedly, some scrapie work was conducted at this site. When deer were introduced to the pens they occupied ground that had previously been occupied by sheep. 

*** After a natural route of exposure, 100% of WTD were susceptible to scrapie.

TUESDAY, MARCH 28, 2017 

*** Passage of scrapie to deer results in a new phenotype upon return passage to sheep ***



Norway Nordfjella 2 out of apprx 150 animals shot now suspect for Chronic Wasting Disease CWD Skrantesjuke

Dr. Beth S. Thompson - Executive Director Dr. Thompson earned her DVM and swine medicine certification from the University of Minnesota Veterinary School in 2007. After graduation, she spent over a year as a swine production system veterinarian for a Minnesota based company. She joined the Board as a senior veterinarian in July 2008 and is currently the state veterinarian and executive director. Dr. Thompson’s list of program responsibilities includes traceability, swine, carcass disposal, markets and exhibitions, and data requests. She also has a JD from the William Mitchell College of Law.

Dr. Thompson is proud of her agricultural background; her brother and nephew are the fourth and fifth generation on the family farm.

*** Dr. Thompson Ma'am, please see;

Experimental transmission of the chronic wasting disease agent to swine after oral or intracranial inoculation

S. Jo Moore1,2, M. Heather West Greenlee3, Naveen Kondru3, Sireesha Manne3, Jodi D. Smith1, Robert A. Kunkle1, Anumantha Kanthasamy3 and Justin J. Greenlee1* + Author Affiliations

1Virus and Prion Research Unit, National Animal Disease Center, USDA, Agricultural Research Service, Ames, Iowa, United States of America 2Oak Ridge Institute for Science and Education, Oak Ridge, Tennessee, United States of America 3Department of Biomedical Sciences, Iowa State University College of Veterinary Medicine, Ames, Iowa, United States of America


Chronic wasting disease (CWD) is a naturally occurring, fatal neurodegenerative disease of cervids. The potential for swine to serve as a host for the agent of chronic wasting disease is unknown. The purpose of this study was to investigate the susceptibility of swine to the CWD agent following experimental oral or intracranial inoculation. Crossbred piglets were assigned to one of three groups: intracranially inoculated (n=20), orally inoculated (n=19), or non-inoculated (n=9). At approximately the age at which commercial pigs reach market weight, half of the pigs in each group were culled (‘market weight’ groups). The remaining pigs (‘aged’ groups) were allowed to incubate for up to 73 months post inoculation (MPI). Tissues collected at necropsy were examined for disease-associated prion protein (PrPSc) by western blotting (WB), antigen-capture immunoassay (EIA), immunohistochemistry (IHC) and in vitro real-time quaking induced conversion (RT-QuIC). Brain samples from selected pigs were also bioassayed in mice expressing porcine prion protein. Four intracranially inoculated aged pigs and one orally inoculated aged pig were positive by EIA, IHC and/or WB. Using RT-QuIC, PrPSc was detected in lymphoid and/or brain tissue from one or more pigs in each inoculated group. Bioassay was positive in 4 out of 5 pigs assayed. This study demonstrates that pigs can support low-level amplification of CWD prions, although the species barrier to CWD infection is relatively high. However, detection of infectivity in orally inoculated pigs using mouse bioassay raises the possibility that naturally exposed pigs could act as a reservoir of CWD infectivity.

IMPORTANCE We challenged domestic swine with the chronic wasting disease agent by inoculation directly into the brain (intracranially) or by oral gavage (orally). Disease-associated prion protein (PrPSc) was detected in brain and lymphoid tissues from intracranially and orally inoculated pigs as early as 8 months of age (6 months post-inoculation). Only one pig developed clinical neurologic signs suggestive of prion disease. The amount of PrPSc in the brains and lymphoid tissues of positive pigs was small, especially in orally inoculated pigs. Regardless, positive results in orally inoculated pigs suggest that it may be possible for swine to serve as a reservoir for prion disease under natural conditions.


↵*Corresponding author: Email: This is a work of the U.S. Government and is not subject to copyright protection in the United States. Foreign copyrights may apply.


Location: Virus and Prion Research

Title: Disease-associated prion protein detected in lymphoid tissues from pigs challenged with the agent of chronic wasting disease

Author item Moore, Sarah item Kunkle, Robert item Kondru, Naveen item Manne, Sireesha item Smith, Jodi item Kanthasamy, Anumantha item West Greenlee, M item Greenlee, Justin

Submitted to: Prion Publication Type: Abstract Only Publication Acceptance Date: 3/15/2017 Publication Date: N/A Citation: N/A Interpretive Summary:

Technical Abstract: Aims: Chronic wasting disease (CWD) is a naturally-occurring, fatal neurodegenerative disease of cervids. We previously demonstrated that disease-associated prion protein (PrPSc) can be detected in the brain and retina from pigs challenged intracranially or orally with the CWD agent. In that study, neurological signs consistent with prion disease were observed only in one pig: an intracranially challenged pig that was euthanized at 64 months post-challenge. The purpose of this study was to use an antigen-capture immunoassay (EIA) and real-time quaking-induced conversion (QuIC) to determine whether PrPSc is present in lymphoid tissues from pigs challenged with the CWD agent.

Methods: At two months of age, crossbred pigs were challenged by the intracranial route (n=20), oral route (n=19), or were left unchallenged (n=9). At approximately 6 months of age, the time at which commercial pigs reach market weight, half of the pigs in each group were culled (<6 challenge="" groups="" month="" pigs="" remaining="" the="">6 month challenge groups) were allowed to incubate for up to 73 months post challenge (mpc). The retropharyngeal lymph node (RPLN) was screened for the presence of PrPSc by EIA and immunohistochemistry (IHC). The RPLN, palatine tonsil, and mesenteric lymph node (MLN) from 6-7 pigs per challenge group were also tested using EIA and QuIC.

Results: PrPSc was not detected by EIA and IHC in any RPLNs. All tonsils and MLNs were negative by IHC, though the MLN from one pig in the oral <6 5="" 6="" at="" by="" detected="" eia.="" examined="" group="" in="" intracranial="" least="" lymphoid="" month="" months="" of="" one="" pigs="" positive="" prpsc="" quic="" the="" tissues="" was="">6 months group, 5/6 pigs in the oral <6 4="" and="" group="" months="" oral="">6 months group. Overall, the MLN was positive in 14/19 (74%) of samples examined, the RPLN in 8/18 (44%), and the tonsil in 10/25 (40%). Conclusions:

This study demonstrates that PrPSc accumulates in lymphoid tissues from pigs challenged intracranially or orally with the CWD agent, and can be detected as early as 4 months after challenge.

CWD-infected pigs rarely develop clinical disease and if they do, they do so after a long incubation period. This raises the possibility that CWD-infected pigs could shed prions into their environment long before they develop clinical disease.

Furthermore, lymphoid tissues from CWD-infected pigs could present a potential source of CWD infectivity in the animal and human food chains.



While this clearly is a cause for concern we should not jump to the conclusion that this means that pigs will necessarily be infected by bone and meat meal fed by the oral route as is the case with cattle. ...

we cannot rule out the possibility that unrecognised subclinical spongiform encephalopathy could be present in British pigs though there is no evidence for this: only with parenteral/implantable pharmaceuticals/devices is the theoretical risk to humans of sufficient concern to consider any action.

 Our records show that while some use is made of porcine materials in medicinal products, the only products which would appear to be in a hypothetically ''higher risk'' area are the adrenocorticotrophic hormone for which the source material comes from outside the United Kingdom, namely America China Sweden France and Germany. The products are manufactured by Ferring and Armour. A further product, ''Zenoderm Corium implant'' manufactured by Ethicon, makes use of porcine skin - which is not considered to be a ''high risk'' tissue, but one of its uses is described in the data sheet as ''in dural replacement''. This product is sourced from the United Kingdom.....

 snip...see much more here ;


Disease-associated prion protein detected in lymphoid tissues from pigs challenged with the agent of chronic wasting disease

MONDAY, AUGUST 14, 2017 

Experimental transmission of the chronic wasting disease agent to swine after oral or intracranial inoculation

TUESDAY, APRIL 18, 2017 


TUESDAY, MARCH 28, 2017 

*** Passage of scrapie to deer results in a new phenotype upon return passage to sheep ***

MONDAY, JULY 17, 2017 

National Scrapie Eradication Program May 2017 Monthly Report Fiscal Year 2017


APHIS USDA Emerging Animal Disease Preparedness and Response Plan July 2017

TUESDAY, JULY 18, 2017 


THURSDAY, JULY 13, 2017 

EFSA BSE Sixty cases of mad cow disease since 2001 breached feed ban likely the cause 

Scientists investigate origin of isolated BSE cases

*** The potential impact of prion diseases on human health was greatly magnified by the recognition that interspecies transfer of BSE to humans by beef ingestion resulted in vCJD. While changes in animal feed constituents and slaughter practices appear to have curtailed vCJD, there is concern that CWD of free-ranging deer and elk in the U.S. might also cross the species barrier. Thus, consuming venison could be a source of human prion disease. Whether BSE and CWD represent interspecies scrapie transfer or are newly arisen prion diseases is unknown. Therefore, the possibility of transmission of prion disease through other food animals cannot be ruled out. There is evidence that vCJD can be transmitted through blood transfusion. There is likely a pool of unknown size of asymptomatic individuals infected with vCJD, and there may be asymptomatic individuals infected with the CWD equivalent. These circumstances represent a potential threat to blood, blood products, and plasma supplies. 

*** Using in vitro prion replication for high sensitive detection of prions and prionlike proteins and for understanding mechanisms of transmission. 

Claudio Soto Mitchell Center for Alzheimer's diseases and related Brain disorders, Department of Neurology, University of Texas Medical School at Houston. 

***Recently, we have been using PMCA to study the role of environmental prion contamination on the horizontal spreading of TSEs. These experiments have focused on the study of the interaction of prions with plants and environmentally relevant surfaces. Our results show that plants (both leaves and roots) bind tightly to prions present in brain extracts and excreta (urine and feces) and retain even small quantities of PrPSc for long periods of time. Strikingly, ingestion of prioncontaminated leaves and roots produced disease with a 100% attack rate and an incubation period not substantially longer than feeding animals directly with scrapie brain homogenate. Furthermore, plants can uptake prions from contaminated soil and transport them to different parts of the plant tissue (stem and leaves). Similarly, prions bind tightly to a variety of environmentally relevant surfaces, including stones, wood, metals, plastic, glass, cement, etc. Prion contaminated surfaces efficiently transmit prion disease when these materials were directly injected into the brain of animals and strikingly when the contaminated surfaces were just placed in the animal cage. These findings demonstrate that environmental materials can efficiently bind infectious prions and act as carriers of infectivity, suggesting that they may play an important role in the horizontal transmission of the disease. 


Since its invention 13 years ago, PMCA has helped to answer fundamental questions of prion propagation and has broad applications in research areas including the food industry, blood bank safety and human and veterinary disease diagnosis. 

*** In conclusion, the results in the current study indicate that removal of furniture that had been in contact with scrapie-infected animals should be recommended, particularly since cleaning and decontamination may not effectively remove scrapie infectivity (31), even though infectivity declines considerably if the pasture and the field furniture have not been in contact with scrapie-infected sheep for several months. As sPMCA failed to detect PrPSc in furniture that was subjected to weathering, even though exposure led to infection in sheep, this method may not always be reliable in predicting the risk of scrapie infection through environmental contamination. These results suggest that the VRQ/VRQ sheep model may be more sensitive than sPMCA for the detection of environmentally associated scrapie, and suggest that extremely low levels of scrapie contamination are able to cause infection in susceptible sheep genotypes. 

Keywords: classical scrapie, prion, transmissible spongiform encephalopathy, sheep, field furniture, reservoir, serial protein misfolding cyclic amplification 

Wednesday, December 16, 2015 

*** Objects in contact with classical scrapie sheep act as a reservoir for scrapie transmission *** 

*** Infectious agent of sheep scrapie may persist in the environment for at least 16 years *** 

Gudmundur Georgsson1, Sigurdur Sigurdarson2 and Paul Brown3 

with CWD TSE Prions, I am not sure there is any absolute yet, other than what we know with transmission studies, and we know tse prion kill, and tse prion are bad. science shows to date, that indeed soil, dirt, some better than others, can act as a carrier. same with objects, farm furniture. take it with how ever many grains of salt you wish, or not. if load factor plays a role in the end formula, then everything should be on the table, in my opinion...tss

 Oral Transmissibility of Prion Disease Is Enhanced by Binding to Soil Particles
Author Summary
Transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (TSEs) are a group of incurable neurological diseases likely caused by a misfolded form of the prion protein. TSEs include scrapie in sheep, bovine spongiform encephalopathy (‘‘mad cow’’ disease) in cattle, chronic wasting disease in deer and elk, and Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease in humans. Scrapie and chronic wasting disease are unique among TSEs because they can be transmitted between animals, and the disease agents appear to persist in environments previously inhabited by infected animals. Soil has been hypothesized to act as a reservoir of infectivity and to bind the infectious agent. In the current study, we orally dosed experimental animals with a common clay mineral, montmorillonite, or whole soils laden with infectious prions, and compared the transmissibility to unbound agent. We found that prions bound to montmorillonite and whole soils remained orally infectious, and, in most cases, increased the oral transmission of disease compared to the unbound agent. The results presented in this study suggest that soil may contribute to environmental spread of TSEs by increasing the transmissibility of small amounts of infectious agent in the environment.

tse prion soil


Wednesday, December 16, 2015
Objects in contact with classical scrapie sheep act as a reservoir for scrapie transmission

The sources of dust borne prions are unknown but it seems reasonable to assume that faecal, urine, skin, parturient material and saliva-derived prions may contribute to this mobile environmental reservoir of infectivity. This work highlights a possible transmission route for scrapie within the farm environment, and this is likely to be paralleled in CWD which shows strong similarities with scrapie in terms of prion dissemination and disease transmission. The data indicate that the presence of scrapie prions in dust is likely to make the control of these diseases a considerable challenge.

>>>Particle-associated PrPTSE molecules may migrate from locations of deposition via transport processes affecting soil particles, including entrainment in and movement with air and overland flow. <<<
Fate of Prions in Soil: A Review
Christen B. Smith, Clarissa J. Booth, and Joel A. Pedersen*
Several reports have shown that prions can persist in soil for several years. Significant interest remains in developing methods that could be applied to degrade PrPTSE in naturally contaminated soils. Preliminary research suggests that serine proteases and the microbial consortia in stimulated soils and compost may partially degrade PrPTSE. Transition metal oxides in soil (viz. manganese oxide) may also mediate prion inactivation. Overall, the effect of prion attachment to soil particles on its persistence in the environment is not well understood, and additional study is needed to determine its implications on the environmental transmission of scrapie and CWD.

P.161: Prion soil binding may explain efficient horizontal CWD transmission
Conclusion. Silty clay loam exhibits highly efficient prion binding, inferring a durable environmental reservoir, and an efficient mechanism for indirect horizontal CWD transmission.

>>>Another alternative would be an absolute prohibition on the movement of deer within the state for any purpose. While this alternative would significantly reduce the potential spread of CWD, it would also have the simultaneous effect of preventing landowners and land managers from implementing popular management strategies involving the movement of deer, and would deprive deer breeders of the ability to engage in the business of buying and selling breeder deer. Therefore, this alternative was rejected because the department determined that it placed an avoidable burden on the regulated community.<<<
Wednesday, December 16, 2015
Objects in contact with classical scrapie sheep act as a reservoir for scrapie transmission
Timm Konold1*, Stephen A. C. Hawkins2, Lisa C. Thurston3, Ben C. Maddison4, Kevin C. Gough5, Anthony Duarte1 and Hugh A. Simmons1
1 Animal Sciences Unit, Animal and Plant Health Agency Weybridge, Addlestone, UK, 2 Pathology Department, Animal and Plant Health Agency Weybridge, Addlestone, UK, 3 Surveillance and Laboratory Services, Animal and Plant Health Agency Penrith, Penrith, UK, 4 ADAS UK, School of Veterinary Medicine and Science, University of Nottingham, Sutton Bonington, UK, 5 School of Veterinary Medicine and Science, University of Nottingham, Sutton Bonington, UK
Classical scrapie is an environmentally transmissible prion disease of sheep and goats. Prions can persist and remain potentially infectious in the environment for many years and thus pose a risk of infecting animals after re-stocking. In vitro studies using serial protein misfolding cyclic amplification (sPMCA) have suggested that objects on a scrapie affected sheep farm could contribute to disease transmission. This in vivo study aimed to determine the role of field furniture (water troughs, feeding troughs, fencing, and other objects that sheep may rub against) used by a scrapie-infected sheep flock as a vector for disease transmission to scrapie-free lambs with the prion protein genotype VRQ/VRQ, which is associated with high susceptibility to classical scrapie. When the field furniture was placed in clean accommodation, sheep became infected when exposed to either a water trough (four out of five) or to objects used for rubbing (four out of seven). This field furniture had been used by the scrapie-infected flock 8 weeks earlier and had previously been shown to harbor scrapie prions by sPMCA. Sheep also became infected (20 out of 23) through exposure to contaminated field furniture placed within pasture not used by scrapie-infected sheep for 40 months, even though swabs from this furniture tested negative by PMCA. This infection rate decreased (1 out of 12) on the same paddock after replacement with clean field furniture. Twelve grazing sheep exposed to field furniture not in contact with scrapie-infected sheep for 18 months remained scrapie free. The findings of this study highlight the role of field furniture used by scrapie-infected sheep to act as a reservoir for disease re-introduction although infectivity declines considerably if the field furniture has not been in contact with scrapie-infected sheep for several months. PMCA may not be as sensitive as VRQ/VRQ sheep to test for environmental contamination.
Classical scrapie is an environmentally transmissible disease because it has been reported in naïve, supposedly previously unexposed sheep placed in pastures formerly occupied by scrapie-infected sheep (4, 19, 20). Although the vector for disease transmission is not known, soil is likely to be an important reservoir for prions (2) where – based on studies in rodents – prions can adhere to minerals as a biologically active form (21) and remain infectious for more than 2 years (22). Similarly, chronic wasting disease (CWD) has re-occurred in mule deer housed in paddocks used by infected deer 2 years earlier, which was assumed to be through foraging and soil consumption (23).
Our study suggested that the risk of acquiring scrapie infection was greater through exposure to contaminated wooden, plastic, and metal surfaces via water or food troughs, fencing, and hurdles than through grazing. Drinking from a water trough used by the scrapie flock was sufficient to cause infection in sheep in a clean building. Exposure to fences and other objects used for rubbing also led to infection, which supported the hypothesis that skin may be a vector for disease transmission (9). The risk of these objects to cause infection was further demonstrated when 87% of 23 sheep presented with PrPSc in lymphoid tissue after grazing on one of the paddocks, which contained metal hurdles, a metal lamb creep and a water trough in contact with the scrapie flock up to 8 weeks earlier, whereas no infection had been demonstrated previously in sheep grazing on this paddock, when equipped with new fencing and field furniture. When the contaminated furniture and fencing were removed, the infection rate dropped significantly to 8% of 12 sheep, with soil of the paddock as the most likely source of infection caused by shedding of prions from the scrapie-infected sheep in this paddock up to a week earlier.
This study also indicated that the level of contamination of field furniture sufficient to cause infection was dependent on two factors: stage of incubation period and time of last use by scrapie-infected sheep. Drinking from a water trough that had been used by scrapie sheep in the predominantly pre-clinical phase did not appear to cause infection, whereas infection was shown in sheep drinking from the water trough used by scrapie sheep in the later stage of the disease. It is possible that contamination occurred through shedding of prions in saliva, which may have contaminated the surface of the water trough and subsequently the water when it was refilled. Contamination appeared to be sufficient to cause infection only if the trough was in contact with sheep that included clinical cases. Indeed, there is an increased risk of bodily fluid infectivity with disease progression in scrapie (24) and CWD (25) based on PrPSc detection by sPMCA. Although ultraviolet light and heat under natural conditions do not inactivate prions (26), furniture in contact with the scrapie flock, which was assumed to be sufficiently contaminated to cause infection, did not act as vector for disease if not used for 18 months, which suggest that the weathering process alone was sufficient to inactivate prions.
PrPSc detection by sPMCA is increasingly used as a surrogate for infectivity measurements by bioassay in sheep or mice. In this reported study, however, the levels of PrPSc present in the environment were below the limit of detection of the sPMCA method, yet were still sufficient to cause infection of in-contact animals. In the present study, the outdoor objects were removed from the infected flock 8 weeks prior to sampling and were positive by sPMCA at very low levels (2 out of 37 reactions). As this sPMCA assay also yielded 2 positive reactions out of 139 in samples from the scrapie-free farm, the sPMCA assay could not detect PrPSc on any of the objects above the background of the assay. False positive reactions with sPMCA at a low frequency associated with de novo formation of infectious prions have been reported (27, 28). This is in contrast to our previous study where we demonstrated that outdoor objects that had been in contact with the scrapie-infected flock up to 20 days prior to sampling harbored PrPSc that was detectable by sPMCA analysis [4 out of 15 reactions (12)] and was significantly more positive by the assay compared to analogous samples from the scrapie-free farm. This discrepancy could be due to the use of a different sPMCA substrate between the studies that may alter the efficiency of amplification of the environmental PrPSc. In addition, the present study had a longer timeframe between the objects being in contact with the infected flock and sampling, which may affect the levels of extractable PrPSc. Alternatively, there may be potentially patchy contamination of this furniture with PrPSc, which may have been missed by swabbing. The failure of sPMCA to detect CWD-associated PrP in saliva from clinically affected deer despite confirmation of infectivity in saliva-inoculated transgenic mice was associated with as yet unidentified inhibitors in saliva (29), and it is possible that the sensitivity of sPMCA is affected by other substances in the tested material. In addition, sampling of amplifiable PrPSc and subsequent detection by sPMCA may be more difficult from furniture exposed to weather, which is supported by the observation that PrPSc was detected by sPMCA more frequently in indoor than outdoor furniture (12). A recent experimental study has demonstrated that repeated cycles of drying and wetting of prion-contaminated soil, equivalent to what is expected under natural weathering conditions, could reduce PMCA amplification efficiency and extend the incubation period in hamsters inoculated with soil samples (30). This seems to apply also to this study even though the reduction in infectivity was more dramatic in the sPMCA assays than in the sheep model. Sheep were not kept until clinical end-point, which would have enabled us to compare incubation periods, but the lack of infection in sheep exposed to furniture that had not been in contact with scrapie sheep for a longer time period supports the hypothesis that prion degradation and subsequent loss of infectivity occurs even under natural conditions.
In conclusion, the results in the current study indicate that removal of furniture that had been in contact with scrapie-infected animals should be recommended, particularly since cleaning and decontamination may not effectively remove scrapie infectivity (31), even though infectivity declines considerably if the pasture and the field furniture have not been in contact with scrapie-infected sheep for several months. As sPMCA failed to detect PrPSc in furniture that was subjected to weathering, even though exposure led to infection in sheep, this method may not always be reliable in predicting the risk of scrapie infection through environmental contamination. These results suggest that the VRQ/VRQ sheep model may be more sensitive than sPMCA for the detection of environmentally associated scrapie, and suggest that extremely low levels of scrapie contamination are able to cause infection in susceptible sheep genotypes.
Keywords: classical scrapie, prion, transmissible spongiform encephalopathy, sheep, field furniture, reservoir, serial protein misfolding cyclic amplification
Wednesday, December 16, 2015
*** Objects in contact with classical scrapie sheep act as a reservoir for scrapie transmission ***

*** Infectious agent of sheep scrapie may persist in the environment for at least 16 years ***
Gudmundur Georgsson1, Sigurdur Sigurdarson2 and Paul Brown3

Horizontal Transmission of Chronic Wasting Disease in Reindeer CDC Volume 22, Number 12—December 2016

Sunday, November 13, 2016

Horizontal Transmission of Chronic Wasting Disease in Reindeer CDC Volume 22, Number 12—December 2016

Wednesday, November 09, 2016

Chronic Wasting Disease (CWD) Program Standards - Review and Comment By Terry S Singeltary Sr. November 9, 2016

MONDAY, JUNE 12, 2017

Rethinking Major grain organizations opposition to CFIA's control zone approach to Chronic Wasting CWD TSE Prion Mad Deer Type Disease 2017?


*** Chronic Wasting Disease CWD TSE Prion aka Mad Deer Disease and the Real Estate Market Land Values ***

Minnesota Chronic Wasting Disease CWD TSE Prion

Minnesota Department of Natural Resources Chronic Wasting Disease Response Plan

Chronic Wasting Disease Research

March, 2014


Chronic Wasting Disease map

Chronic Wasting Disease (CWD) is a contagious and fatal neurological disease of deer and elk. CWD affects both captive and free-ranging cervids in North America. Currently there is no effective treatment for CWD and management practices to prevent CWD transmission in both captive and wild cervids are limited. 

With funding provided by the Minnesota Rapid Agricultural Response Fund, a team led by Dr. Scott Wells conducted a study to evaluate the known transmission pathways for CWD in Minnesota farmed cervids.

CWD and Cervid Facts

Naturally occurring CWD is known to occur only in animals born in the United States and Canada CWD has been found in free-ranging cervids in 18 states 13 states have experienced CWD in farmed cervids, including 5 herds in Minnesota as of 2012 Minnesota is fifth in the nation for the number of commercial white-tailed deer farms and sixth nationally in the number of farmed deer (2007 USDA Agricultural Census) Minnesota requires registration of all farmed cervids, and as of January 2013, there were 517 farmed cervid herds registered with the Minnesota Board of Animal Health

To protect the farmed cervid industry, Minnesota created a voluntary CWD testing program in 1996

In 2013, testing requirements in Minnesota were changed to require mandatory surveillance testing in all deaths of cervids 12 months or older, which aligns with United States Department of Agriculture’s Animal Plant Health and Inspection Services Program Standards for CWD

Project Conclusions

Several species of cervids are susceptible to CWD through multiple exposure routes including: oral, aerosol, intravenous, and environmental exposures CWD infection can be transmitted through various inoculum types, such as brain, blood, and saliva

The source of infection in initial CWD-infected farmed cervid herds in Minnesota appeared to be related to introductions of cervids from other farms

The most recent CWD-infected farmed cervid herd in Minnesota did not appear to be related to introduction of infected cervids, as this herd had been closed to new introductions for over 10 years

CWD is a threat to the farmed cervid industry in the United States

Existing biosecurity practices do not appear to provide complete protection against introduction to farmed cervid herds, and federal funding is no longer available for control programs (including indemnification after depopulation of detected herds) Additional research is needed to identify new disease management options for CWD in farmed cervids

Drs. Cara Cherry and Joao Ribeiro-Lima, College of Veterinary Medicine, University of Minnesota are additional contributors to this research. 


Minnesota Chronic Wasting Disease investigation traces exposure to Meeker County farm


Minnesota Chronic Wasting Disease investigation traces exposure to Meeker County farm News Release For immediate release: January 20, 2017

Contact: Michael Crusan

Chronic Wasting Disease investigation traces exposure to Meeker County farm White-tailed deer tests positive for the disease near Dassel, Minnesota

The Minnesota Board of Animal Health confirms CWD on a Meeker County farm near Dassel. Positive CWD samples came from a two-year-old female white-tailed deer that died on the farm. In accordance with state law, tissue samples were collected from the carcass and submitted for CWD testing. Farmed deer, 12 months of age and older, are required to be tested for CWD if they die or are slaughtered.

Samples are tested at the University of Minnesota Veterinary Diagnostic Laboratory and forwarded to the National Veterinary Services Laboratory in Ames, Iowa, which officially confirms CWD. The Board shares information with the Minnesota Department of Natural Resources and works with the USDA as it investigates CWD cases in farmed deer. The DNR responds to and manages CWD in wild deer, while the Board of Animal Health regulates farmed deer.

The Board’s records show this positive deer was born on the CWD positive Crow Wing County farm and moved to the Meeker County farm in December 2014. As of December 30, 2016, there are three confirmed CWD positive farmed deer in Minnesota. Two are associated with the previously reported case in Crow Wing County. The third, and most recent case in Meeker County, was part of a herd of 14 white-tailed deer, which remain quarantined on the farm.

“This is why it’s important for the Board to maintain accurate animal identification and herd inventories,” said Dr. Paul Anderson, assistant director at the Board of Animal Health. “We were able to look back at five years of recorded deer movements out of the infected Crow Wing County herd, locate herds that received deer from it, and investigate those farms for a CWD infection. This tracing led to the discovery in Meeker County.”

Update on Crow Wing County case: The original quarantine remains in place on the Crow Wing County herd after two female deer tested positive for CWD. The Board is reviewing animal movement records into and out of the herd during the past five years.

Movement records out of the herd show deer were moved to four other Minnesota farms during the five year trace-back period. One of those herds is the Dassel farm in Meeker County. All associated herds remain under movement restrictions.

Movement records into the herd show one of the two CWD infected deer was moved into the herd in 2014 from a deer farm that is no longer in business. The other positive deer was born on the farm.

CWD is a disease of deer and elk caused by an abnormally shaped protein, a prion, which can damage brain and nerve tissue. There is no danger to other animal species. The disease is most likely transmitted when infected deer and elk shed prions in saliva, feces, urine, and other fluids or tissues. The disease is always fatal and there are no known treatments or vaccines. CWD is not known to affect humans, though consuming infected meat is not advised.

Information about Minnesota’s farmed deer and elk herds can be found on the Board of Animal Health website:


Wednesday, January 11, 2017

Minnesota DNR CWD found in 2 more deer; 5-county feeding ban now in place


Minnesota Tests confirm 2 CWD-positive deer near Lanesboro


November 22, 2016

DNR initiates disease response plan; offers hunters information on field dressing

Test results show two deer harvested by hunters in southeastern Minnesota were infected with Chronic Wasting Disease, according to the Department of Natural Resources. 

One deer has been confirmed as CWD-positive. Confirmation of the second is expected later this week. The deer, both male, were killed near Lanesboro in Fillmore County during the first firearms deer season.

The two deer were harvested approximately 1 mile apart. These are the only deer to test positive from 2,493 samples collected Nov. 5-13. Results are still pending from 373 additional test samples collected during the opening three days of the second firearms season, Nov. 19-21.

CWD is a fatal brain disease to deer, elk and moose but is not known to affect human health. While it is found in deer in states bordering southeastern Minnesota, it was only found in a single other wild deer in Minnesota in 2010.

The DNR discovered the disease when sampling hunter-killed deer this fall in southeastern Minnesota as part of its CWD surveillance program. Dr. Lou Cornicelli, DNR wildlife research manager, said hunter and landowner cooperation on disease surveillance is the key to keeping the state’s deer herd healthy.

“We were proactively looking for the disease, a proven strategy that allows us to manage CWD by finding it early, reacting quickly and aggressively to control it and hopefully eliminating its spread,” he said.

It is unknown how the two CWD-positive deer, which were harvested 4 miles west of Lanesboro in deer permit area 348, contracted the disease, Cornicelli said.

“We want to thank hunters who have brought their deer to our check stations for sampling,” he said. “While finding CWD-positive deer is disappointing, we plan to work with hunters, landowners and other organizations to protect the state’s deer herd and provide hunters the opportunity to pass on their deer hunting traditions.”

These are the first wild deer found to have CWD since a deer harvested in fall 2010 near Pine Island tested positive. It was found during a successful disease control effort prompted by the detection in 2009 of CWD on a domestic elk farm. The DNR, landowners and hunters worked together to sample more than 4,000 deer in the Pine Island area from 2011 to 2013, and no additional infected deer were found.

The National Centers for Disease Control and Prevention as well as the World Health Organization have found no scientific evidence that the disease presents a health risk to humans who come in contact with infected animals or eat infected meat. Still, the CDC advises against eating meat from animals known to have CWD...

snip...see more here;


Minnesota Tests confirm 2 CWD-positive deer near Lanesboro

Thursday, September 19, 2013 

Chronic Wasting Disease CWD surveillance, deer feeding ban continues in southeastern Minnesota

Friday, September 28, 2012 

Stray elk renews concerns about deer farm security Minnesota 

Friday, May 25, 2012 

Chronic Wasting Disease CWD found in a farmed red deer from Ramsey County Minnesota 


Minnesota CWD DNR, Can chronic wasting disease jump from deer to humans? yes, maybe some day YOUTUBE

Tuesday, January 25, 2011 

Minnesota, National Veterinary Services Laboratory in Ames, Iowa, has confirmed CWD case near Pine Island 

Friday, January 21, 2011 


Saturday, October 31, 2009 

Elk from Olmsted County herd depopulated to control CWD Three additional elk from the 558-head herd tested positive 

Tuesday, January 27, 2009 

Chronic Wasting Disease found in a farmed elk from Olmsted County ST. PAUL, Minn. 


Minnesota has announced the finding of CWD in a captive elk in Aitkin County. The animal was a five-year-old male. It had been purchased from a captive facility in Stearns County in August of 2000. The herd where the elk was found has been placed under quarantine as has two additional facilities where the infected elk had resided prior to it coming to the farm in Aitkin County. Minnesota DNR officials will test wild deer in the area to determine if there is any sign of CWD in the free-ranging population. This is the first case of CWD in either captive or freeranging cervids in Minnesota. Several more states have passed bans on the importation of deer and elk carcasses from states where CWD has been found in wild animals. Previously the states of Colorado, Illinois and Iowa and the province of Manitoba had passed such bans. The states of Vermont, Oregon and Missouri have enacted similar bans. Numerous states have issue voluntary advisories to their out-of-state hunters encouraging them not to bring the carcass or carcass parts of deer and elk into their state. The bans do permit the importation of boned out meat, hides or cape with no meat attached, clean skull cap with antler attached, finished taxidermy heads or the ivories of elk. The state of Georgia has recently banned the importation of live cervids into that state also. Some citizens of Colorado have formed a new political action group called Colorado Wildlife Defense (just happens that the acronym is CWD). The stated goal of this group are; Elimination of big game diseases, especially CWD; promotion of healthy wildlife habitat; promotion of scientifically sound wildlife research; promotion of a discussion of the ethics of hunting and wildlife management; education of the hunting and non hunting public. Their action plan calls for; requiring double fencing of all game farms at owners expense; all game farmers provide annual proof of bonding; prohibit new licenses for deer and elk farms; prohibit expansion in acreage of existing game farms; prohibit the transfer of game farm licenses; prohibit charging for hunting behind high wire; prohibit blocking of traditional migratory paths by high fences; requiring game farms to maintain environmental controls and prohibit the escape of contaminated water or soil; requiring immediate reporting of missing deer or elk from game farms; and requiring all game farm deer and elk to be tested for brucellosis and TB. Wisconsin has announced that 7 more free-ranging deer have tested positive for CWD. They have expanded their eradication zone by an additional 15 square miles to cover these findings. The total number of free-ranging CWD positive in Wisconsin is now 31 white-tail deer. 

In 2000, a elk farmer in Wisconsin received elk from a CWD exposed herd in Colorado. At that time, the farmer advised the Wisconsin Department of Agriculture that both animals from the exposed herd in Colorado were dead. He has now advised Wisconsin Ag. that he was mistaken and that one of the animals is still alive in his herd. The second draft of the implementation documents for the National CWD Plan was distributed to committee members and others on Friday, August 30. The final documents are due to APHIS and USFWS on Friday, September 13. The herd of captive elk in Oklahoma that had been exposed to CWD will be destroyed this week. This herd had an elk test positive for CWD in 1997 but the depopulation of the herd was not agreed to by the owners and federal representatives until this week. Since the discovery of CWD in the herd, the remaining animals have been under quarantine, however, in the meantime the herd has dropped from 150 animals to 74. Due to a lack of communication, not all of the 76 animals that died in the interim were tested for CWD. All remaining animals will be tested but the true degree of infection rate of the herd will never be known. 

The owners of the facility will not be permitted to restock the area with cervids for a period of five years. A New York based organization, BioTech Research Fund I LLC has committed a $1 million line of credit to fund commercialization of tests for brain-wasting disorders and production of various vaccines to Gene-Thera of Wheat Ridge, Colorado. Gene-Thera has spent three years developing new ways not only to diagnose CWD, but create vaccines for mad cow disease, E. coli contaminants and foot-and-mouth disease. Its tests for CWD have been successful in more than 100 samples from Colorado and Wisconsin according to company officials. Gene-Thera plans to license and market some o fits disease test kits by the end of the year, then begin volume distribution by mid-2003. The abstracts of the presentations from the CWD Conference in Denver August 6 and 7 have been posted on the Colorado Division of Wildlife web site. You will need adobe acrobat reader to read them. 

Minnesota: Second case in a game farmed elk discovered in Stearns Co. 

This is a trace forward from the previously affected game farm in Aitkins Co. An additional game farm in Benton Co is under quarantine. 


Supporting Documents: Colorado: CWD-Exposed Elk Used in 1990 Study- Wildlife officials call W. Slope move a mistake 

Date: January 17, 2003 Source: Denver Post Contacts: Theo Stein Environment Writer 

The Colorado Division of Wildlife knowingly used a herd of captive elk exposed to chronic wasting disease in a grazing study on the Western Slope in January 1990, possibly introducing the disease to the elk-rich area. "It was a bad call," said Jeff Ver Steeg, the division's top game manager. "I can't deny it." About 150 wild elk were allowed to graze in the same pens near Maybell after the research herd was removed and may have picked up the abnormal protein that causes the disease from the feces and urine left by the captive elk. While the Division of Wildlife has expressed concern before that its animals might have helped spread CWD, this is the first time the agency has acknowledged it knowingly moved elk exposed to CWD deep into an area where the disease was not known to already exist. Studies that could help determine the source of CWD on the Western Slope are incomplete, and officials say what data that do exist are so new and so spotty they may not provide all the answers. So far, it appears that less than 1 percent of deer and elk in the area are infected, compared with as much as 15 to 20 percent in hotspots in northeastern Colorado. But as wildlife officials grapple with CWD's appearance in northwestern Colorado, officials now admit the decision to continue the grazing study over the objections of some biologists was an error. At the time, biologists wanted to see whether elk grazing on winter range depleted forage that ranchers wanted for fattening cattle in spring. "I think in hindsight a lot of good people probably did some dumb things, myself included," said Bruce Gill, a retired wildlife manager who oversaw research efforts and remembers the debate over the project. "Had we known CWD would explode into such a potentially volatile ecologic and economic issue, we wouldn't have done it." Elk ranchers, who have been blamed for exporting the disease from its stronghold on the Colorado and Wyoming plains to seven states and two Canadian provinces, say the agency's belated disclosure smacks of a coverup. "It's pure negligence," said Jerry Perkins, a Delta banker and rancher who is now demanding a legislative inquiry. "If I'd have moved animals I knew to be infected around like that, I'd be in jail." Grand Junction veterinarian and sportsman Dick Steele said he faults the agency for not disclosing information about CWD-exposed research animals before October, when information was posted on the Division of Wildlife website. "This went way beyond poor judgment," he said. "My main concern is that this has been hidden for the last 12 years. It would have been real important to our decision-making process on how to deal with CWD." While the Maybell information is new, Perkins and other ranchers have long suspected Division of Wildlife research facilities near Meeker and Kremmling, which temporarily housed mule deer kept in heavily infected pens at the Fort Collins facility, have leaked CWD to the wild. Fear of an outbreak led the agency to sample 450 deer around the Meeker and Kremmling facilities. None tested positive, but the sample size was only large enough to detect cases if the infection rate was greater than 1 percent. This fall, tests on 23,000 deer and elk submitted by hunters statewide have revealed 48 CWD cases north of Interstate 70 and west of the Continental Divide. Biologists believe the infection rate in that area, which includes the Maybell, Meeker and Kremmling sites, is still well below 1 percent. But CWD has never been contained in a wild population, so experts fear the problem will grow worse. 

The Division of Wildlife says it will be months before a statistical analysis of the fall's sampling results can be completed, an exercise that may shed light on the disease's origin on the Western Slope. "We're just not going to speculate at this point," said Ver Steeg of the possible Maybell connection. "This is one possibility, but certainly not the only possibility." Some biologists think a defunct elk ranch near Pagoda, which had dozens of unexplained deaths in the mid-'90s, is another, a suggestion Perkins rejects. "It may be inconclusive to them," said Perkins. "It isn't inconclusive to us." 

To date, 19 CWD-positive animals have been found on six Wisconsin farms. 

*** All have been white-tailed deer except for one elk imported from a Minnesota herd later found to be infected. 

More than 8,000 farm-raised deer and elk have been tested in Wisconsin, and about 540 herds are enrolled in the CWD monitoring program. 


CWD disease detected on Lac qui Parle County cervid farm southwestern Minnesota (2006-03-15) 

Date: March 15, 2006 at 12:36 pm PST 

Chronic wasting disease detected on Lac qui Parle County cervid farm (2006-03-15) The Board of Animal Health announced today that chronic wasting disease (CWD) has been detected in one domestic white-tailed deer on a cervid farm in Lac qui Parle County, which is located in southwestern Minnesota. 

Immediately, DNR officials will conduct a local deer survey to determine the number of wild deer in the area. It is expected that not many deer will be found because the area is highly agricultural, with little deer habitat surrounding the farm. DNR will conduct opportunistic sampling of deer, like road kills, in the immediate area now and will conduct intensive hunter-harvested surveillance during the 2006 firearm deer season. 

Although this positive animal is a captive deer, DNR has conducted surveillance for CWD in wild deer in the area. The farm is located near the northern boundary of deer permit area 447, where wild deer surveillance for CWD last occurred in 2003. 

Lou Cornicelli, DNR big game program coordinator, said, "In 2003, we conducted wild deer CWD surveillance in adjoining permit areas 433, 446 and 447. In total, we collected 392 samples from those permit areas during the regular firearm deer season and CWD was not detected." 

The sampling of wild deer was designed statistically to have a 95 percent confidence of detecting a 1 percent infection rate, according to Mike DonCarlos, DNR wildlife programs manager. 

"This situation is very similar to the positive elk farm discovered in Stearns County in 2003, which followed the first discovery of CWD in an Aitkin County elk farm," DonCarlos said. “The DNR response will be similar to the Stearns County action and will include an initial assessment of wild deer populations in the area and development of a surveillance program for next fall." 

From 2002 to 2004, DNR staff collected nearly 28,000 CWD samples statewide and no disease found in the wild herd. 

"The intensive surveillance conducted in 2003 indicated CWD was not present in wild deer," Cornicelli said. “In addition, all indications are that this positive captive deer has not contacted any wild deer, but we will conduct additional surveillance this fall to be sure." 

Friday, August 05, 2016



Chronic wasting disease continues to spread Disease of cervids causing local population declines


Wednesday, February 10, 2016
*** Wisconsin Two deer that escaped farm had chronic wasting disease CWD ***


Pennsylvania 27 deer from Bedford County farm test positive for chronic wasting disease


OHIO Chronic Wasting Disease CWD TSE Prion UPDATE?

Iowa Supreme Court rules law allows quarantine of CWD deer, not land

This is very, very concerning imo. 

IF this ruling is upheld as such ;

''The Iowa Supreme Court upheld the district court ruling — saying the law gives the DNR only the authority to quarantine the deer — not the land. The ruling says if the Iowa Legislature wants to expand the quarantine powers as suggested by the DNR, then it is free to do so.''

IF a 'precedent' is set as such, by the Legislature not intervening to expand quarantine powers to the DNR for CWD TSE Prion, and the precedent is set as such that the cervid industry and land there from, once contaminated with the CWD TSE Prion, are free to repopulate, sell the land, etc, imo, this will blow the lid off any containment efforts of this damn disease CWD TSE Prion. The Iowa Supreme Court did not just pass the cwd buck down the road, the Supreme Court of Iowa just threw the whole state of Iowa under the bus at 100 MPH. i remember the litigation that took place and the fuss over all those 'healthy' looking deer standing out in the pasture, i remember the photo postings and thread on the web on the deer farmers board, of all those healthy looking deer. the big rally behind the owners on the web, how they were going to come and cut the fences, folks liking the comments, 100 deer farmers were going to show up and stop the officials from coming in to test the deer. yep, it was on the www. all those healthy deer, while the litigation was going on, well, they were incubating the cwd tse prion, loading up the land even more, and in the end, 79.8% of those healthy looking deer had CWD TSE Prion. what about the exposure to the other species that come across that land, and then off to some other land? this makes no sense to me, if this is set in stone and the Legislation does not stop it, and stop if fast, any containment of the cwd tse prion will be futile, imo...terry

FRIDAY, JUNE 16, 2017

Iowa Supreme Court rules law allows quarantine of CWD deer, not land


Texas Chronic Wasting Disease CWD TSE Prion History


First evidence of intracranial and peroral transmission of Chronic Wasting Disease (CWD) into Cynomolgus macaques: a work in progress 

Stefanie Czub1, Walter Schulz-Schaeffer2, Christiane Stahl-Hennig3, Michael Beekes4, Hermann Schaetzl5 and Dirk Motzkus6 1 

University of Calgary Faculty of Veterinary Medicine/Canadian Food Inspection Agency; 2Universitatsklinikum des Saarlandes und Medizinische Fakultat der Universitat des Saarlandes; 3 Deutsches Primaten Zentrum/Goettingen; 4 Robert-Koch-Institut Berlin; 5 University of Calgary Faculty of Veterinary Medicine; 6 presently: Boehringer Ingelheim Veterinary Research Center; previously: Deutsches Primaten Zentrum/Goettingen 

This is a progress report of a project which started in 2009. 21 cynomolgus macaques were challenged with characterized CWD material from white-tailed deer (WTD) or elk by intracerebral (ic), oral, and skin exposure routes. Additional blood transfusion experiments are supposed to assess the CWD contamination risk of human blood product. Challenge materials originated from symptomatic cervids for ic, skin scarification and partially per oral routes (WTD brain). Challenge material for feeding of muscle derived from preclinical WTD and from preclinical macaques for blood transfusion experiments. We have confirmed that the CWD challenge material contained at least two different CWD agents (brain material) as well as CWD prions in muscle-associated nerves. 

Here we present first data on a group of animals either challenged ic with steel wires or per orally and sacrificed with incubation times ranging from 4.5 to 6.9 years at postmortem. Three animals displayed signs of mild clinical disease, including anxiety, apathy, ataxia and/or tremor. In four animals wasting was observed, two of those had confirmed diabetes. All animals have variable signs of prion neuropathology in spinal cords and brains and by supersensitive IHC, reaction was detected in spinal cord segments of all animals. Protein misfolding cyclic amplification (PMCA), real-time quaking-induced conversion (RT-QuiC) and PET-blot assays to further substantiate these findings are on the way, as well as bioassays in bank voles and transgenic mice. 

At present, a total of 10 animals are sacrificed and read-outs are ongoing. Preclinical incubation of the remaining macaques covers a range from 6.4 to 7.10 years. Based on the species barrier and an incubation time of > 5 years for BSE in macaques and about 10 years for scrapie in macaques, we expected an onset of clinical disease beyond 6 years post inoculation. 






Risk Advisory Opinion: Potential Human Health Risks from Chronic Wasting Disease CFIA, PHAC, HC (HPFB and FNIHB), INAC, Parks Canada, ECCC and AAFC

TUESDAY, JUNE 13, 2017

PRION 2017 CONFERENCE ABSTRACT First evidence of intracranial and peroral transmission of Chronic Wasting Disease (CWD) into Cynomolgus macaques: a work in progress

TUESDAY, JULY 04, 2017


TUESDAY, JUNE 13, 2017

PRION 2017 CONFERENCE ABSTRACT Chronic Wasting Disease in European moose is associated with PrPSc features different from North American CWD


SUNDAY, JULY 16, 2017

*** Temporal patterns of chronic wasting disease prion excretion in three cervid species ***


Chronic wasting disease continues to spread Disease of cervids causing local population declines


*** USA Chronic Wasting Disease CWD TSE Prion Emergency Response Plan Singeltary et al ***


Norway Nordfjella 2 out of apprx 150 animals shot now suspect for Chronic Wasting Disease CWD Skrantesjuke

*** WDA 2016 NEW YORK *** 

 We found that CWD adapts to a new host more readily than BSE and that human PrP was unexpectedly prone to misfolding by CWD prions. In addition, we investigated the role of specific regions of the bovine, deer and human PrP protein in resistance to conversion by prions from another species. We have concluded that the human protein has a region that confers unusual susceptibility to conversion by CWD prions. 

 Student Presentations Session 2 

 The species barriers and public health threat of CWD and BSE prions 

 Ms. Kristen Davenport1, Dr. Davin Henderson1, Dr. Candace Mathiason1, Dr. Edward Hoover1 1Colorado State University 

 Chronic wasting disease (CWD) is spreading rapidly through cervid populations in the USA. Bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE, mad cow disease) arose in the 1980s because cattle were fed recycled animal protein. These and other prion diseases are caused by abnormal folding of the normal prion protein (PrP) into a disease causing form (PrPd), which is pathogenic to nervous system cells and can cause subsequent PrP to misfold. CWD spreads among cervids very efficiently, but it has not yet infected humans. On the other hand, BSE was spread only when cattle consumed infected bovine or ovine tissue, but did infect humans and other species. The objective of this research is to understand the role of PrP structure in cross-species infection by CWD and BSE. To study the propensity of each species’ PrP to be induced to misfold by the presence of PrPd from verious species, we have used an in vitro system that permits detection of PrPd in real-time. We measured the conversion efficiency of various combinations of PrPd seeds and PrP substrate combinations. We observed the cross-species behavior of CWD and BSE, in addition to feline-adapted CWD and BSE. We found that CWD adapts to a new host more readily than BSE and that human PrP was unexpectedly prone to misfolding by CWD prions. In addition, we investigated the role of specific regions of the bovine, deer and human PrP protein in resistance to conversion by prions from another species. 

*** We have concluded that the human protein has a region that confers unusual susceptibility to conversion by CWD prions. 

*** CWD is unique among prion diseases in its rapid spread in natural populations. 

*** BSE prions are essentially unaltered upon passage to a new species, while CWD adapts to the new species. 

*** This adaptation has consequences for surveillance of humans exposed to CWD. 

 Wildlife Disease Risk Communication Research Contributes to Wildlife Trust Administration Exploring perceptions about chronic wasting disease risks among wildlife and agriculture professionals and stakeholders 

you can see more evidence here ;


JAVMA NEWS Atypical BSE found in Alabama cow September 01, 2017


Monitoring the occurrence of emerging forms of Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease in the United States revisited 2017

wasted days and wasted nights...Freddy Fender

Terry S. Singeltary Sr.
Bacliff, Texas USA 
Galveston Bay, on the bottom


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