Wildlife Commission Seeks to Test 3,000 Deer for Deadly Disease
on Sep 18, 2013 12:14 PM • Views 454
Media Contact: Dr. Maria Palamar 919-707-0056
firstname.lastname@example.org RALEIGH, N.C. (Sept. 18, 2013) — The N.C.
Wildlife Resources Commission is asking whitetail hunters to allow staff to
sample their deer harvests this fall for the agency’s statewide Chronic Wasting
Disease (CWD) surveillance effort.
CWD is a fatal disease, although deer may not show symptoms for five years
or more. No treatment or cure for CWD exists. Direct, animal-to-animal contact
is a means of transmission, but evidence also suggests that contaminated
environments present risks. Humans are not known to contract CWD.
Although CWD has not been detected in North Carolina, deer populations have
tested positive for the disease in Virginia, West Virginia and 20 other states,
as well as two Canadian provinces. The Wildlife Commission conducts surveillance
of the white-tailed deer population to monitor for the presence of the disease
and prevent its spread if it were detected in the state’s deer population.
The Commission has been conducting CWD surveillance of white-tailed deer
since 1999, including two statewide sampling efforts in 2003 and 2008, and
smaller scale subsampling efforts in other years. The 2013 surveillance effort
will be the most extensive yet as Commission staff seeks to collect samples from
a minimum of 3,000 deer from across the state.
Public assistance in this effort will be essential to help the Commission
meet its goal, according to Maria Palamar, the Commission’s wildlife
“If you, or someone you know, harvests deer this fall and are willing to
donate samples, please contact the Wildlife Commission promptly,” Palamar said.
“We’ll collect the brain stem and retropharyngeal lymph nodes to submit for
laboratory testing. Collection of these tissues does not interfere with a
hunter’s ability to retain the antlers or consume the meat.”
Hunters who want to assist the Commission in this effort should contact
their local district wildlife biologists to discuss the collection process.
Contact information for each of the Commission’s nine district biologists, as
well as the three regional wildlife supervisors, can be found on this map.
Hunters can also call the Commission’s Division of Wildlife Management at
Along with providing an actual tissue sample, you will be asked to provide
your name and contact information and the exact location where the deer was
killed, the date of the kill, and the sex. Suitable samples can be taken from
any deer 1½ years or older. While younger deer (i.e., button bucks) can
potentially have the disease, it will not have progressed far enough that it can
be detected in the testing.
For more information on hunting in North Carolina, visit the Commission’s
hunting page, or call the Division of Wildlife Management, 919-707-0050.
Wildlife Commission Seizes Illegally Held Deer
on Mar 16, 2012 11:09 AM • Views 4163
Media Contact: Carolyn Rickard 919-707-0124 email@example.com
RALEIGH, N.C. (March 15) — The N.C. Wildlife Resources Commission on Thursday,
March 15 seized and euthanized four adult white-tailed deer being held without
permit or license in Iredell County.
Wildlife Law Enforcement Officers obtained a search warrant, and biologists
from the Wildlife Management Division used immobilization drugs to remove the
captive deer safely from the property.
According to North Carolina law, it is illegal to hold or confine deer, elk
or other cervid animals in the state without a permit or license, with strict
requirements necessary to safeguard the health and safety of wildlife resources,
livestock and humans.
Further, since 2002, except for fawns taken to licensed rehabilitators, it
has been illegal to transfer deer between facilities. These measures have been
in place to prevent introduction and spread of wildlife diseases including
chronic wasting disease.
CWD is a contagious and progressive disease that typically induces chronic
weight loss leading to death in the infected animal. The majority of infected
animals also experience behavioral changes. Currently, the only way to diagnose
is through a post-mortem examination. More information on the effects of CWD and
other wildlife diseases is available from the Wildlife Commission at
www.ncwildlife.org, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention at
www.cdc.gov/ncidod/dvrd/cwd/ and the national CWD Alliance at www.cwd-info.org.
N.C. Wildlife Update - 9/30/2011 WRC Captive Deer Policy Statement Dear
Recent actions by the N. C. Wildlife Resources Commission to confiscate and
euthanize deer prompted numerous responses, some of which are based on
incomplete or inaccurate information. Our actions were performed in the interest
of wildlife conservation and public safety. Our officers and biologists
implemented agency policies in strict accordance with state law and with the
utmost professionalism, respect, and consideration. In keeping with the agency’s
mission to conserve wildlife resources and to communicate the importance of
healthy wildlife, I offer the following clarification of the reasons those
actions were undertaken.
White-tailed deer are native wildlife that are important to the ecology of
North Carolina and belong to all citizens of the State. To safeguard this public
trust, it is unlawful for individuals to hold or confine deer without a permit.
Requirements for holding deer in captivity are necessary to safeguard the health
and safety of wildlife resources, livestock, and humans. North Carolina law
requires that any deer, elk or other member of the family Cervidae held in
captivity must be in a facility licensed by the WRC. Strict record keeping of
the origin and movement of cervids, as well as health, status, and disposition
of animals in a licensed facility is required. These requirements are in place
to minimize the potential for transfer of dangerous wildlife diseases, including
Chronic Wasting Disease (CWD) and tuberculosis. They also are designed to
provide early detection and containment of diseases should they be discovered.
In addition to testing captive cervids, the Wildlife Resources Commission also
tests free-ranging white-tailed deer in accordance with surveillance protocols
established in North Carolina’s Chronic Wasting Disease Response Plan. For video
information about CWD, click here.
Since the 1980s CWD has been detected in 19 states, including West Virginia
(2005), Virginia (2010), and Maryland (2011). CWD is a fatal and debilitating
disease that has caused serious ecological and economic impact in areas where it
has become established. Due to the severity of the potential impacts from CWD,
extensive surveillance programs that monitor CWD distribution and prevalence
have been instituted nationwide. In order to minimize the threat of its
importation and establishment, North Carolina in 2003 implemented stringent
requirements and restrictions on importation and confinement of cervids. These
requirements are instrumental in preventing the establishment of CWD. Modeling
research in the state of Wisconsin where CWD was detected in 2002 suggests that,
if left unmanaged, CWD will spread throughout Wisconsin resulting in an
infection rate in adult deer of at least 40%. These research results are
mirrored by current data in Colorado and Wyoming, where in some areas average
infection rates exceed 40% across thousands of square miles, suggesting the
disease continues to spread widely across the landscape. Our actions are
intended to avoid these consequences in North Carolina.
There are two types of authorized facilities for holding deer in North
Carolina. Both are required to be permitted or licensed and inspected for humane
care and compliance with requirements for thorough record-keeping and disease
testing. Fawn rehabilitators are specially trained to rehabilitate injured or
orphaned white-tailed deer fawns. They are authorized to temporarily hold fawn
deer for release back into the wild. Free-ranging adult deer held in captivity
even for relatively short periods, can lose their natural fear of humans. These
deer are not suitable for reintroduction into the wild and pose serious public
safety risks including human injury and death.
The other authorized type of facility for holding deer in North Carolina is
a captive cervid facility. North Carolina has more than 50 licensed captive
cervid facilities including deer farming operations. These facilities operate
within established guidelines, and the licensees recognize the need for proper
enforcement in order to protect their property, as well as the public’s
wildlife, from potentially devastating diseases.
Protecting and conserving the wildlife resources of the State is an
important responsibility. In August 2011, our staff became aware of an
individual possessing captive deer in Randolph County without license or
permits. The facility operator had been notified on several occasions, dating
back to 2003, that licensure and strict operational guidelines were required to
hold deer in captivity. In February 2004, the operator was sent notification
that he was ineligible to possess cervids in captivity. After learning of the
presence of captive cervids at this location, we conducted due diligence in
investigation, initiating legal process including obtaining a warrant, and
continued close monitoring. In September 2011, nine deer were confiscated and
euthanized with rifles and a shotgun so they could be tested for CWD. Firearms
such as these are accepted forms of humane euthanasia for wildlife, and all
personnel involved had been trained in the practice by a licensed veterinarian.
Euthanasia was required because the origin of these deer could not be verified,
and because continuous containment within the facility could not be assured.
Unfortunately, there is no approved testing procedure available for live deer
because protocol for CWD testing requires either a lymph node or brain tissue
sample. Furthermore, the CWD incubation period can range from 16 months to five
years; therefore, a negative test result for an individual deer from a group
provides no assurance that the remaining deer in the group would test
Also in August, our staff learned of deer held in an unlicensed facility in
Surry County. In this instance, two fawns had been held in captivity for several
months with an adult male deer of unknown origin. If the fawns had been turned
over to a licensed facility for rehabilitation when they were found they most
likely could have been returned to the wild with a high chance for survival.
However, due to the intense level of human interaction, all three deer were
unlikely to survive in the wild. Additionally, because the fawns were commingled
with a deer of unknown origin, their origin and health status could not be
verified. As a result, the animals were euthanized with immobilizing drugs and a
The risks to wildlife resources and public safety from disease transmission
and human habituation are very serious. It is unfortunate that the actions of
otherwise well-meaning persons can result in the destruction of these resources.
The WRC urges all NC citizens to learn more about issues associated with holding
wildlife in captivity by visiting our website www.ncwildlife.org or calling
919-707-0050 for more information.
Gordon Myers Executive Director September 30, 2011
Today there are approximately 1.25 million deer in North Carolina. (old
> North Carolina Wildlife Commission Seeks to Test 3,000 Deer for Deadly
Greetings North Carolina Officials and hunters et al,
I kindly submit the following updated science on CWD from the PRION2013
Sunday, August 25, 2013
***PRION2013 CONGRESSIONAL ABSTRACTS
Prion2013 Chronic Wasting Disease CWD risk factors, humans, domestic cats,
blood, and mother to offspring transmission
Sunday, July 21, 2013
*** As Chronic Wasting Disease CWD rises in deer herd, what about risk for
Wednesday, September 04, 2013
***cwd - cervid captive livestock escapes, loose and on the run in the
Thursday, August 08, 2013
***PRION2013 CONGRESSIONAL ABSTRACTS
Characterization of the first case of naturally occurring chronic wasting
disease in a captive red deer (Cervus elaphus) in North America
Sunday, September 01, 2013
hunting over gut piles and CWD TSE prion disease
Sunday, June 09, 2013
Missouri House forms 13-member Interim Committee on the Cause and Spread of
Chronic Wasting Disease CWD
Wednesday, August 21, 2013
IOWA DNR EMERGENCY CONSENT ORDER IN THE MATTER OF TOM & LINDA BRAKKE
D/B/A PINE RIDGE HUNTING LODGE UPDATE AUGUST 21, 2013
Saturday, September 07, 2013
Georgia House Bill 1043 and Chronic Wasting Disease CWD
Greetings Honorable Representatives of the House, Game, Fish, & Parks,
Tuesday, October 23, 2012
PA Captive deer from CWD-positive farm roaming free
USDA TO PGC ONCE CAPTIVES ESCAPE "it‘s no longer its business.”
Sunday, January 06, 2013
USDA TO PGC ONCE CAPTIVES ESCAPE "it‘s no longer its business.”
Tuesday, May 28, 2013
Chronic Wasting Disease CWD quarantine Louisiana via CWD index herd
Pennsylvania Update May 28, 2013
6 doe from Pennsylvania CWD index herd still on the loose in Louisiana,
quarantine began on October 18, 2012, still ongoing, Lake Charles premises.
Monday, June 24, 2013
The Effects of Chronic Wasting Disease on the Pennsylvania Cervid Industry
Following its Discovery
Saturday, June 29, 2013
PENNSYLVANIA CAPTIVE CWD INDEX HERD MATE YELLOW *47 STILL RUNNING LOOSE IN
INDIANA, YELLOW NUMBER 2 STILL MISSING, AND OTHERS ON THE RUN STILL IN LOUISIANA
Friday, August 02, 2013
The Fight to Keep Chronic Wasting Disease Out of Florida
*** The potential impact of prion diseases on human health was greatly
magnified by the recognition that interspecies transfer of BSE to humans by beef
ingestion resulted in vCJD. While changes in animal feed constituents and
slaughter practices appear to have curtailed vCJD, there is concern that CWD of
free-ranging deer and elk in the U.S. might also cross the species barrier.
Thus, consuming venison could be a source of human prion disease. Whether BSE
and CWD represent interspecies scrapie transfer or are newly arisen prion
diseases is unknown. Therefore, the possibility of transmission of prion disease
through other food animals cannot be ruled out. There is evidence that vCJD can
be transmitted through blood transfusion. There is likely a pool of unknown size
of asymptomatic individuals infected with vCJD, and there may be asymptomatic
individuals infected with the CWD equivalent. These circumstances represent a
potential threat to blood, blood products, and plasma supplies.
pens, pens, PENS ???
*** Spraker suggested an interesting explanation for the occurrence of CWD.
The deer pens at the Foot Hills Campus were built some 30-40 years ago by a Dr.
Bob Davis. At or abut that time, allegedly, some scrapie work was conducted at
this site. When deer were introduced to the pens they occupied ground that had
previously been occupied by sheep.
now, decades later ;
PO-039: A comparison of scrapie and chronic wasting disease in white-tailed
Justin Greenlee, Jodi Smith, Eric Nicholson US Dept. Agriculture;
Agricultural Research Service, National Animal Disease Center; Ames, IA USA
The results of this study suggest that there are many similarities in the
manifestation of CWD and scrapie in WTD after IC inoculation including early and
widespread presence of PrPSc in lymphoid tissues, clinical signs of depression
and weight loss progressing to wasting, and an incubation time of 21-23 months.
Moreover, western blots (WB) done on brain material from the obex region have a
molecular profile similar to CWD and distinct from tissues of the cerebrum or
the scrapie inoculum. However, results of microscopic and IHC examination
indicate that there are differences between the lesions expected in CWD and
those that occur in deer with scrapie: amyloid plaques were not noted in any
sections of brain examined from these deer and the pattern of immunoreactivity
by IHC was diffuse rather than plaque-like. After a natural route of exposure,
100% of WTD were susceptible to scrapie. Deer developed clinical signs of
wasting and mental depression and were necropsied from 28 to 33 months PI.
Tissues from these deer were positive for PrPSc by IHC and WB. Similar to IC
inoculated deer, samples from these deer exhibited two different molecular
profiles: samples from obex resembled CWD whereas those from cerebrum were
similar to the original scrapie inoculum. On further examination by WB using a
panel of antibodies, the tissues from deer with scrapie exhibit properties
differing from tissues either from sheep with scrapie or WTD with CWD. Samples
from WTD with CWD or sheep with scrapie are strongly immunoreactive when probed
with mAb P4, however, samples from WTD with scrapie are only weakly
immunoreactive. In contrast, when probed with mAb’s 6H4 or SAF 84, samples from
sheep with scrapie and WTD with CWD are weakly immunoreactive and samples from
WTD with scrapie are strongly positive. This work demonstrates that WTD are
highly susceptible to sheep scrapie, but on first passage, scrapie in WTD is
differentiable from CWD.
*** After a natural route of exposure, 100% of white-tailed deer were
susceptible to scrapie.
Scrapie in Deer: Comparisons and Contrasts to Chronic Wasting Disease (CWD)
Justin J. Greenlee of the Virus and Prion Diseases Research Unit, National
Animal Disease Center, ARS, USDA, Ames, IA
This highlights the facts that 1) prior to the onset of clinical signs
PrPSc is widely distributed in the CNS and lymphoid tissues and 2) currently
used diagnostic methods are sufficient to detect PrPSc prior to the onset of
clinical signs. The results of this study suggest that there are many
similarities in the manifestation of CWD and scrapie in white-tailed deer after
IC inoculation including early and widespread presence of PrPSc in lymphoid
tissues, clinical signs of depression and weight loss progressing to wasting,
and an incubation time of 21-23 months. Moreover, western blots (WB) done on
brain material from the obex region have a molecular profile consistent with CWD
and distinct from tissues of the cerebrum or the scrapie inoculum. However,
results of microscopic and IHC examination indicate that there are differences
between the lesions expected in CWD and those that occur in deer with scrapie:
amyloid plaques were not noted in any sections of brain examined from these deer
and the pattern of immunoreactivity by IHC was diffuse rather than plaque-like.
After a natural route of exposure, 100% of white-tailed deer were susceptible to
scrapie. Deer developed clinical signs of wasting and mental depression and were
necropsied from 28 to 33 months PI. Tissues from these deer were positive for
scrapie by IHC and WB. Tissues with PrPSc immunoreactivity included brain,
tonsil, retropharyngeal and mesenteric lymph nodes, hemal node, Peyer’s patches,
and spleen. While two WB patterns have been detected in brain regions of deer
inoculated by the natural route, unlike the IC inoculated deer, the pattern
similar to the scrapie inoculum predominates.
2011 Annual Report
Research Project: TRANSMISSION, DIFFERENTIATION, AND PATHOBIOLOGY OF
TRANSMISSIBLE SPONGIFORM ENCEPHALOPATHIES Location: Virus and Prion Research
2011 Annual Report
In Objective 1, Assess cross-species transmissibility of transmissible
spongiform encephalopathies (TSEs) in livestock and wildlife, numerous
experiments assessing the susceptibility of various TSEs in different host
species were conducted. Most notable is deer inoculated with scrapie, which
exhibits similarities to chronic wasting disease (CWD) in deer suggestive of
sheep scrapie as an origin of CWD.
4.Accomplishments 1. Deer inoculated with domestic isolates of sheep
scrapie. Scrapie-affected deer exhibit 2 different patterns of disease
associated prion protein. In some regions of the brain the pattern is much like
that observed for scrapie, while in others it is more like chronic wasting
disease (CWD), the transmissible spongiform encephalopathy typically associated
with deer. This work conducted by ARS scientists at the National Animal Disease
Center, Ames, IA suggests that an interspecies transmission of sheep scrapie to
deer may have been the origin of CWD. This is important for husbandry practices
with both captive deer, elk and sheep for farmers and ranchers attempting to
keep their herds and flocks free of CWD and scrapie.
White-tailed Deer are Susceptible to Scrapie by Natural Route of Infection
Jodi D. Smith, Justin J. Greenlee, and Robert A. Kunkle; Virus and Prion
Research Unit, National Animal Disease Center, USDA-ARS
This work demonstrates for the first time that white-tailed deer are
susceptible to sheep scrapie by potential natural routes of inoculation.
In-depth analysis of tissues will be done to determine similarities between
scrapie in deer after intracranial and oral/intranasal inoculation and chronic
wasting disease resulting from similar routes of inoculation.
see full text ;
SEE MORE USAHA REPORTS HERE, 2012 NOT PUBLISHED YET...TSS
Thursday, June 20, 2013
atypical, BSE, CWD, Scrapie, Captive Farmed shooting pens (livestock), Wild
Cervids, Rectal Mucosa Biopsy 2012 USAHA Proceedings, and CJD TSE prion Update
Friday, December 14, 2012
*** DEFRA U.K. What is the risk of Chronic Wasting Disease CWD being
introduced into Great Britain? A Qualitative Risk Assessment October 2012
In the USA, under the Food and Drug Administration’s BSE Feed Regulation
(21 CFR 589.2000) most material (exceptions include milk, tallow, and gelatin)
from deer and elk is prohibited for use in feed for ruminant animals. With
regards to feed for non-ruminant animals, under FDA law, CWD positive deer may
not be used for any animal feed or feed ingredients. For elk and deer considered
at high risk for CWD, the FDA recommends that these animals do not enter the
animal feed system. However, this recommendation is guidance and not a
requirement by law.
Animals considered at high risk for CWD include:
1) animals from areas declared to be endemic for CWD and/or to be CWD
eradication zones and
2) deer and elk that at some time during the 60-month period prior to
slaughter were in a captive herd that contained a CWD-positive animal.
Therefore, in the USA, materials from cervids other than CWD positive
animals may be used in animal feed and feed ingredients for non-ruminants.
The amount of animal PAP that is of deer and/or elk origin imported from
the USA to GB can not be determined, however, as it is not specified in TRACES.
It may constitute a small percentage of the 8412 kilos of non-fish origin
processed animal proteins that were imported from US into GB in 2011.
Overall, therefore, it is considered there is a __greater than negligible
risk___ that (nonruminant) animal feed and pet food containing deer and/or elk
protein is imported into GB.
There is uncertainty associated with this estimate given the lack of data
on the amount of deer and/or elk protein possibly being imported in these
36% in 2007 (Almberg et al., 2011). In such areas, population declines of
deer of up to 30 to 50% have been observed (Almberg et al., 2011). In areas of
Colorado, the prevalence can be as high as 30% (EFSA, 2011). The clinical signs
of CWD in affected adults are weight loss and behavioural changes that can span
weeks or months (Williams, 2005). In addition, signs might include excessive
salivation, behavioural alterations including a fixed stare and changes in
interaction with other animals in the herd, and an altered stance (Williams,
2005). These signs are indistinguishable from cervids experimentally infected
with bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE). Given this, if CWD was to be
introduced into countries with BSE such as GB, for example, infected deer
populations would need to be tested to differentiate if they were infected with
CWD or BSE to minimise the risk of BSE entering the human food-chain via
The rate of transmission of CWD has been reported to be as high as 30% and
can approach 100% among captive animals in endemic areas (Safar et al., 2008).
In summary, in endemic areas, there is a medium probability that the soil
and surrounding environment is contaminated with CWD prions and in a
bioavailable form. In rural areas where CWD has not been reported and deer are
present, there is a greater than negligible risk the soil is contaminated with
In summary, given the volume of tourists, hunters and servicemen moving
between GB and North America, the probability of at least one person travelling
to/from a CWD affected area and, in doing so, contaminating their clothing,
footwear and/or equipment prior to arriving in GB is greater than negligible.
For deer hunters, specifically, the risk is likely to be greater given the
increased contact with deer and their environment. However, there is significant
uncertainty associated with these estimates.
Therefore, it is considered that farmed and park deer may have a higher
probability of exposure to CWD transferred to the environment than wild deer
given the restricted habitat range and higher frequency of contact with tourists
and returning GB residents.
Friday, December 14, 2012
DEFRA U.K. What is the risk of Chronic Wasting Disease CWD being introduced
into Great Britain? A Qualitative Risk Assessment October 2012
Tuesday, September 17, 2013
***USAHA 116TH ANNUAL MEETING October 18 – 24, 2012 CWD, Scrapie, BSE, TSE
prion (September 17, 2013)
Sunday, August 11, 2013
Creutzfeldt-Jakob Disease CJD cases rising North America updated report
***Creutzfeldt-Jakob Disease CJD cases rising North America with Canada
seeing an extreme increase of 48% between 2008 and 2010
Saturday, July 6, 2013
*** Small Ruminant Nor98 Prions Share Biochemical Features with Human
Gerstmann-Sträussler-Scheinker Disease and Variably Protease-Sensitive
Sunday, September 08, 2013
***Iatrogenic Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease via surgical instruments and
decontamination possibilities for the TSE prion
lost my mom to hvCJD i.e. the Heidenhain Variant of Creutzfeldt Jakob
Disease hvCJD ‘confirmed’ 12/14/97. just made a promise to her. back then, there
was not much information in the public domain about the TSE prion disease. I
could not and still, to this day, don’t accept the bogus myth that 85%+ of all
human TSE prion disease i.e. sporadic CJD, just happens, without route and
source of anything, a happenstance of bad luck, a spontaneous event, of a
miss-folding protein. and in fact, we are learning today that some of the
sporadic CJDs are being linked to atypical BSE and atypical scrapie, cwd will be
next, if it has not happened already. ...
kind regards, terry
Terry S. Singeltary Sr.
P.O. Box 42
Bacliff, Texas USA 77518