Wednesday, September 04, 2013

cwd - cervid captive livestock escapes, loose and on the run in the wild...

cwd – cervid captive livestock escapes, loose and on the run in the wild...


below, is a history of documented escapes from cervid game farms into the wild. this is not all of the documented and or undocumented escapes of farmed cervids into the wild, this is just what I was able to find via a 10 minute search. ... 


Friday, July 20, 2012


CWD found for first time in Iowa at hunting preserve




Friday, September 21, 2012


Chronic Wasting Disease CWD raises concerns about deer farms in Iowa




Friday, December 14, 2012


IOWA Second Deer Positive for CWD at Davis County Hunting Preserve Captive Shooting Pen




Wednesday, September 05, 2012


Additional Facility in Pottawatamie County Iowa Under Quarantine for CWD after 5 deer test positive




Wednesday, August 21, 2013




15. On April 26, 2013, the Brakkes hand-delivered a notice to the DNR’s Chief of Law Enforcement Bureau, notifying the DNR that they would no longer operate a hunting preserve on the Quarantined Premises. The Brakkes did not reveal any plans to remove the fence around the Quarantined Premises or to remove the gates to and from the Quarantined Premises in this April 26, 2013 letter.


16. On June 3, 2013, DNR became aware that sections of the exterior fence surrounding the Quarantined Premises had been removed and that some, if not all, of the exterior gates to and from the Quarantined Premises were open.


17. On June 4, 2013, DNR received reports from the public in the area that four wild deer were observed inside the Quarantined Premises.


18. On June 5, 2013, DNR conducted a fence inspection, after gaining approval from surrounding landowners, and confirmed that the fenced had been cut or removed in at least four separate locations; that the fence had degraded and was failing to maintain the enclosure around the Quarantined Premises in at least one area; that at least three gates had been opened; and that deer tracks were visible in and around one of the open areas in the sand on both sides of the fence, evidencing movement of deer into the Quarantined Premises.




Thursday, October 11, 2012


Pennsylvania Confirms First Case CWD Adams County Captive Deer Tests Positive




Tuesday, June 11, 2013


CWD GONE WILD, More cervid escapees from more shooting pens on the loose in Pennsylvania




Saturday, June 29, 2013






Tuesday, May 28, 2013


Chronic Wasting Disease CWD quarantine Louisiana via CWD index herd Pennsylvania Update May 28, 2013


6 doe from Pennsylvania CWD index herd still on the loose in Louisiana, quarantine began on October 18, 2012, still ongoing, Lake Charles premises.




Monday, June 24, 2013


The Effects of Chronic Wasting Disease on the Pennsylvania Cervid Industry Following its Discovery




Sunday, January 06, 2013


USDA TO PGC ONCE CAPTIVES ESCAPE "it‘s no longer its business.”




Friday, October 26, 2012






Earl Ray Tomblin, Governor Frank Jezioro, Director


News Release: November 4, 2011


Facebook: WV Commerce - State Parks


Hoy Murphy, Public Information Officer (304) 957-9365 Contact: Curtis Taylor, Wildlife Resources Section Chief 304-558-2771


Elk escape from captive cervid facility in Pennsylvania near West Virginia border


SOUTH CHARLESTON, W.Va. – The West Virginia Division of Natural Resources (WVDNR) has confirmed with officials from the Pennsylvania Department of Agriculture (PDA) that at least two elk, including one adult bull and one cow, have escaped from a captive cervid facility (deer and elk farms) in Greene County, Pa. Greene County shares a common border with Marshall, Wetzel and Monongalia counties in West Virginia. The elk escaped from a captive cervid facility located approximately three miles from the West Virginia-Pennsylvania border.


The PDA regulates captive cervid facilities in Pennsylvania. A representative of the agency was unaware if the recent escaped elk were tagged. The WVDNR regulates captive cervid facilities in West Virginia. In West Virginia, all captive cervids in breeding facilities must be ear-tagged, and there are currently no reported elk escapes from any facility in West Virginia.


A bull elk has been seen recently in Wetzel County, W.Va., according to WVDNR officials. There have been no reports of cow elk sightings in either Wetzel County, W.Va., or Greene County, Pa. No free-ranging wild elk live within 150 miles of Wetzel County. The elk sighted in Wetzel County is likely the escaped animal from the captive facility in Pennsylvania.


Contact between escaped captive deer or elk and free-ranging white-tailed deer increases the risk of disease transmission from the captive animals to the native herd, according WVDNR biologists. The movement and/or escape of captive deer and elk increases this risk of contact and are one of the many possible modes of transmission for Chronic Wasting Disease (CWD) from captive cervids to free-ranging white-tailed deer.


The State of Missouri recently documented CWD in a captive cervid facility. Texas Parks and Wildlife had to euthanize a large captive deer herd after illegal importation of white-tailed deer from a captive facility in Arkansas.


“Monitoring and protecting West Virginia’s deer herd from CWD and other diseases is crucial to West Virginia’s economy and its natural resources,” said WVDNR Director Frank Jezioro. “Deer hunting provides tremendous recreational opportunities for hunters and wildlife viewers, has a large economic impact on its rural communities, and brings in many out-of-state hunters each season to West Virginia.”


WVDNR advises residents in Marshall, Wetzel and Monongalia counties to contact the Farmington District Office at 304-825-6787 if they see an elk in these counties. Hunters are reminded that it is illegal to harvest any free-ranging elk in West Virginia.






Captive deer escape, create some concern Permalink: Captive deer escape, create some concern


by Bob kellam , Posted to Fishing Buddy on 05/03/2006 06:52 AM | Captive deer escape, create some concern By RICHARD HINTON Bismarck Tribune


Eleven captive white-tailed deer escaped from a landowner's enclosure south of Bismarck over the weekend, leading to concerns about the potential spread of disease among wild deer inhabiting MacLean Bottoms.


State veterinarian Susan Keller alerted North Dakota Game and Fish Department biologists about the escape by an e-mail sent on Monday.


"(One) of the deer has returned," Keller wrote in the e-mail. "The owner has ordered CWD sample cups by overnight air and hopes to be able to destroy the escaped deer and test them for CWD."


Keller and deputy state veterinarian Beth Carlson were attending meetings on Tuesday and were not available for comment.


Keller's e-mail identified the landowner as Gerald Landsberger.


"I'm trying to find the problem," he said Tuesday. "It was caused by a stray dog, and I'm trying to find the owner. If word gets out, nobody will 'fess up."


Asked how many whitetails still were missing, he said, "I have nothing else to say at this time."


The concern is having deer that have been confined get loose and mix with wild deer. "That's why the Board of Animal Health has regulations regarding that," said Bill Jensen, a NDGFD big-game biologist.


"Those deer are in a prime river bottom area. It's scary when penned deer mingle with wild deer, especially in an area where we have a pretty high deer density," said Jeb Williams, NDGFD outreach biologist.


Chronic wasting disease is just one concern.


"There are so many unknowns," Williams said.


Ten of the captive deer have small tags in their ears, and one doe has a large white dangle tag in the ear, Keller wrote in her e-mail.


Under current Board of Animal Health policies, the owner of the loose deer has 10 days to recover them, said Greg Link, NDGFD assistant wildlife division chief, who also sits on the nontraditional livestock advisory council.


After that, the Board of Animal Health notifies NDGFD or USDA Wildlife Services that the 10 days are up, and "if you see these deer with the ear tags, dispatch them," Link explained. Tissue samples for CWD testing are taken from any of the deer that are found and killed.


There is no fine unless the owner was not in compliance, Link added.




Monday, June 11, 2012 OHIO


Captive deer escapees and non-reporting




Friday, September 28, 2012


Stray elk renews concerns about deer farm security Minnesota




Sunday, January 27, 2013


Indiana 6 deer missing from farm pose health risk to state herds




Thursday, August 08, 2013


Characterization of the first case of naturally occurring chronic wasting disease in a captive red deer (Cervus elaphus) in North America




Tuesday, April 16, 2013


Cervid Industry Unites To Set Direction for CWD Reform and seem to ignore their ignorance and denial in their role in spreading Chronic Wasting Disease




Tuesday, December 18, 2012


A Growing Threat How deer breeding could put public trust wildlife at risk




Friday, December 14, 2012


DEFRA U.K. What is the risk of Chronic Wasting Disease CWD being introduced into Great Britain? A Qualitative Risk Assessment October 2012





According to Wisconsin’s White-Tailed Deer Trustee Dr. James Kroll, people who call for more public hunting opportunities are “pining for socialism.”


He further states, “(Public) Game management is the last bastion of communism.”


“Game Management,” says James Kroll, driving to his high-fenced, two-hundred-acre spread near Nacogdoches, “is the last bastion of communism.”


Kroll, also known as Dr. Deer, is the director of the Forestry Resources Institute of Texas at Stephen F. Austin State University, and the “management” he is referring to is the sort practiced by the State of Texas.


The 55-year-old Kroll is the leading light in the field of private deer management as a means to add value to the land. His belief is so absolute that some detractors refer to him as Dr. Dough, implying that his eye is on the bottom line more than on the natural world.


Kroll, who has been the foremost proponent of deer ranching in Texas for more than thirty years, doesn’t mind the controversy and certainly doesn’t fade in the heat. People who call for more public lands are “cocktail conservationists,” he says, who are really pining for socialism. He calls national parks “wildlife ghettos” and flatly accuses the government of gross mismanagement. He argues that his relatively tiny acreage, marked by eight-foot fences and posted signs warning off would-be poachers, is a better model for keeping what’s natural natural while making money off the land.




What does this all mean?


My initial reaction, which is one that I predicted when Kroll was named to the state’s deer trustee position, is that his team’s final recommendations — if implemented — will be heavily skewed toward the state’s larger landowners (500+ acres) and folks who own small parcels in areas comprised mostly of private land. It is also my prediction that the final recommendations (again, if implemented) will do little, if anything, to improve deer herds and deer hunting on Wisconsin’s 5.7 million acres of public land. Where does this leave the public-land hunter? “It will suck to be you,” said one deer manager who asked to remain anonymous out of fear for his job. “The resources and efforts will go toward improving the private land sector. This is all about turning deer hunting away from the Public Land Doctrine and more toward a European-style of management — like they have in Texas.”





Friday, June 01, 2012







Thursday, July 11, 2013


The New Hornographers: The Fight Over the Future of Texas Deer, Captive shooting pens, and the CWD TSE prion disease





Thursday, June 13, 2013







Saturday, February 04, 2012


Wisconsin 16 MONTH age limit on testing dead deer Game Farm CWD Testing Protocol Needs To Be Revised





Monday, January 16, 2012






see full text and more here ;








There were 26 reported escape incidents so far this year, this amounted to 20 actual confirmed escape incidents because 3 were previously reported, 2 were confirmed as wild deer, and 1 incident was not confirmed. ... snip... C. & D. Captive Cervid and Law Enforcement Update (11:10 AM)- Warden Pete Dunn gave the captive cervid farm update. There were 26 reported escape incidents so far this year, this amounted to 20 actual confirmed escape incidents because 3 were previously reported, 2 were confirmed as wild deer, and 1 incident was not confirmed. Approximately 30% of these escapes were caused by gates being left open and the other 70% resulted from bad fencing or fence related issues. The 20 actual confirmed escape incidents amounted to 77 total animals. 50 of the escaped animals were recovered or killed and 27 were not recovered and remain unaccounted for. Last year the CWD Committee passed a resolution to require double gates, but this has not gone into effect yet. Questions were raised by the committee about double fencing requirements? Pete responded that double fencing has not been practical or accepted by the industry. The DNR has the authority to do fence inspections. ?If a fence fails to pass the inspection the fencing certificate can be revoked and the farmer can be issued a citation. This year three citations and one warning have been issued for escapes. Pete reviewed the reporting requirements for escape incidents that these must be reported within 24 hours. The farmer then has 72 hours to recover the animals or else it will affect the farm’s herd status and ability to move animals. Davin proposed in the 15 year CWD Plan that the DNR take total control and regulatory authority over all deer farm fencing. Larry Gohlke asked Pete about the reliability for reporting escapes? Pete said that the majority of escapes were reported by the farmer, but it is very difficult to determine when an escape actually occurred. Pete said that they are more concerned that an escape is reported and not that it is reported at the exact time that it happened.







The Wisconsin DNR has issued a report on the results of an audit of the deer farms in their state. This is a very interesting report and sheds light on the operation of these facilities. A couple of interesting findings is that DNR investigators documented the escape of 436 deer into the wild from game farms. These escapes are from approximately 1/3 of the deer facilities in the state. Additionally, several cash transactions were uncovered where the required shipping tags were not used and record keeping ranged from very meticulous to trying to rely on memory. At one facility, investigators found partially burnt records in a trashcan. The complete report can be downloaded at:


Attempts in the legislature of Montana to negate or change the citizen vote to ban game farms continue. Previously, several bills to overturn the ban had been introduced or discussed. Citizen response has been to maintain the ban. Current efforts are to provide a buy out to the operators of the remaining facilities. The latest bill, introduced by Representative Jim Peterson would provide funds to pay farmers up to $6,000 per animal. The bill will be heard in the Montana Agriculture Committee, which has been friendly to operators in the past.






In brief, the audits revealed:



• The majority of whitetail deer farm fences were in compliance with state laws; however, 77 farms were found to be in violation of fence specifications. As with any other problem, violations were handled on a case by case basis taking into account all of the circumstances.


• Deer farms contained at least 16,070 deer.


• Most deer farmers reported they have not experienced problems with escapes; however, 182 deer farmers reported escapes or intentional releases into the wild.


• Deer farmers reported at least 436 escaped deer that had not been recovered or returned to farms.


• Twenty-four deer farms were unlicensed.


• Records maintained by deer farm operators ranged from meticulous documentation to relying on memory.


• Wardens discovered a variety of law violations during the course of the audit and inspection process, some of which they did not have jurisdiction to pursue.


• Tracking of individual deer without individual identification was almost impossible.


• Over the past three years at least 1,222 deer died on deer farms due to various reasons. Disease testing was not performed nor required on the majority of deer.






Thursday, February 09, 2012






how many states have $465,000., and can quarantine and purchase there from, each cwd said infected farm, but how many states can afford this for all the cwd infected cervid game ranch type farms ???


Tuesday, December 20, 2011




The CWD infection rate was nearly 80%, the highest ever in a North American captive herd.


RECOMMENDATION: That the Board approve the purchase of 80 acres of land for $465,000 for the Statewide Wildlife Habitat Program in Portage County and approve the restrictions on public use of the site.











Elk & game farming in other states Utah Fish and Game Dept


The state of Utah has little experience with big game farming. In an effort to understand elk and game farming, the Division has contacted other states that allow elk farming. The following are some of the problems other states associate with elk farming reported to the Division: MONTANA Karen Zachiem with Montana Parks and Wildlife reported that Montana allows game farming. Initial regulations were inadequate to protect the state's wildlife resources. The state has tried to tighten up regulations related to game farming, resulting in a series of lawsuits against the state from elk ranchers. Zachiem reported that the tightening of regulations was in response to the discovery of TB in wildlife (elk, deer, and coyotes) surrounding a TB infected game farm. TB has been found on several game farms in Montana. Also, they have had problems with wildlife entering game farms as well as game farm animals escaping the farms. Finally, there has been a growth in shooting ranches in Montana. Game farmers allow hunters to come into enclosures to kill trophy game farm animals, raising the issues of fair chase and hunting ethics. WASHINGTON Rolph Johnson with the Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife, reported that Washington allows game farming, but it is strictly regulated to safeguard wildlife. Washington opposed the law when first proposed for the following reasons: introduction of disease and parasites; hybridization of wildlife species; habitat loss; health risks to humans, wildlife, and livestock; and state responsibility to recover or destroy escaped elk. Game farming is not cost effective due to the restrictions needed to prevent these problems. NEW MEXICO Jerry Macacchini, with New Mexico Game and Fish, reported that New Mexico has problems with game farming and a moratorium on elk and game farming has been imposed by the state at the request of its citizens. Problems identified in the moratorium were: escaped game farm animals; theft of native elk herds; and disease. OREGON Dan Edwards, with Oregon Fish and Wildlife, reported that Oregon has very little elk farming and is now prohibited by regulation. The elk farms that are in operation existed prior to the adoption of game farm regulations. Individuals who want to elk farm, must buy out an existing elk farm owner. Elk farms are no longer permitted due to, "...current and imminent threats to Oregon's native deer and elk herds and social and economic values.'' Oregon has documented numerous game farm animals that have escapeed from private game farms. Concerns about elk farming arose during public elk management meetings. The impacts of privately held cervids on publicly owned wildlife were a recurring issue throughout the elk management process. Key issues included: disease and parasites; escape and interbreeding of domestic animals with native wildlife; illegal kills for meat; and theft of public wildlife. WYOMING Harry Harju, assistant wildlife chief with Wyoming Fish and Game, reported that elk or game farming is now prohibited in Wyoming. Only one game ranch exists in Wyoming, which was operating before the passage of the law. The state of Wyoming was sued by several game breeders associations for not allowing elk farming. The game breeders lost their suit in the United States Court of Appeals, Tenth Circuit. The court maintained that the state had authority to regulate commerce and protect wildlife. Wyoming has had problems with big game farming originating in surrounding states. Wyoming has documented the harvest of red deer and their hybrids during elk hunts on the Snowy Mountain range that borders Colorado. Wyoming speculates that the red deer were escapees from Colorado game farms. Hybridization is viewed as threat to the genetic integrity of Wyoming's wild elk population. In a public hearing, the public voted against game farms in the state of Wyoming. Wyoming's Cattlemen's Association and Department of Agriculture opposed elk and big game farms, as well, particularly due to disease risks. Brucellosis is a major problem for wildlife and livestock in the Yellowstone Basin.


NEVADA Nevada reports that big game farms are allowed in Nevada. Nevada has not had any problems as a result of big game farms. However, Nevada has only one big game farm in the entire state and it is a reindeer farm. IDAHO Wildlife Chief Tom Rienecker reported that Idaho Fish and Game once regulated elk farming in their state, but lost jurisdiction of elk farming to the Department of Agriculture as a result of pressure from elk farmers. Idaho has 20-30 big game ranches. Idaho has had problems with escapes and several law enforcement cases have been filed against suspects who have taken calves out of the wild for elk farming purposes. Disease has not been a problem for Idaho. COLORADO John Seidel, with Colorado Division of Wildlife, reported that the Division used to regulate big game farming until the big game breeders association petitioned for the Department of Agriculture to assume authority over big game farming because too many citations were issued to elk farms for violations. Colorado experienced numerous poaching incidents with elk calves from the wild and theft of whole herds of wild elk captured in private farms. Seidel reported that some of the larger "elk shooting ranches" have been investigated and charged with capturing wild herds of elk within the shooting preserve fences. Seidel reported that there have been documented problems with disease (TB); escaped hybrids and exotics; intrusion of rutting wild elk into game farms; massive recapture efforts for escapees and intruders; and loss of huge tracts of land fenced for shooting preserves/ranches. Based on their experiences, the Colorado Division of Wildlife wishes they did not have big game farms in Colorado. Seidel believes that CEBA would fight hard to open Utah to elk farming to provide a market for breeding stock in Utah ($3,000 & up for a bull and $8,000 & up for a breeding cow). ARIZONA The Arizona Game and Fish Department reports that elk farming is legal in Arizona but the agency would not allow it if they had to do it all over again. Arizona reported the loss of huge blocks of land to fencing and some disease problems. ALBERTA, CANADA Alberta has allowed elk farming for a number of years. To date, Alberta has spent $10,000,000 and destroyed 2,000 elk in an unsuccessful attempt to control the spread of tuberculosis. Based upon the game farming experiences of these states, their recommendation to Utah was not to allow elk farming. OTHER The Division has contacted several state and federal veterinarians. The opinions of some agricultural veterinarians differed from wildlife veterinarians. Some veterinarians endorsed elk farming with the right regulatory safeguards. Other veterinarians opposed elk farming due to the risks to wildlife and livestock. This issue needs a more comprehensive review. The Division also contacted a Special Agent with the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service who conducted a covert investigation in Colorado to gather intelligence on elk farming and detect poaching activity of wild elk. Although poaching was not detected, the agent described his experience with pyramid schemes in elk sales; lack of a meat market; falsification of veterinarian records for farmed elk; escapes and intrusions between wild and captive elk; inadequate inspections by brand inspectors; transportation of TB infected elk; and the temperament of the elk themselves. The Colorado Elk Breeders Association (CEBA) told the Division that CEBA did not approve of elk poaching and has turned in fellow elk farmers for poaching live elk calves from the wild.


CEBA told Utah legislators that the Colorado Division of Wildlife did not like elk ranching at first, but has come to see that elk farming is not as bad as they originally thought it would be. The Colorado Division of Wildlife disagreed with CEBA's perception of their relationship.


Keep 'em wild: Montana should ban canned hunts. Whitefish elk farm draws fire from hunters, biologists By STEVE THOMPSON Missoula Independent, also the Whitefish Pilot 13 Sep 1998 Ph: 406/862-3795 Fax: 406/862-5344


"Although not everyone sees it the same way, Kalispell legislator Bob Spoklie says his controversial plan to develop an elk shooting gallery on 160 acres near Whitefish is rooted in the richest of Montana traditions-private property, pleasure and profit. Flaring like a bull elk in rut, Spoklie rages against those who disagree with his intentions. "These are not public wildlife," Spoklie told me angrily. "These are our animals and not anyone else's. We'll do as we please." If his political opponents succeed in banning canned elk hunts, Spoklie warns, the next step will be to eliminate all public hunting. "That's the real agenda here," he said.


By contrast, next door in Wyoming, the suggestion that Rocky Mountain elk can be penned, hand-fed and then shot is more than a disgusting notion. It's illegal. In fact, the Cowboy State has gone so far as to prohibit all private game farms. Utah also prohibits canned elk hunts. Listening to Spoklie, one might be convinced that Utah and Wyoming are governed by a bunch of socialist, animal-rights activists. But the truth is those states are hardly run by left-wing zealots. Rather, lawmakers there have chosen to honor a Western tradition as deeply rooted as Spoklie's rather crass libertarianism.


This conservation heritage was pioneered by Theodore Roosevelt and others who established wildlife as a public commons. Wildlife laws in those states seek to protect hunters' fair-chase pursuit of healthy, free-ranging game. According to Dick Sadler, a long-time Democratic legislator in Wyoming now retired, elk hunting farms violate the very spirit of the West. In the 1970s, he joined forces with Republican John Turner to pass landmark legislation which banned game farms. Sadler and Turner had researched game farms in other states, and they came away with a bitter taste.


Spoklie, however, says elk and other big game have been converted to private livestock around the world. "Montana is so far behind that we think we're leading," he says. As the founder of the Montana Alternative Livestock Association, Spoklie is clearly frustrated about the clamor surrounding his attempts to domesticate elk in Whitefish. But then he has been one of the chief lobbyists for the game farm industry. Due in large part to his influence, Montana legislators have resisted attempts to copy Wyoming's game farm ban, including former Florence Senator Terry Klampe's proposed moratorium in 1995.


But Sadler, a lifelong hunter, offers the following evidence for what's wrong with canned hunting: "I saw a film of one of those canned hunts in Michigan, where the guys get up and have a big breakfast, put on their hunting clothes, walk outside, shoot the animals in an enclosure and then congratulate themselves. "That was one of the most disgusting things I've ever seen."


As the proposal to ban game farms wound through the Wyoming legislature, though, Sadler focused on more pragmatic arguments. Today, he still complains about the threat of disease transmission to wild animals, genetic pollution and loss of habitat to enclosures.


It was the Republican Turner, who later became George Bush's Fish and Wildlife Service director, who invoked the West's sporting heritage. "Turner's argument to the legislature was that you can't take a magnificent animal like an elk and allow some slob to shoot it inside a fence," Sadler says. Ultimately, most Wyoming legislators agreed that it just wasn't proper to domesticate and commercialize a wild animal like elk.


To Spoklie's dismay, the debate locally is getting louder, and his loudest opponents are sportsmen. Making the biggest waves are the Montana Wildlife Federation, the Rocky Mountain Elk Foundation, Orion: The Hunter's Institute, and a coalition of neighbors and hunters in the Whitefish area.


Orion's founder Jim Posewitz, a retired wildlife biologist, says canned hunts jeopardize public acceptance of the real thing. A leading advocate of "fair chase" hunting, which emphasizes the almost sacred relationship between hunter and prey, Posewitz argues that the majority of non-hunting Americans will tolerate hunting only if it is conducted with the highest ethics. "Game farms are an abomination," he says.


Spoklie, an appointed lawmaker who recently lost the Republican primary election, dismisses such statements as "differences of philosophy" that don't stack up against private property rights. If someone's willing to pay thousands of dollars to shoot a penned elk, then that's good both for him and Montana's economy, he says.


Karen Zackheim, game farm coordinator for the state Department of Fish, Wildlife and Parks, says the issue goes beyond philosophy. The most pressing statewide concern, she says, is chronic wasting, an elk version of mad cow disease. The little known disease, for which there is neither a test nor a cure, recently killed captive elk in several Western states and has spread to wild game in some places. Zackheim also has identified other potential problems with the Spoklie elk farm.


Spoklie makes it clear that Zackheim and others should butt out. And some Montana lawmakers seem willing to listen to him, having recently stripped state wildlife officials of some oversight responsibilities. Now, Spoklie would prefer even less state oversight, including his permit application currently under review.


For Montanans, ultimately, the choice looms between the competing visions offered by Bob Spoklie and our Western neighbors. Montana lawmakers should follow Wyoming's lead and remove our wildlife heritage from the private marketplace. For the sake of both the hunter and the hunted, private elk farms should be banned."




Bad news on game farm elk Dr. Holland, South Dakota State Veterinarian 20 Dec 98 news release



Some initial SD data released by Dr. Holland, SD State Veterinarian was verified with two of his colleagues. There are 39 game farm elk in South Dakota with confirmed chronic wasting disease in 1998, out of 179 tested (22%). There are 4 or 5 herds involved - all are from game farm animals, none are from the fall hunt. The total number of elk studied is not yet available for wild elk. Two white-tail deer are also affected, also captive animals.





Tue, 23 Jun 1998 (AP)


 HELENA- A debilitating disease that showed up in an elk transported from a Montana game farm to Oklahoma has prompted a protective quarantine at two game farms, State Veterinarian Arnold Gertonson said Monday. One is the Kesler Game Farm near Philipsburg, where the elk was sold, and the other is near Hardin where other Kesler elk have been shipped, Gertonson said.


The infected elk was shipped two years ago, and Gertonson said it is unknown if the fatal disease was present in the elk then. "The disease has a long incubation of unknown duration," Gertonson said of chronic wasting disease. It causes deer and elk to waste away and die.





There are now at least 5 known captive research facilities and at least 3 zoos and 5 game farms involved in CWD, all traceable if you want to shipments of animals out of Ft. Collins. These are:


1. Sybille Wildlife Research and Education Center, Visitor Center and Wildlife Viewing Sites - on Hwy. 34, about 28 miles SW from I25 exit south of Wheatland State of Wyoming - Game and Fish Department - Sybille Visitor Center 2362 Highway 34 Wheatland State WY 82201 Phone 307-322-2784 from 4


2. Kremmling. Colorado State University - Cooperative Extension - Grand County PO. Box 475 Kremmling State CO 80459 Phone 303-724-3436 from 1


3. Meeker. Colorado State University - Cooperative Extension - Rio Blanco County 779 Sulphur Creek Road, Box 270 City Meeker CO 81641 Phone 303-878-4093 from 1


4. Main Ft. Collins facility. State of Colorado - Division of Wildlife - Wildlife Research Center State of Colorado - Division of Wildlife - Wildlife Research Center 317 West Prospect City Fort Collins CO 80526 Phone 970-484-2836


5. Wild Animal Disease Center, CSU, Ft. Collins exchanging cervids with 4


6. Denver zoo receiving mule deer from 4


7. Toronto zoo receiving mule deer from 4


8. Wyoming zoo receiving mule deer from 1


9. South Dakota game farm receiving calf elk from 1 or 4 [?]


10. Regina, Saskatchewan game farm receiving South Dakota elk, 27 April, 1996 confirmation. from 9


11. 12 cases of CWD reported now from S. Dakota, at least 2 different herds, seemingly 3-4 game farms, from 1 and 4.












CWD mortality




Excerpted and modified from a paper presented at the 67th North American Wildlife and Natural Resources Conference, April 2002. By Elizabeth S. Williams, Michael W. Miller and E. Tom Thorne. Original paper may be accessed through the Bibliography.


Chronic wasting disease can reach remarkably high prevalence in captive cervid populations. In one infected research facility, more than 90% of mule deer resident for >2 years died or were euthanized while suffering from CWD. Recently, high CWD prevalence (about 50%) has been demonstrated via immunohistochemistry in white-tailed deer confined in association with an infected Nebraska elk farm. Among captive elk, CWD was the primary cause of adult mortality (five of seven, 71%; four of 23, 23%) in two research herds (Miller et al. 1998) and high prevalence (59%) was detected by immunohistochemistry in a group of 17 elk slaughtered from an infected farm herd.


To estimate prevalence in infected free-ranging populations, tissues from deer and elk harvested by hunters in CWD-endemic areas have been collected and examined at random. Within endemic areas, prevalence of preclinical CWD, based on immunohistochemistry for PrPCWD, has been estimated at <1-15 a="" achieve="" and="" cwd="" deer="" div="" elk.="" epidemics="" equilibrium="" extinctions="" failed="" if="" in="" infected="" lead="" left="" local="" may="" modeled="" mule="" of="" populations="" steady-state="" suggesting="" that="" to="" unmanaged.="">



In most locations reporting CWD cases in free-ranging animals, the disease continues to emerge in wider geographic areas, and prevalence appears to be increasing in many disease-endemic areas. Areas of Wyoming now have an apparent CWD prevalence of near 50% in mule deer, and prevalence in areas of Colorado and Wisconsin is <15 0="" 10="" 5="" according="" agencies.="" and="" areas="" between="" but="" data="" deer.="" deer="" div="" elk="" from="" however="" in="" is="" lower="" many="" obtained="" of="" parts="" prevalence="" provincial="" reaches="" remains="" reports="" state="" than="" to="" wildlife="" wyoming.="">

Long-term effects of CWD on cervid populations and ecosystems remain unclear as the disease continues to spread and prevalence increases. In captive herds, CWD might persist at high levels and lead to complete herd destruction in the absence of human culling. Epidemiologic modeling suggests the disease could have severe effects on free-ranging deer populations, depending on hunting policies and environmental persistence (8,9). CWD has been associated with large decreases in free-ranging mule deer populations in an area of high CWD prevalence (Boulder, Colorado, USA) (5).


More than 1,060,000 free-ranging cervids have reportedly been tested for CWD (Figure 2, panel B) and ≈6,000 cases have been identified (Figure 2, panel C) according to data from state and provincial wildlife agencies.




In addition to locations of known CWD-positive individuals, other spatial risk factors related to CWD exposure should be considered. For example, the risk of free-ranging animals being exposed to CWD is likely greater in areas where captive cervid facilities have or had CWD-positive animals. Current evidence indicates that CWD infection rates are much higher in captive facilities than in wild populations (Keane and others, 2008), and perhaps this is driven by environmental contamination (Miller and others, 2006). This higher rate of infection in captive animals can increase the risk of disease exposure to surrounding wild populations. Furthermore, movement of infectious animals, carcasses, or other materials across the landscape, naturally or with human assistance, likely increases the risk to uninfected populations. The frequent movement of farmed elk (Cervus elaphus) and deer between production facilities, the concentration of infected animals on some facilities, and the possibility of their escape into the wild increases the risk of spreading CWD to uninfected populations of free-ranging animals. Because the infectious prions may persist in the environment for long periods, the introduction of either captive or free-ranging uninfected animals into a contaminated environment could increase their risk of infection. For example, locations from which sheep have been removed may remain contaminated with scrapie agent for more than 15 years (Georgsson and others, 2006). In a similar manner, translocation of cervids from areas that have not been documented to be CWD-free could pose a risk of disease introduction. In this situation, the risk of introduction is likely related to the probability of infected animals being moved and their ability to spread CWD to other susceptible animals or into the environment. Thus, surveillance on and around cervid farms or free-ranging populations that have received animals from known CWD areas and bordering jurisdictions with CWD-positive animals can increase the likelihood of disease spread. Additional risk factors, such as the presence of scrapie in sheep populations that are sympatric with deer and elk (Greenlee and others, 2011), feeding of animal protein to cervids (Johnson, McKenzie, and others, 2011), baiting and feeding programs (Thompson and others, 2008), or other environmental factors also may be considered, although their roles in CWD epidemiology has not been clearly established.




please remember, captive cervids are now considered _livestock_ $$$



Final Rule: Traceability for Livestock Moved Interstate January 11, 2013 Summary of General Requirements by Species Effective Date: March 11, 2013 The Traceability for Livestock Moved Interstate rule establishes minimum national official identification and documentation requirements for the traceability of livestock moving interstate. The species covered in the rule include cattle and bison, sheep and goats, swine, horses and other equines, captive cervids (e.g., deer and elk), and poultry. The covered animals moved interstate, unless otherwise exempt, would have to be officially identified and accompanied by an interstate certificate of veterinary inspection (ICVI) or other movement document. The requirements do not apply to livestock moving:







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