Monday, April 07, 2014
CWD confirmed in elk herd
Posted Apr. 7th, 2014 by William DeKay
Seventy-one cases of chronic wasting disease have been recorded in deer and elk herds in Canada since 1996. | File photo Seventy-one cases of chronic wasting disease have been recorded in deer and elk herds in Canada since 1996. | File photo
. Sask. farm | Wildlife official says disease must be taken seriously
Saskatchewan’s first chronic wasting disease case of the year has been confirmed.
The Canadian Food Inspection Agency reported on its website that an elk farm was confirmed as infected Feb. 3.
This brings the total number of domestic deer and elk herds in Canada to 71 since CWD was first documented in 1996.
A high of 21 cases was recorded in 2001, but most years since have averaged three confirmations per year.
Terry Bolinger, regional director of the Canadian Wildlife Health Co-operative in Saskatoon, warned against not taking the disease seriously just because the number of cases is low.
“This problem is not going to go away. It’s well established in wildlife populations so it is going to continue to be introduced into game ranches due to contact with wildlife reservoirs,” said Bolinger.
“It indicates (the one case) that it’s smoldering along as a disease that crosses into game ranches.… As it spreads more widely in the province, if they don’t enhance their biosecurity around game ranches, I think those numbers will start to increase again.”
CWD is a reportable disease under the Health of Animals Regulations, and all suspected cases must be reported to the CFIA. Testing is mandatory in Manitoba, Saskatchewan, Alberta and the Yukon. Reporting is voluntary in the rest of Canada.
Bolinger said there’s evidence that the prevalence of CWD is increasing in areas where it is established. There’s also confirmation that it’s spreading further in Saskatchewan and Alberta.
There are also potential concerns beyond wild cervids.
“It’s transmissible to caribou, reindeer and they’ve detected it in moose in other locations,” he said.
Bolinger said proposed strategies include reducing contact with wild populations of deer and elk, but further research is needed on how to deal with the disease in the wild.
One possible bright spot is research by the Vaccine Infectious Disease Organization (VIDO-InterVac) in Saskatoon.
“There are some potential developments that might be useful in managing the disease in game ranches and in the wild, but we don’t have any concrete solutions at this stage.”
Current as of: 2014-02-28
Domestic cervid herds confirmed to be infected with CWD in Canada in 2014 Date confirmed Location Animal type infected February 3 Saskatchewan Elk
Chapter 5 - Export to the U.S. 5.7 Cervids
Between 1996 and 2002, chronic wasting disease was diagnosed in 39 herds of farmed elk in Saskatchewan in a single epidemic. All of these herds were depopulated as part of the Canadian Food Inspection Agency’s (CFIA) disease eradication program. Animals, primarily over 12 mo of age, were tested for the presence CWD prions following euthanasia. Twenty-one of the herds were linked through movements of live animals with latent CWD from a single infected source herd in Saskatchewan, 17 through movements of animals from 7 of the secondarily infected herds.
***The source herd is believed to have become infected via importation of animals from a game farm in South Dakota where CWD was subsequently diagnosed (7,4). A wide range in herd prevalence of CWD at the time of herd depopulation of these herds was observed. Within-herd transmission was observed on some farms, while the disease remained confined to the introduced animals on other farms.
The CFIA’s eradication policy was developed in year 2000, based on the best available information at that time. The working assumptions were the following: CWD affects elk, mule deer, and white-tailed deer; the maximum incubation period in cervids is 36 mo; clinical cases are infectious for up to 18 mo before death; spread occurs primarily via direct contact; CWD prions are highly resistant to degradation; and the environment can be a source of infection (15). The classical disease control principles employed by the CFIA in the eradication effort included the following: quarantine and depopulation of CWD-infected herds; testing of euthanized animals > 12 mo of age; tracing of all contacts to the infected herd; euthanasia and testing of animals in contact with infected animals within 36 mo of CWD diagnosis; and surveillance of those in contact with infected animals between 36 and 60 mo (4). These assumptions and policies appear to have successfully controlled the spread of CWD in farmed elk in Canada (4).
Friday, May 13, 2011
Chronic Wasting Disease (CWD) outbreaks and surveillance program in the Republic of Korea Chronic Wasting Disease (CWD) outbreaks and surveillance program in the Republic of Korea
Hyun-Joo Sohn, Yoon-Hee Lee, Min-jeong Kim, Eun-Im Yun, Hyo-Jin Kim, Won-Yong Lee, Dong-Seob Tark, In- Soo Cho, Foreign Animal Disease Research Division, National Veterinary Research and Quarantine Service, Republic of Korea
Chronic wasting disease (CWD) has been recognized as an important prion disease in native North America deer and Rocky mountain elks. The disease is a unique member of the transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (TSEs), which naturally affects only a few species. CWD had been limited to USA and Canada until 2000. On 28 December 2000, information from the Canadian government showed that a total of 95 elk had been exported from farms with CWD to Korea. These consisted of 23 elk in 1994 originating from the so-called “source farm” in Canada, and 72 elk in 1997, which had been held in pre export quarantine at the “source farm”.Based on export information of CWD suspected elk from Canada to Korea, CWD surveillance program was initiated by the Ministry of Agriculture and Forestry (MAF) in 2001. All elks imported in 1997 were traced back, however elks imported in 1994 were impossible to identify. CWD control measures included stamping out of all animals in the affected farm, and thorough cleaning and disinfection of the premises. In addition, nationwide clinical surveillance of Korean native cervids, and improved measures to ensure reporting of CWD suspect cases were implemented. Total of 9 elks were found to be affected. CWD was designated as a notifiable disease under the Act for Prevention of Livestock Epidemics in 2002. Additional CWD cases - 12 elks and 2 elks - were diagnosed in 2004 and 2005. Since February of 2005, when slaughtered elks were found to be positive, all slaughtered cervid for human consumption at abattoirs were designated as target of the CWD surveillance program. Currently, CWD laboratory testing is only conducted by National Reference Laboratory on CWD, which is the Foreign Animal Disease Division (FADD) of National Veterinary Research and Quarantine Service (NVRQS). In July 2010, one out of 3 elks from Farm 1 which were slaughtered for the human consumption was confirmed as positive. Consequently, all cervid – 54 elks, 41 Sika deer and 5 Albino deer – were culled and one elk was found to be positive. Epidemiological investigations were conducted by Veterinary Epidemiology Division (VED) of NVRQS in collaboration with provincial veterinary services. Epidemiologically related farms were found as 3 farms and all cervid at these farms were culled and subjected to CWD diagnosis. Three elks and 5 crossbreeds (Red deer and Sika deer) were confirmed as positive at farm 2. All cervids at Farm 3 and Farm 4 – 15 elks and 47 elks – were culled and confirmed as negative. Further epidemiological investigations showed that these CWD outbreaks were linked to the importation of elks from Canada in 1994 based on circumstantial evidences. In December 2010, one elk was confirmed as positive at Farm 5. Consequently, all cervid – 3 elks, 11 Manchurian Sika deer and 20 Sika deer – were culled and one Manchurian Sika deer and seven Sika deer were found to be positive. This is the first report of CWD in these sub-species of deer. Epidemiological investigations found that the owner of the Farm 2 in CWD outbreaks in July 2010 had co-owned the Farm 5. In addition, it was newly revealed that one positive elk was introduced from Farm 6 of Jinju-si Gyeongsang Namdo. All cervid – 19 elks, 15 crossbreed (species unknown) and 64 Sika deer – of Farm 6 were culled, but all confirmed as negative. : Corresponding author: Dr. Hyun-Joo Sohn (+82-31-467-1867, E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org)
2011 Pre-congress Workshop: TSEs in animals and their environment 5
Friday, May 13, 2011
Chronic Wasting Disease (CWD) outbreaks and surveillance program in the Republic of Korea
Monday, June 18, 2012
natural cases of CWD in eight Sika deer (Cervus nippon) and five Sika/red deer crossbreeds captive Korea and Experimental oral transmission to red deer (Cervus elaphus elaphus)
Sunday, January 06, 2013
USDA TO PGC ONCE CAPTIVES ESCAPE
*** "it‘s no longer its business.” ***
Saturday, June 29, 2013
PENNSYLVANIA CAPTIVE CWD INDEX HERD MATE YELLOW *47 STILL RUNNING LOOSE IN INDIANA, YELLOW NUMBER 2 STILL MISSING, AND OTHERS ON THE RUN STILL IN LOUISIANA
Tuesday, May 28, 2013
Chronic Wasting Disease CWD quarantine Louisiana via CWD index herd Pennsylvania Update May 28, 2013
*** 6 doe from Pennsylvania CWD index herd still on the loose in Louisiana, quarantine began on October 18, 2012, still ongoing, Lake Charles premises.
Monday, June 24, 2013
The Effects of Chronic Wasting Disease on the Pennsylvania Cervid Industry Following its Discovery
Tuesday, June 11, 2013
CWD GONE WILD, More cervid escapees from more shooting pens on the loose in Pennsylvania
Wednesday, August 21, 2013
IOWA DNR EMERGENCY CONSENT ORDER IN THE MATTER OF TOM & LINDA BRAKKE D/B/A PINE RIDGE HUNTING LODGE UPDATE AUGUST 21, 2013
5. On July 16, 2012, DNR received a notice from the Texas Veterinary Medical Diagnostic Lab ("Texas Vet Lab”) that a sample from an adult male deer killed at Pine Ridge tested presumptively positive for CWD. (DNR has an agreement with the Texas Vet Lab to run these preliminary tests.) Because the Texas Vet Lab found this presumptive positive result, protocols required the sample to be sent to the National Veterinary Services Laboratory ("National Lab”) in Ames, Iowa for final confirmation. On July 18, 2012, the National Lab confirmed the positive CWD result in the deer.
6. On July 19, 2012, DNR notified the Brakkes of the positive test by phone. Mr. Brakke was out of state.
12. The Brakkes depopulated the Hunting Preserve, as specified in the Agreement, from September 10, 2012 to January 31, 2013. As part of this effort, the Brakkes, the staff and their customers killed 199 captive deer and nine captive elk. The DNR obtained 170 CWD samples. (Samples were not taken from fawns and one adult female who was killed in a manner that made sampling impossible.) Of these 199 deer, two additional adult male deer tested positive for CWD. Information provided by the Brakkes confirmed that these two additional deer originated from the Brakke Breeding Facility.
13. DNR installed, with the Brakke's permission, an interior electric fence on October 1 and 2, 2012.
14. The Brakkes cleaned and disinfected, under DNR supervision, the feeders and ground surrounding the feeders on April 5, 2013.
15. On April 26, 2013, the Brakkes hand-delivered a notice to the DNR’s Chief of Law Enforcement Bureau, notifying the DNR that they would no longer operate a hunting preserve on the Quarantined Premises. The Brakkes did not reveal any plans to remove the fence around the Quarantined Premises or to remove the gates to and from the Quarantined Premises in this April 26, 2013 letter.
16. On June 3, 2013, DNR became aware that sections of the exterior fence surrounding the Quarantined Premises had been removed and that some, if not all, of the exterior gates to and from the Quarantined Premises were open.
17. On June 4, 2013, DNR received reports from the public in the area that four wild deer were observed inside the Quarantined Premises.
18. On June 5, 2013, DNR conducted a fence inspection, after gaining approval from surrounding landowners, and confirmed that the fenced had been cut or removed in at least four separate locations; that the fence had degraded and was failing to maintain the enclosure around the Quarantined Premises in at least one area; that at least three gates had been opened; and that deer tracks were visible in and around one of the open areas in the sand on both sides of the fence, evidencing movement of deer into the Quarantined Premises.
IV. CONCLUSIONS OF LAW
Wednesday, August 21, 2013 IOWA DNR EMERGENCY CONSENT ORDER IN THE MATTER OF TOM & LINDA BRAKKE D/B/A PINE RIDGE HUNTING LODGE UPDATE AUGUST 21, 2013
Wisconsin : 436 Deer Have Escaped From Farms to Wild
Date: March 18, 2003 Source: Milwaukee Journal Sentinel
Contacts: LEE BERGQUIST email@example.com
State finds violations, lax record keeping at many sites, report says A state inspection of private deer farms, prompted by the discovery of chronic wasting disease, found that 436 white-tailed deer escaped into the wild, officials said Tuesday
The Department of Natural Resources found that captive deer have escaped from one-third of the state's 550 deer farms over the lifetime of the operations. The agency also uncovered hundreds of violations and has sought a total of 60 citations or charges against deer farm operators.
Hundreds of deer escape
The DNR found a total of 671 deer that escaped farms - 436 of which were never found - because of storm-damaged fences, gates being left open or the animals jumping over or through fences.
In one example in Kewaunee County, a deer farmer's fence was knocked down in a summer storm. Ten deer escaped, and the farmer told the DNR he had no intention of trying to reclaim them. The DNR found five of the deer, killed them and cited the farmer for violation of a regulation related to fencing.
Another deer farmer near Mishicot, in Manitowoc County, released all nine of his whitetails last summer after he believed the discovery of chronic wasting disease was going to drive down the market for captive deer.
The DNR found 24 instances of unlicensed deer farms and issued 19 citations.
Game Farms Inspected
A summary of the findings of the Department of Natural Resources' inspection of 550 private white-tailed deer farms in the state: The deer farms contained at least 16,070 deer, but the DNR believes there are more deer in captivity than that because large deer farms are unable to accurately count their deer. 671 deer had escaped from game farms, including 436 that were never found.
24 farmers were unlicensed. One had been operating illegally since 1999 after he was denied a license because his deer fence did not meet minimum specifications.
Records maintained by operators ranged from "meticulous documentation to relying on memory." At least 227 farms conducted various portions of their deer farm business with cash. Over the last three years, 1,222 deer died on farms for various reasons. Disease testing was not performed nor required on the majority of deer. Farmers reported doing business with people in 22 other states and one Canadian province. ..
Thursday, October 03, 2013
*** TAHC ADOPTS CWD RULE THAT the amendments __REMOVE__ the requirement for a specific fence height for captives ***
Texas Animal Health Commission (TAHC)
October 3, 2013
Earl Ray Tomblin, Governor Frank Jezioro, Director
News Release: November 4, 2011
Facebook: WV Commerce - State Parks
Hoy Murphy, Public Information Officer (304) 957-9365 firstname.lastname@example.org Contact: Curtis Taylor, Wildlife Resources Section Chief 304-558-2771 DNR.Wildlife@wv.gov
Elk escape from captive cervid facility in Pennsylvania near West Virginia border
SOUTH CHARLESTON, W.Va. – The West Virginia Division of Natural Resources (WVDNR) has confirmed with officials from the Pennsylvania Department of Agriculture (PDA) that at least two elk, including one adult bull and one cow, have escaped from a captive cervid facility (deer and elk farms) in Greene County, Pa. Greene County shares a common border with Marshall, Wetzel and Monongalia counties in West Virginia. The elk escaped from a captive cervid facility located approximately three miles from the West Virginia-Pennsylvania border.
The PDA regulates captive cervid facilities in Pennsylvania. A representative of the agency was unaware if the recent escaped elk were tagged. The WVDNR regulates captive cervid facilities in West Virginia. In West Virginia, all captive cervids in breeding facilities must be ear-tagged, and there are currently no reported elk escapes from any facility in West Virginia.
A bull elk has been seen recently in Wetzel County, W.Va., according to WVDNR officials. There have been no reports of cow elk sightings in either Wetzel County, W.Va., or Greene County, Pa. No free-ranging wild elk live within 150 miles of Wetzel County. The elk sighted in Wetzel County is likely the escaped animal from the captive facility in Pennsylvania.
Monday, June 11, 2012
*** OHIO Captive deer escapees and non-reporting ***
Friday, September 28, 2012
Stray elk renews concerns about deer farm security Minnesota
Wednesday, January 02, 2013
Iowa Third Deer Positive CWD at Davis County Hunting Preserve Captive Shooting Pen
Tuesday, March 26, 2013
CWD Missouri remains confined to Linn-Macon-County Core Area with four new cases
Tuesday, November 13, 2012
ILLINOIS CWD UPDATE NOVEMBER 2012
Wednesday, January 16, 2013
Illinois DuPage county deer found with Chronic Wasting Disease CWD
Wednesday, September 04, 2013
*** cwd - cervid captive livestock escapes, loose and on the run in the wild ***
Tuesday, June 05, 2012
Captive Deer Breeding Legislation Overwhelmingly Defeated During 2012 Legislative Session
Thursday, July 11, 2013
The New Hornographers: The Fight Over the Future of Texas Deer, Captive shooting pens, and the CWD TSE prion disease
Tuesday, July 02, 2013
National Rifle Association and the Unified Sportsman of Florida support a Florida ban on the importation of captive deer and cervids into Florida
Monday, October 07, 2013
The importance of localized culling in stabilizing chronic wasting disease prevalence in white-tailed deer populations
Friday, March 07, 2014
37th Annual Southeast Deer Study Group Meeting in Athens, Georgia (CWD TSE Prion abstracts)
Saturday, March 15, 2014
Potential role of soil properties in the spread of CWD in western Canada
Monday, March 03, 2014
*** APHIS to Offer Indemnity for CWD Positive Herds as Part of Its Cervid Health Activities ???
Saturday, February 04, 2012
*** Wisconsin 16 age limit on testing dead deer Game Farm CWD Testing Protocol Needs To Be Revised
Sunday, September 01, 2013
*** hunting over gut piles and CWD TSE prion disease
Saturday, March 29, 2014
*** Game Farm, CWD Concerns Rise at Boone and Crockett Club ***
Game Farm, CWD Concerns Rise at Boone and Crockett Club
Friday, March 28, 2014 Concerned about captive deer operations transmitting diseases to wild herds, the Boone and Crockett Club now officially supports state bans on commercial import and export of deer or elk.
The Club also opposes efforts to relax regulation of captive cervid breeding operations or to remove management authority over such operations from state wildlife agencies.
A full position statement, posted here, was passed at the Club’s December meeting.
The Club’s concerns were reinforced at the recent Whitetail Summit hosted by the Quality Deer Management Association (QDMA), the first summit to focus on key issues and challenges facing free-ranging white-tailed deer.
“Of all the presentations, seminars and findings, I was most pleased to see the attention given to the connections between chronic wasting disease (CWD) and the game farming industry. This has been on our radar, and on the radar of QDMA, other conservation groups, state agencies and sportsmen for quite some time,” said Richard Hale, chairman of the Club’s Records Committee.
Hale added, “Congratulations to QDMA on one of the most impressive and well-run summits I’ve had the pleasure of attending and for keeping this issue front and center.”
CWD is a degenerative brain disease that affects elk, mule deer, white-tailed deer, and moose. The disease can be transmitted by direct animal-to-animal contact through saliva, feces and urine, and indirectly through environmental contamination. CWD is fatal in deer, elk and moose, but there is no evidence that CWD can be transmitted to humans, according to the CDC and The World Health Organization.
Documented cases of CWD have been found in captive and/or wild deer and elk in 22 states and two Canadian provinces. In some, but not all, cases where the disease has been found in wild populations, the disease is present in captive populations within these regions.
In 2002, the Boone and Crockett Club, Rocky Mountain Elk Foundation and the Mule Deer Foundation formed the CWD Alliance. Its purpose was to pool resources, share information and collaborate on ways to positively address the CWD issue. Other organizations have since joined the Alliance, including QDMA and the Wildlife Management Institute, which now administers the Alliance website www.cwd-info.org.
“Evidence strongly suggests that captive animals infected with CWD can serve as the source for the spread of the disease to other captive animals, and between captive animals and wild populations,” said Hale. “To reduce the risk to wild deer populations, several states passed laws prohibiting game farming or live captive deer and elk importation, but now they are fighting efforts to expand captive deer and elk breeding and shooting operations within their jurisdictions. The captive cervid industry is persistent in proposing new legislations to overturn these laws, or transfer the authority of captive deer and elk from state fish and game agencies to their respective departments of agriculture.”
No vaccine or treatment is available for animals infected with CWD and once established in a population, culling or complete depopulation to eradicate CWD has provided only marginal results. In fact, the prevalence of CWD is rising at an alarming rate in some infected wild deer populations. Prevention is the only truly effective technique for managing diseases in free-ranging wildlife populations. Consequently, what can be done is minimizing the spread of CWD by restricting intra- and interstate transportation captive, privately owned wildlife, which frequently occurs in game farming.
boone and crockett club position statement
REGULATION OF GAME FARMS First Adopted December 7, 2013 - Updated December 7, 2013
The captive cervid industry, also referred to as game farming, uses artificial means to breed captive deer, elk, and other cervids for sale in shooting preserve operations. These game farms commonly transport captive deer and elk to other shooting preserves in a state or in other states.
Transportation of captive, game farm animals has been shown to increase the risk of spreading parasites and infectious, diseases, such as chronic wasting disease (CWD) and bovine tuberculosis, to other captive and wild cervids in new locations. There is currently no way of testing live animals for CWD, and infected animals show no signs for at least 16-18 months post-infection. There is no vaccine, and despite fenced enclosures, captive animals often come in contact with wild populations thereby spreading diseases. Once CWD is present, the area cannot be decontaminated even if infected animals are removed. As a result, many states have banned or are attempting to ban the importation of captive cervids (as well as intact carcasses of hunter-killed, wild cervids) to lower the risk of spreading CWD and other infectious diseases.
The Boone and Crockett Club supports state bans on importing or exporting captive deer and elk by game farming operations in order to protect the health of native populations. The Club opposes any legislation aimed at relaxing regulations governing captive cervid breeding operations or removing management authority over such operations from state wildlife agencies. The Club does not oppose the transportation of wild cervids by state agencies and non-governmental organizations for the purpose of re-establishing wild game animals to their historic, open ranges.
The breeding of captive deer, elk, and other cervids for profit to create abnormally large “trophy” animals for fenced shoots under non-fair chase conditions are addressed in the Boone and Crockett Club’s positions on “Genetic Manipulation of Game” and “Canned Shoots.”
THE LANCET Infectious Diseases Vol 3 August 2003
Tracking spongiform encephalopathies in North America
Friday, December 14, 2012
DEFRA U.K. What is the risk of Chronic Wasting Disease CWD being introduced into Great Britain? A Qualitative Risk Assessment October 2012
In the USA, under the Food and Drug Administration’s BSE Feed Regulation (21 CFR 589.2000) most material (exceptions include milk, tallow, and gelatin) from deer and elk is prohibited for use in feed for ruminant animals. With regards to feed for non-ruminant animals, under FDA law, CWD positive deer may not be used for any animal feed or feed ingredients. For elk and deer considered at high risk for CWD, the FDA recommends that these animals do not enter the animal feed system. However, this recommendation is guidance and not a requirement by law.
Animals considered at high risk for CWD include:
1) animals from areas declared to be endemic for CWD and/or to be CWD eradication zones and
2) deer and elk that at some time during the 60-month period prior to slaughter were in a captive herd that contained a CWD-positive animal.
Therefore, in the USA, materials from cervids other than CWD positive animals may be used in animal feed and feed ingredients for non-ruminants.
The amount of animal PAP that is of deer and/or elk origin imported from the USA to GB can not be determined, however, as it is not specified in TRACES. It may constitute a small percentage of the 8412 kilos of non-fish origin processed animal proteins that were imported from US into GB in 2011.
Overall, therefore, it is considered there is a __greater than negligible risk___ that (nonruminant) animal feed and pet food containing deer and/or elk protein is imported into GB.
There is uncertainty associated with this estimate given the lack of data on the amount of deer and/or elk protein possibly being imported in these products.
36% in 2007 (Almberg et al., 2011). In such areas, population declines of deer of up to 30 to 50% have been observed (Almberg et al., 2011). In areas of Colorado, the prevalence can be as high as 30% (EFSA, 2011).
The clinical signs of CWD in affected adults are weight loss and behavioural changes that can span weeks or months (Williams, 2005). In addition, signs might include excessive salivation, behavioural alterations including a fixed stare and changes in interaction with other animals in the herd, and an altered stance (Williams, 2005). These signs are indistinguishable from cervids experimentally infected with bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE).
Given this, if CWD was to be introduced into countries with BSE such as GB, for example, infected deer populations would need to be tested to differentiate if they were infected with CWD or BSE to minimise the risk of BSE entering the human food-chain via affected venison.
The rate of transmission of CWD has been reported to be as high as 30% and can approach 100% among captive animals in endemic areas (Safar et al., 2008).
In summary, in endemic areas, there is a medium probability that the soil and surrounding environment is contaminated with CWD prions and in a bioavailable form. In rural areas where CWD has not been reported and deer are present, there is a greater than negligible risk the soil is contaminated with CWD prion.
In summary, given the volume of tourists, hunters and servicemen moving between GB and North America, the probability of at least one person travelling to/from a CWD affected area and, in doing so, contaminating their clothing, footwear and/or equipment prior to arriving in GB is greater than negligible. For deer hunters, specifically, the risk is likely to be greater given the increased contact with deer and their environment. However, there is significant uncertainty associated with these estimates.
Therefore, it is considered that farmed and park deer may have a higher probability of exposure to CWD transferred to the environment than wild deer given the restricted habitat range and higher frequency of contact with tourists and returning GB residents.
Singeltary submission ;
Program Standards: Chronic Wasting Disease Herd Certification Program and Interstate Movement of Farmed or Captive Deer, Elk, and Moose
*** DOCUMENT ID: APHIS-2006-0118-0411
Saturday, March 29, 2014
Game Farm, CWD Concerns Rise at Boone and Crockett Club
Sunday, April 06, 2014
The Conservation Federation of Missouri is Opposed to the Transfer of Captive White-tailed Deer Management
OLD HISTORY ON CWD AND GAME FARMS IN USA
There are now at least 5 known captive research facilities and at least 3 zoos and 5 game farms involved in CWD, all traceable if you want to shipments of animals out of Ft. Collins. These are:
1. Sybille Wildlife Research and Education Center, Visitor Center and Wildlife Viewing Sites - on Hwy. 34, about 28 miles SW from I25 exit south of Wheatland State of Wyoming - Game and Fish Department - Sybille Visitor Center 2362 Highway 34 Wheatland State WY 82201 Phone 307-322-2784 from 4
2. Kremmling. Colorado State University - Cooperative Extension - Grand County PO. Box 475 Kremmling State CO 80459 Phone 303-724-3436 from 1
3. Meeker. Colorado State University - Cooperative Extension - Rio Blanco County 779 Sulphur Creek Road, Box 270 City Meeker CO 81641 Phone 303-878-4093 from 1
4. Main Ft. Collins facility. State of Colorado - Division of Wildlife - Wildlife Research Center State of Colorado - Division of Wildlife - Wildlife Research Center 317 West Prospect City Fort Collins CO 80526 Phone 970-484-2836
5. Wild Animal Disease Center, CSU, Ft. Collins exchanging cervids with 4
6. Denver zoo receiving mule deer from 4
7. Toronto zoo receiving mule deer from 4
8. Wyoming zoo receiving mule deer from 1
9. South Dakota game farm receiving calf elk from 1 or 4 [?]
10. Regina, Saskatchewan game farm receiving South Dakota elk, 27 April, 1996 confirmation. from 9
11. 12 cases of CWD reported now from S. Dakota, at least 2 different herds, seemingly 3-4 game farms, from 1 and 4.
Inactivation of the TSE Prion disease
Chronic Wasting Disease CWD, and other TSE prion disease, these TSE prions know no borders.
these TSE prions know no age restrictions.
The TSE prion disease survives ashing to 600 degrees celsius, that’s around 1112 degrees farenheit.
you cannot cook the TSE prion disease out of meat.
you can take the ash and mix it with saline and inject that ash into a mouse, and the mouse will go down with TSE.
Prion Infected Meat-and-Bone Meal Is Still Infectious after Biodiesel Production as well.
the TSE prion agent also survives Simulated Wastewater Treatment Processes.
IN fact, you should also know that the TSE Prion agent will survive in the environment for years, if not decades.
you can bury it and it will not go away.
The TSE agent is capable of infected your water table i.e. Detection of protease-resistant cervid prion protein in water from a CWD-endemic area.
it’s not your ordinary pathogen you can just cook it out and be done with. that’s what’s so worrisome about Iatrogenic mode of transmission, a simple autoclave will not kill this TSE prion agent.
Sunday, March 30, 2014
*** Chronic Wasting Disease Agents in Nonhuman Primates ***
*** our results raise the possibility that CJD cases classified as VV1 may include cases caused by iatrogenic transmission of sCJD-MM1 prions or food-borne infection by type 1 prions from animals, e.g., chronic wasting disease prions in cervid. In fact, two CJD-VV1 patients who hunted deer or consumed venison have been reported (40, 41). The results of the present study emphasize the need for traceback studies and careful re-examination of the biochemical properties of sCJD-VV1 prions. ***
Thursday, January 2, 2014
*** CWD TSE Prion in cervids to hTGmice, Heidenhain Variant Creutzfeldt-Jacob Disease MM1 genotype, and iatrogenic CJD ??? ***