CWD-positive White-tailed Deer Found on Marathon County Hunting
Date: December 2, 2013 Contact: Raechelle Cline, 608-224-5005 or Jim Dick,
Communications Director, 608-224-5020
MADISON – For the first time in five years, a white-tailed deer on a
hunting preserve has tested positive for chronic wasting disease (CWD), State
Veterinarian Dr. Paul McGraw announced today. This latest case was found in
The National Veterinary Services Laboratory (NVSL) in Ames, Iowa, reported
the final test results back to the state. The animal was a 5-year-old male and
was one of about 370 deer in the 351-acre preserve.
The deer was killed on November 4. Samples were taken on November 7 in
accordance with Wisconsin Department of Agriculture, Trade and Consumer
Protection’s (DATCP’s) rules, which require testing of farm-raised deer and elk
when they die, go to slaughter or are killed. The sample originally tested
positive at a regional laboratory and required a confirmatory test at the NVSL.
The DATCP Animal Health Division’s investigation will look at the animal’s
history and trace movements of deer onto and off the property to determine
whether other herds may have been exposed to the CWD test-positive deer.
McGraw quarantined the preserve and the other three registered farms owned
by the same entity immediately, which stops movement of live deer from the
property, except to slaughter or to their hunting preserves. The business will
be allowed to conduct hunts on the quarantined preserves, because properly
handled dead animals leaving the premises do not pose a disease risk.
This is the first new CWD test-positive deer on a Wisconsin farm since
Since CWD was discovered in Wisconsin in February 2002, there were
eighty-two cases from a single Portage county farm that was depopulated in 2006.
The remaining 15 cases were discovered over a six-year period from 2002 to 2008
on eight farms and hunting preserves. One of the infected animals was an elk;
the rest have been white-tailed deer. Since 1998, more than 35,700 farm-raised
deer and elk have been tested for CWD.
UPDATE DECEMBER 3, 2013
The 5-year-old buck was killed Nov. 4 at the Wilderness Game Farm Inc., a hunting ranch in the Eland area, said Raechelle Cline, public information officer for the state Division of Animal Health.
The buck was one of about 370 deer in the 351-acre preserve, said State Veterinarian Dr. Paul McGraw.
Chronic wasting disease, or CWD, is considered a major threat to Wisconsin’s hunting industry because it can spread from animal to animal and has been known to devastate herds in other states. In Wisconsin, CWD is confirmed to have killed fewer than 100 deer, almost all of them on game farms.
Sunday, November 03, 2013
Wisconsin Second CWD deer found in Portage County
Wisconsin : 436 Deer Have Escaped From Farms to Wild
Date: March 18, 2003 Source: Milwaukee Journal Sentinel
Contacts: LEE BERGQUIST firstname.lastname@example.org
State finds violations, lax record keeping at many sites, report says
A state inspection of private deer farms, prompted by the discovery of
chronic wasting disease, found that 436 white-tailed deer escaped into the wild,
officials said Tuesday
The Department of Natural Resources found that captive deer have escaped
from one-third of the state's 550 deer farms over the lifetime of the
operations. The agency also uncovered hundreds of violations and has sought a
total of 60 citations or charges against deer farm operators.
These and other findings come as state officials say they are still no
closer to understanding how the fatal deer disease got to Wisconsin.
Since the discovery a little more than a year ago, chronic wasting disease
has thrown both deer hunting and management of Wisconsin's 1.4 million deer herd
into tumult. Fewer hunters went into the woods last year, and a booming deer
population has the DNR worried that the number of whitetails could grow out of
Tuesday's findings were presented to the state Department of Agriculture,
Trade and Consumer Protection. The DNR had regulated deer farms, but the
authority was transferred to the Agriculture Department on Jan. 1. Now
agriculture regulators oversee elk, deer and other captive cervids.
Solving the problem
Stricter regulations - and closer attention to the operations of game farms
- should cut down on future violations, officials from the two agencies said.
Tougher reporting requirements also will help authorities keep better track of
the movement of animals, they said.
Permanent rules take effect in June, and include tighter controls on moving
animals and requiring the reporting of escaped animals within 48 hours. There
will be mandatory testing of every deer age 16 months or older that dies.
Almost from the start of the state's battle against chronic wasting
disease, game farm operators came under scrutiny because their business involves
the buying and selling of captive deer and elk across state lines. When the
disease was first discovered here Feb. 28, 2002, Wisconsin became the first
state to have the disease east of the Mississippi River.
A representative of the deer industry said Tuesday that the DNR is trying
to shift blame for chronic wasting disease to his industry.
"The state of Wisconsin has spent a year chasing chronic wasting disease,
and they have made zero progress," said Gary Nelson, president of Whitetails of
Wisconsin. "In the past, they have essentially collected our fees and ignored
us. Now that they have discovered CWD, they are looking for someone to
A DNR representative agreed that the agency could have done a better job
keeping tabs on deer farms.
"We're not pointing fingers," said Karl Brooks, a conservation warden with
the DNR. "But two things that we know for sure is that there is CWD in the wild
deer population, and we have found CWD on game farms."
CWD found on 2 farms
Seven deer have tested positive for the disease on game farms - one on a
Portage County farm and six on a Walworth County farm - since the disease was
discovered in three wild deer killed near Mount Horeb in western Dane County.
One deer that tested positive on the Walworth County farm escaped and roamed
free for six months.
Regulations have only begun to catch up to the captive deer industry, and
"unfortunately, it took CWD to get us there," said agriculture secretary Rod
Nilsestuen at a news briefing in Madison.
As the DNR prepared to hand over authority for overseeing game farms to the
agriculture department, it sent 209 conservation wardens to 550 farms to collect
information, attempt to pinpoint the source of the disease and to learn whether
other deer had been exposed to it.
The audit found that most farms were in compliance, but the DNR found many
violations and instances of poor record keeping. Also in numerous instances,
fences did not stop wild and captive deer from intermingling.
At least 227 farms conducted part of their business on a cash basis, making
it hard to track animal movement with financial records.
For example, both the Internal Revenue Service and the state Department of
Revenue have been contacted about a deer farm near Wild Rose in Waushara County
that is suspected of selling six large bucks for $45,000 in cash and not using
live deer shipping tags as required.
The DNR found that game farm operators have more deer in captivity than
their records show, which is "due in part because the owners of a number of
large deer farm operations were unable to accurately count the number of deer
within their fences," the audit found.
Hundreds of deer escape
The DNR found a total of 671 deer that escaped farms - 436 of which were
never found - because of storm-damaged fences, gates being left open or the
animals jumping over or through fences.
In one example in Kewaunee County, a deer farmer's fence was knocked down
in a summer storm. Ten deer escaped, and the farmer told the DNR he had no
intention of trying to reclaim them. The DNR found five of the deer, killed them
and cited the farmer for violation of a regulation related to fencing.
Another deer farmer near Mishicot, in Manitowoc County, released all nine
of his whitetails last summer after he believed the discovery of chronic wasting
disease was going to drive down the market for captive deer.
The DNR found 24 instances of unlicensed deer farms and issued 19
Journal Sentinel correspondent Kevin Murphy contributed to this
Game Farms Inspected
A summary of the findings of the Department of Natural Resources'
inspection of 550 private white-tailed deer farms in the state: The deer farms
contained at least 16,070 deer, but the DNR believes there are more deer in
captivity than that because large deer farms are unable to accurately count
their deer. 671 deer had escaped from game farms, including 436 that were never
24 farmers were unlicensed. One had been operating illegally since 1999
after he was denied a license because his deer fence did not meet minimum
Records maintained by operators ranged from "meticulous documentation to
relying on memory." At least 227 farms conducted various portions of their deer
farm business with cash. Over the last three years, 1,222 deer died on farms for
various reasons. Disease testing was not performed nor required on the majority
of deer. Farmers reported doing business with people in 22 other states and one
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Sunday, November 24, 2013
ACA Council Convenes to Assess Federal CWD Reform Possibilities November
Wednesday, September 04, 2013
***cwd - cervid captive livestock escapes, loose and on the run in the
Sunday, September 01, 2013
hunting over gut piles and CWD TSE prion disease
Monday, October 07, 2013
The importance of localized culling in stabilizing chronic wasting disease
prevalence in white-tailed deer populations
Uptake of Prions into Plants
CWD transmission to humans ?
never say never with the TSE prion.
PRION2013 CONGRESSIONAL ABSTRACTS CWD
Sunday, August 25, 2013
HD.13: CWD infection in the spleen of humanized transgenic mice
Liuting Qing and Qingzhong Kong
Case Western Reserve University; Cleveland, OH USA
Chronic wasting disease (CWD) is a widespread prion disease in free-ranging
and captive cervid species in North America, and there is evidence suggesting
the existence of multiple CWD strains. The susceptibility of human CNS and
peripheral organs to the various CWD prion strains remains largely unclear.
Current literature suggests that the classical CWD strain is unlikely to infect
human brain, but the potential for peripheral infection by CWD in humans is
unknown. We detected protease-resistant PrpSc in the spleens of a few humanized
transgenic mice that were intracerebrally inoculated with natural CWD isolates,
but PrpSc was not detected in the brains of any of the CWD-inoculated mice. Our
ongoing bioassays in humanized Tg mice indicate that intracerebral challenge
with such PrpSc-positive humanized mouse spleen already led to prion disease in
***These results indicate that the CWD prion may have the potential to
infect human peripheral lymphoid tissues.
Oral.15: Molecular barriers to zoonotic prion transmission: Comparison of
the ability of sheep, cattle and deer prion disease isolates to convert normal
human prion protein to its pathological isoform in a cell-free system
Marcelo A.Barria,1 Aru Balachandran,2 Masanori Morita,3 Tetsuyuki
Kitamoto,4 Rona Barron,5 Jean Manson,5 Richard Kniqht,1 James W. lronside1 and
Mark W. Head1
1National CJD Research and Surveillance Unit; Centre for Clinical Brain
Sciences; School of Clinical Sciences; The University of Edinburgh; Edinburgh,
UK; 2National and OIE Reference Laboratory for Scrapie and CWD; Canadian Food
Inspection Agency; Ottawa Laboratory; Fallowfield. ON Canada; 3Infectious
Pathogen Research Section; Central Research Laboratory; Japan Blood Products
Organization; Kobe, Japan; 4Department of Neurological Science; Tohoku
University Graduate School of Medicine; Sendai. Japan; 5Neurobiology Division;
The Roslin Institute and R(D)SVS; University of Edinburgh; Easter Bush;
Midlothian; Edinburgh, UK
Background. Bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) is a known zoonotic
prion disease, resulting in variant Creurzfeldt- Jakob disease (vCJD) in humans.
In contrast, classical scrapie in sheep is thought to offer little or no danger
to human health. However, a widening range of prion diseases have been
recognized in cattle, sheep and deer. The risks posed by individual animal prion
diseases to human health cannot be determined a priori and are difficult to
assess empirically. The fundamemal event in prion disease pathogenesis is
thought to be the seeded conversion of normal prion protein (PrPC) to its
pathological isoform (PrPSc). Here we report the use of a rapid molecular
conversion assay to test whether brain specimens from different animal prion
diseases are capable of seeding the conversion of human PrPC ro PrPSc.
Material and Methods. Classical BSE (C-type BSE), H-type BSE, L-type BSE,
classical scrapie, atypical scrapie, chronic wasting disease and vCJD brain
homogenates were tested for their ability to seed conversion of human PrPC to
PrPSc in protein misfolding cyclic amplification (PMCA) reactions. Newly formed
human PrPSc was detected by protease digestion and western blotting using the
Results. C-type BSE and vCJD were found to efficiently convert PrPC to
PrPSc. Scrapie failed to convert human PrPC to PrPSc. Of the other animal prion
diseases tested only chronic wasting disease appeared to have the capability ro
convert human PrPC to PrPSc. The results were consistent whether the human PrPC
came from human brain, humanised transgenic mouse brain or from cultured human
cells and the effect was more pronounced for PrPC with methionine at codon 129
compared with that with valine.
Conclusion. Our results show that none of the tested animal prion disease
isolates are as efficient as C-type BSE and vCJD in converting human prion
protein in this in vitro assay.
***However, they also show that there is no absolute barrier ro conversion
of human prion protein in the case of chronic wasting disease.
PRION2013 CONGRESSIONAL ABSTRACTS CWD
Sunday, August 25, 2013
***Chronic Wasting Disease CWD risk factors, humans, domestic cats, blood,
and mother to offspring transmission
Sunday, July 21, 2013
*** As Chronic Wasting Disease CWD rises in deer herd, what about risk for
Pathological Prion Protein (PrPTSE) in Skeletal Muscles of Farmed and Free
Ranging White-Tailed Deer Infected with Chronic Wasting Disease
Martin L. Daus,1,† Johanna Breyer,2 Katjs Wagenfuehr,1 Wiebke Wemheuer,2
Achim Thomzig,1 Walter Schulz-Schaeffer2 and Michael Beekes1 1Robert Koch
Institut; P24 TSE; Berlin, Germany; 2Department of Neuropathology, Prion and
Dementia Research Unit, University Medical Center Göttingen; Göttingen, Germany
†Presenting author; Email: email@example.com
Chronic wasting disease (CWD) is a contagious, rapidly spreading
transmissible spongiform encephalopathy (TSE) occurring in cervids in North
America. Despite efficient horizontal transmission of CWD among cervids natural
transmission of the disease to other species has not yet been observed. Here, we
report a direct biochemical demonstration of pathological prion protein PrPTSE
and of PrPTSE-associated seeding activity in skeletal muscles of CWD-infected
cervids. The presence of PrPTSE was detected by Western- and postfixed frozen
tissue blotting, while the seeding activity of PrPTSE was revealed by protein
misfolding cyclic amplification (PMCA). The concentration of PrPTSE in skeletal
muscles of CWD-infected WTD was estimated to be approximately 2000- to
10000-fold lower than in brain tissue. Tissue-blot-analyses revealed that PrPTSE
was located in muscle- associated nerve fascicles but not, in detectable
amounts, in myocytes. ***The presence and seeding activity of PrPTSE in skeletal
muscle from CWD-infected cervids suggests prevention of such tissue in the human
diet as a precautionary measure for food safety, pending on further
clarification of whether CWD may be transmissible to humans.
The chances of a person or domestic animal contracting CWD are “extremely
remote,” Richards said. The possibility can’t be ruled out, however. “One could
look at it like a game of chance,” he explained. “The odds (of infection)
increase over time because of repeated exposure. That’s one of the downsides of
having CWD in free-ranging herds: We’ve got this infectious agent out there that
we can never say never to in terms of (infecting) people and domestic
ADAPTATION OF CHRONIC WASTING DISEASE (CWD) INTO HAMSTERS, EVIDENCE OF A
WISCONSIN STRAIN OF CWD
Chad Johnson1, Judd Aiken2,3,4 and Debbie McKenzie4,5 1 Department of
Comparative Biosciences, University of Wisconsin, Madison WI, USA 53706 2
Department of Agriculture, Food and Nutritional Sciences, 3 Alberta Veterinary
Research Institute, 4.Center for Prions and Protein Folding Diseases, 5
Department of Biological Sciences, University of Alberta, Edmonton AB, Canada
The identification and characterization of prion strains is increasingly
important for the diagnosis and biological definition of these infectious
pathogens. Although well-established in scrapie and, more recently, in BSE,
comparatively little is known about the possibility of prion strains in chronic
wasting disease (CWD), a disease affecting free ranging and captive cervids,
primarily in North America. We have identified prion protein variants in the
white-tailed deer population and demonstrated that Prnp genotype affects the
susceptibility/disease progression of white-tailed deer to CWD agent. The
existence of cervid prion protein variants raises the likelihood of distinct CWD
strains. Small rodent models are a useful means of identifying prion strains. We
intracerebrally inoculated hamsters with brain homogenates and phosphotungstate
concentrated preparations from CWD positive hunter-harvested (Wisconsin CWD
endemic area) and experimentally infected deer of known Prnp genotypes. These
transmission studies resulted in clinical presentation in primary passage of
concentrated CWD prions. Subclinical infection was established with the other
primary passages based on the detection of PrPCWD in the brains of hamsters and
the successful disease transmission upon second passage. Second and third
passage data, when compared to transmission studies using different CWD inocula
(Raymond et al., 2007) indicate that the CWD agent present in the Wisconsin
white-tailed deer population is different than the strain(s) present in elk,
mule-deer and white-tailed deer from the western United States endemic region.
there is in fact evidence that the potential for cwd transmission to
humans can NOT be ruled out.
I thought your readers and hunters and those that consume the venison,
should have all the scientific facts, personally, I don’t care what you eat, but
if it effects me and my family down the road, it should then concern everyone,
and the potential of iatrogenic transmission of the TSE prion is real i.e.
‘friendly fire’, medical, surgical, dental, blood, tissue, and or products there
from...like deer antler velvet and TSE prions and nutritional supplements there
from, all a potential risk factor that should not be ignored or silenced. ...
the prion gods at the cdc state that there is ;
''no strong evidence''
but let's see exactly what the authors of this cwd to human at the cdc
now, let’s see what the authors said about this casual link, personal
communications years ago. see where it is stated NO STRONG evidence. so, does
this mean there IS casual evidence ????
“Our conclusion stating that we found no strong evidence of CWD
transmission to humans”
From: TSS (216-119-163-189.ipset45.wt.net)
Subject: CWD aka MAD DEER/ELK TO HUMANS ???
Date: September 30, 2002 at 7:06 am PST
From: "Belay, Ermias"
Cc: "Race, Richard (NIH)" ; ; "Belay, Ermias"
Sent: Monday, September 30, 2002 9:22 AM
Subject: RE: TO CDC AND NIH - PUB MED- 3 MORE DEATHS - CWD - YOUNG HUNTERS
In the Archives of Neurology you quoted (the abstract of which was attached
to your email), we did not say CWD in humans will present like variant CJD.
That assumption would be wrong. I encourage you to read the whole article
and call me if you have questions or need more clarification (phone:
404-639-3091). Also, we do not claim that "no-one has ever been infected with
prion disease from eating venison." Our conclusion stating that we found no
strong evidence of CWD transmission to humans in the article you quoted or in
any other forum is limited to the patients we investigated.
Ermias Belay, M.D. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention
Sent: Sunday, September 29, 2002 10:15 AM
To: firstname.lastname@example.org; email@example.com; ebb8@CDC.GOV
Subject: TO CDC AND NIH - PUB MED- 3 MORE DEATHS - CWD - YOUNG HUNTERS
Sunday, November 10, 2002 6:26 PM ......snip........end..............TSS
Thursday, April 03, 2008
A prion disease of cervids: Chronic wasting disease
2008 1: Vet Res. 2008 Apr 3;39(4):41
A prion disease of cervids: Chronic wasting disease
*** twenty-seven CJD patients who regularly consumed venison were reported
to the Surveillance Center***,
full text ;
Thursday, May 26, 2011
Travel History, Hunting, and Venison Consumption Related to Prion Disease
Exposure, 2006-2007 FoodNet Population Survey Journal of the American Dietetic
Association Volume 111, Issue 6 , Pages 858-863, June 2011.
Travel History, Hunting, and Venison Consumption Related to Prion Disease
Exposure, 2006-2007 FoodNet Population Survey
Joseph Y. Abrams, MPH, Ryan A. Maddox, MPH , Alexis R. Harvey, MPH ,
Lawrence B. Schonberger, MD , Ermias D. Belay, MD
Accepted 15 November 2010. Abstract Full Text PDF References .
The transmission of bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) to human beings
and the spread of chronic wasting disease (CWD) among cervids have prompted
concerns about zoonotic transmission of prion diseases. Travel to the United
Kingdom and other European countries, hunting for deer or elk, and venison
consumption could result in the exposure of US residents to the agents that
cause BSE and CWD. The Foodborne Diseases Active Surveillance Network 2006-2007
population survey was used to assess the prevalence of these behaviors among
residents of 10 catchment areas across the United States. Of 17,372 survey
respondents, 19.4% reported travel to the United Kingdom since 1980, and 29.5%
reported travel to any of the nine European countries considered to be
BSE-endemic since 1980. The proportion of respondents who had ever hunted deer
or elk was 18.5%, and 1.2% had hunted deer or elk in a CWD–endemic area. More
than two thirds (67.4%) reported having ever eaten deer or elk meat. Respondents
who traveled spent more time in the United Kingdom (median 14 days) than in any
other BSE-endemic country. Of the 11,635 respondents who had consumed venison,
59.8% ate venison at most one to two times during their year of highest
consumption, and 88.6% had obtained all of their meat from the wild. The survey
results were useful in determining the prevalence and frequency of behaviors
that could be important factors for foodborne prion transmission.
"These findings indicate that a high percentage of the United States
population engages in hunting and/or venison consumption. If CWD continues to
spread to more areas across the country, a substantial number of people could
potentially be exposed to the infectious agent."
Potential Venison Exposure Among FoodNet Population Survey Respondents,
Ryan A. Maddox1*, Joseph Y. Abrams1, Robert C. Holman1, Lawrence B.
Schonberger1, Ermias D. Belay1 Division of Viral and Rickettsial Diseases,
National Center for Zoonotic, Vector-Borne, and Enteric Diseases, Centers for
Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, GA *Corresponding author e-mail:
The foodborne transmission of bovine spongiform encephalopathy to humans,
resulting in variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease, indicates that humans can be
susceptible to animal prion diseases. However, it is not known whether foodborne
exposure to the agent causing chronic wasting disease (CWD) in cervids can cause
human disease. The United States Foodborne Diseases Active Surveillance Network
(FoodNet) conducts surveillance for foodborne diseases through an extensive
survey administered to respondents in selected states. To describe the frequency
of deer and elk hunting and venison consumption, five questions were included in
the 2006-2007 FoodNet survey. This survey included 17,372 respondents in ten
states: California, Colorado, Connecticut, Georgia, Maryland, Minnesota, New
Mexico, New York, Oregon, and Tennessee. Of these respondents, 3,220 (18.5%)
reported ever hunting deer or elk, with 217 (1.3%) reporting hunting in a
CWD-endemic area (northeastern Colorado, southeastern Wyoming, and southwestern
Nebraska). Of the 217 CWD-endemic area hunters, 74 (34.1%) were residents of
Colorado. Respondents reporting hunting were significantly more likely to be
male than female (prevalence ratio: 3.3, 95% confidence interval: 3.1-3.6) and,
in general, older respondents were significantly more likely to report hunting
than younger respondents. Venison consumption was reported by more than half
(67.4%) of the study population, and most venison consumers (94.1%) reported
that at least half of their venison came from the wild. However, more than half
(59.1%) of the consumers reported eating venison only one to five times in their
life or only once or twice a year. These findings indicate that a high
percentage of the United States population engages in hunting and/or venison
consumption. If CWD continues to spread to more areas across the country, a
substantial number of people could potentially be exposed to the infectious
Monday, May 23, 2011 CDC
Assesses Potential Human Exposure to Prion Diseases Travel Warning
Public release date: 23-May-2011
Contact: Francesca Costanzo firstname.lastname@example.org 215-239-3249 Elsevier
CDC assesses potential human exposure to prion diseases Study results
reported in the Journal of the American Dietetic Association Philadelphia, PA,
May 23, 2011 – Researchers from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention
(CDC) have examined the potential for human exposure to prion diseases, looking
at hunting, venison consumption, and travel to areas in which prion diseases
have been reported in animals. Three prion diseases in particular – bovine
spongiform encephalopathy (BSE or "Mad Cow Disease"), variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob
disease (vCJD), and chronic wasting disease (CWD) – were specified in the
investigation. The results of this investigation are published in the June issue
of the Journal of the American Dietetic Association.
"While prion diseases are rare, they are generally fatal for anyone who
becomes infected. More than anything else, the results of this study support the
need for continued surveillance of prion diseases," commented lead investigator
Joseph Y. Abrams, MPH, National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious
Diseases, CDC, Atlanta."But it's also important that people know the facts about
these diseases, especially since this study shows that a good number of people
have participated in activities that may expose them to infection-causing
Although rare, human prion diseases such as CJD may be related to BSE.
Prion (proteinaceous infectious particles) diseases are a group of rare brain
diseases that affect humans and animals. When a person gets a prion disease,
brain function is impaired. This causes memory and personality changes,
dementia, and problems with movement. All of these worsen over time. These
diseases are invariably fatal. Since these diseases may take years to manifest,
knowing the extent of human exposure to possible prion diseases could become
important in the event of an outbreak.
CDC investigators evaluated the results of the 2006-2007 population survey
conducted by the Foodborne Diseases Active Surveillance Network (FoodNet). This
survey collects information on food consumption practices, health outcomes, and
demographic characteristics of residents of the participating Emerging
Infections Program sites. The survey was conducted in Connecticut, Georgia,
Maryland, Minnesota, New Mexico, Oregon, and Tennessee, as well as five counties
in the San Francisco Bay area, seven counties in the Greater Denver area, and 34
counties in western and northeastern New York.
Survey participants were asked about behaviors that could be associated
with exposure to the agents causing BSE and CWD, including travel to the nine
countries considered to be BSE-endemic (United Kingdom, Republic of Ireland,
France, Portugal, Switzerland, Italy, the Netherlands, Germany, Spain) and the
cumulative length of stay in each of those countries. Respondents were asked if
they ever had hunted for deer or elk, and if that hunting had taken place in
areas considered to be CWD-endemic (northeastern Colorado, southeastern Wyoming
or southwestern Nebraska). They were also asked if they had ever consumed
venison, the frequency of consumption, and whether the meat came from the wild.
The proportion of survey respondents who reported travel to at least one of
the nine BSE endemic countries since 1980 was 29.5%. Travel to the United
Kingdom was reported by 19.4% of respondents, higher than to any other
BSE-endemic country. Among those who traveled, the median duration of travel to
the United Kingdom (14 days) was longer than that of any other BSE-endemic
country. Travelers to the UK were more likely to have spent at least 30 days in
the country (24.9%) compared to travelers to any other BSE endemic country. The
prevalence and extent of travel to the UK indicate that health concerns in the
UK may also become issues for US residents.
The proportion of survey respondents reporting having hunted for deer or
elk was 18.5% and 1.2% reported having hunted for deer or elk in CWD-endemic
areas. Venison consumption was reported by 67.4% of FoodNet respondents, and
88.6% of those reporting venison consumption had obtained all of their meat from
the wild. These findings reinforce the importance of CWD surveillance and
control programs for wild deer and elk to reduce human exposure to the CWD
agent. Hunters in CWD-endemic areas are advised to take simple precautions such
as: avoiding consuming meat from sickly deer or elk, avoiding consuming brain or
spinal cord tissues, minimizing the handling of brain and spinal cord tissues,
and wearing gloves when field-dressing carcasses.
According to Abrams, "The 2006-2007 FoodNet population survey provides
useful information should foodborne prion infection become an increasing public
health concern in the future. The data presented describe the prevalence of
important behaviors and their associations with demographic characteristics.
Surveillance of BSE, CWD, and human prion diseases are critical aspects of
addressing the burden of these diseases in animal populations and how that may
relate to human health."
The article is "Travel history, hunting, and venison consumption related to
prion disease exposure, 2006-2007 FoodNet population survey" by Joseph Y.
Abrams, MPH; Ryan A. Maddox, MPH; Alexis R Harvey, MPH; Lawrence B. Schonberger,
MD; and Ermias D. Belay, MD. It appears in the Journal of the American Dietetic
Association, Volume 111, Issue 6 (June 2011) published by Elsevier.
also, they did not call this CWD postive meat back for the well being of
the ELK ;
Wednesday, March 18, 2009
Noah’s Ark Holding, LLC, Dawson, MN RECALL Elk products contain meat
derived from an elk confirmed to have CWD NV, CA, TX, CO, NY, UT, FL, OK RECALLS
AND FIELD CORRECTIONS: FOODS CLASS II
a) Elk Meat, Elk Tenderloin, Frozen in plastic vacuum packaging. Each
package is approximately 2 lbs., and each case is approximately 16 lbs.; Item
number 755125, Recall # F-129-9;
b) Elk Meat, Elk Trim, Frozen; Item number 755155, Recall # F-130-9;
c) Elk Meat, French Rack, Chilled. Item number 755132, Recall # F-131-9;
d) Elk Meat, Nude Denver Leg. Item number 755122, Recall # F-132-9;
e) Elk Meat, New York Strip Steak, Chilled. Item number 755128, Recall #
f) Elk Meat, Flank Steak Frozen. Item number 755131, Recall # F-134-9;
Elk Meats with production dates of December 29, 30, and 31
Recalling Firm: Sierra Meats, Reno, NV, by telephone on January 29, 2009
and press release on February 9, 2009.
Manufacturer: Noah’s Ark Holding, LLC, Dawson, MN. Firm initiated recall is
Elk products contain meat derived from an elk confirmed to have Chronic
Wasting Disease (CWD).
VOLUME OF PRODUCT IN COMMERCE
NV, CA, TX, CO, NY, UT, FL, OK
CJD REPORT 1994 increased risk for consumption of veal and venison and
CREUTZFELDT JAKOB DISEASE SURVEILLANCE IN THE UNITED KINGDOM THIRD ANNUAL
REPORT AUGUST 1994
Consumption of venison and veal was much less widespread among both cases
and controls. For both of these meats there was evidence of a trend with
increasing frequency of consumption being associated with increasing risk of
CJD. (not nvCJD, but sporadic CJD...tss)
These associations were largely unchanged when attention was restricted to
pairs with data obtained from relatives. ...
Table 9 presents the results of an analysis of these data.
There is STRONG evidence of an association between ‘’regular’’ veal eating
and risk of CJD (p = .0.01).
Individuals reported to eat veal on average at least once a year appear to
be at 13 TIMES THE RISK of individuals who have never eaten veal.
There is, however, a very wide confidence interval around this estimate.
There is no strong evidence that eating veal less than once per year is
associated with increased risk of CJD (p = 0.51).
The association between venison eating and risk of CJD shows similar
pattern, with regular venison eating associated with a 9 FOLD INCREASE IN RISK
OF CJD (p = 0.04).
There is some evidence that risk of CJD INCREASES WITH INCREASING FREQUENCY
OF LAMB EATING (p = 0.02).
The evidence for such an association between beef eating and CJD is weaker
(p = 0.14). When only controls for whom a relative was interviewed are included,
this evidence becomes a little STRONGER (p = 0.08).
It was found that when veal was included in the model with another
exposure, the association between veal and CJD remained statistically
significant (p = < 0.05 for all exposures), while the other exposures ceased
to be statistically significant (p = > 0.05).
In conclusion, an analysis of dietary histories revealed statistical
associations between various meats/animal products and INCREASED RISK OF CJD.
When some account was taken of possible confounding, the association between
VEAL EATING AND RISK OF CJD EMERGED AS THE STRONGEST OF THESE ASSOCIATIONS
In the study in the USA, a range of foodstuffs were associated with an
increased risk of CJD, including liver consumption which was associated with an
apparent SIX-FOLD INCREASE IN THE RISK OF CJD. By comparing the data from 3
studies in relation to this particular dietary factor, the risk of liver
consumption became non-significant with an odds ratio of 1.2 (PERSONAL
COMMUNICATION, PROFESSOR A. HOFMAN. ERASMUS UNIVERSITY, ROTTERDAM). (???...TSS)
snip...see full report ;
Thursday, October 10, 2013
CJD REPORT 1994 increased risk for consumption of veal and venison and lamb
Mr R.N. Elmhirst Chairman British Deer Farmers Association Holly Lodge
Spencers Lane BerksWell Coventry CV7 7BZ
Dear Mr Elmhirst,
CREUTZFELDT-JAKOB DISEASE (CJD) SURVEILLANCE UNIT REPORT
Thank you for your recent letter concerning the publication of the third
annual report from the CJD Surveillance Unit. I am sorry that you are
dissatisfied with the way in which this report was published.
The Surveillance Unit is a completely independant outside body and the
Department of Health is committed to publishing their reports as soon as they
become available. In the circumstances it is not the practice to circulate the
report for comment since the findings of the report would not be amended. In
future we can ensure that the British Deer Farmers Association receives a copy
of the report in advance of publication.
The Chief Medical Officer has undertaken to keep the public fully informed
of the results of any research in respect of CJD. This report was entirely the
work of the unit and was produced completely independantly of the the
The statistical results reqarding the consumption of venison was put into
perspective in the body of the report and was not mentioned at all in the press
release. Media attention regarding this report was low key but gave a realistic
presentation of the statistical findings of the Unit. This approach to
publication was successful in that consumption of venison was highlighted only
once by the media ie. in the News at one television proqramme.
I believe that a further statement about the report, or indeed statistical
links between CJD and consumption of venison, would increase, and quite possibly
give damaging credence, to the whole issue. From the low key media reports of
which I am aware it seems unlikely that venison consumption will suffer
adversely, if at all.
UPDATED DATA ON 2ND CWD STRAIN
Wednesday, September 08, 2010
CWD PRION CONGRESS SEPTEMBER 8-11 2010
Thursday, November 21, 2013
***Assessing the susceptibility of transgenic mice over-expressing deer
prion protein to bovine spongiform encephalopathy ***
Thursday, November 21, 2013
***Efficient In Vitro Amplification of Chronic Wasting Disease PrPRES
Thursday, August 08, 2013
*** Characterization of the first case of naturally occurring chronic
wasting disease in a captive red deer (Cervus elaphus) in North America
Monday, June 24, 2013
*** The Effects of Chronic Wasting Disease on the Pennsylvania Cervid
Industry Following its Discovery ***
Tuesday, June 11, 2013
*** CWD GONE WILD, More cervid escapees from more shooting pens on the
loose in Pennsylvania ***
*** USDA TO PGC ONCE CAPTIVES ESCAPE "it‘s no longer its business.”
Sunday, January 06, 2013
USDA TO PGC ONCE CAPTIVES ESCAPE "it‘s no longer its business.”
Tuesday, May 28, 2013
Chronic Wasting Disease CWD quarantine Louisiana via CWD index herd
Pennsylvania Update May 28, 2013
6 doe from Pennsylvania CWD index herd still on the loose in Louisiana,
quarantine began on October 18, 2012, still ongoing, Lake Charles premises.
Saturday, February 04, 2012
Wisconsin 16 age limit on testing dead deer Game Farm CWD Testing Protocol
Needs To Be Revised
Monday, June 11, 2012
OHIO Captive deer escapees and non-reporting
Sunday, January 27, 2013
Indiana 6 deer missing from farm pose health risk to state herds INDIANA
how many states have $465,000., and can quarantine and purchase there from,
each cwd said infected farm, but how many states can afford this for all the cwd
infected cervid game ranch type farms ???
Tuesday, December 20, 2011
CHRONIC WASTING DISEASE CWD WISCONSIN Almond Deer (Buckhorn Flats) Farm
Update DECEMBER 2011
The CWD infection rate was nearly 80%, the highest ever in a North American
captive herd. RECOMMENDATION: That the Board approve the purchase of 80 acres of
land for $465,000 for the Statewide Wildlife Habitat Program in Portage County
and approve the restrictions on public use of the site.
Thursday, February 09, 2012
50 GAME FARMS IN USA INFECTED WITH CHRONIC WASTING DISEASE
Friday, February 03, 2012
Wisconsin Farm-Raised Deer Farms and CWD there from 2012 report Singeltary
Thursday, February 09, 2012
Colorado Farm-Raised Deer Farms and CWD there from 2012 report Singeltary
Monday, February 13, 2012
Stop White-tailed Deer Farming from Destroying Tennessee’s Priceless Wild
Deer Herd oppose HB3164
Tuesday, February 14, 2012
Oppose Indiana House Bill 1265 game farming cervids
State Agriculture Commissioner Walt Helmick speaks Wednesday to the West
Virginia Food Policy Council at Tamarack on ways to grow the state’s
agricultural economy. One item he proposed is for the state to expand its deer
farming industry, but explained the Legislature would need to move control of
the state’s deer farming program from the Division of Natural Resources to his
department. Brandi Underwood
Thursday, November 14, 2013
West Virginia Ag Commissioner Pushing for Control of Deer Farming risks
Wednesday, August 21, 2013
IOWA DNR EMERGENCY CONSENT ORDER IN THE MATTER OF TOM & LINDA BRAKKE
D/B/A PINE RIDGE HUNTING LODGE UPDATE AUGUST 21, 2013
5. On July 16, 2012, DNR received a notice from the Texas Veterinary
Medical Diagnostic Lab ("Texas Vet Lab”) that a sample from an adult male deer
killed at Pine Ridge tested presumptively positive for CWD. (DNR has an
agreement with the Texas Vet Lab to run these preliminary tests.) Because the
Texas Vet Lab found this presumptive positive result, protocols required the
sample to be sent to the National Veterinary Services Laboratory ("National
Lab”) in Ames, Iowa for final confirmation. On July 18, 2012, the National Lab
confirmed the positive CWD result in the deer.
6. On July 19, 2012, DNR notified the Brakkes of the positive test by
phone. Mr. Brakke was out of state.
7. On July 23, 2012, DNR met with the Brakkes to initiate an
epidemiological investigation. This investigation would help determine where the
infected deer came from and make preliminary assessments about the extent of the
exposure. The Brakkes provided information including their herd inventory and
photographic evidence of the animals killed on the date the infected deer was
killed. Also present at this meeting were representatives from the Iowa
Department of Agriculture and Land Stewardship ("IDALS"), the United States
Department of Agriculture ("USDA") and the Iowa Whitetail Deer Association, an
Iowa non-profit organization. IDALS regulates breeding programs that sometimes
populate hunting preserves. USDA regulates interstate transport of captive deer;
its veterinarian designated as the Area Veterinarian in Charge would have been
involved to determine if the diseased captive deer are or may have been moved
through interstate commerce and/or transport.
8. Based on information provided by the Brakkes, DNR concluded that captive
deer killed on the Hunting Preserve on the same day as the infected deer were
located in Florida, New Hampshire, Tennessee and Iowa. Between July 27, 2012 and
August 6, 2012, DNR worked with law enforcement officials from those other
states to collect samples from the antlers of those deer for DNA testing. These
tests would help to identify the origin of the infected deer and verify Brakke's
prior documents that the infected deer came from the breeding facility run by
the Tom and Rhonda Brakke in Cerro Gordo County, Iowa ("Brakke’s Breeding
Facility"). These samples were obtained in a manner to preserve the chain of
9. On August 10, 2012, the Wyoming Game and Fish Wildlife Forensic and Fish
Health Laboratory ("Wyoming Lab") provided DNR results for the seven specimens
provided to it. (DNR has an agreement with the Wyoming Lab to conduct DNA
testing.) The results confirmed that the infected deer originated from the
Brakke's Breeding Facility.
10. On August 13, 2012, DNR notified the Brakkes of the DNA results by
telephone. DNR advised the Brakkes that they would need to meet with DNR to
develop a plan to address the CWD infection at the Hunting Preserve. DNR would
have also been communicating with IDALS consistent with the Plan.
11. On September 7, 2012, DNR and the Brakkes executed an agreement
("Agreement") to depopulate the Hunting Preserve by January 31, 2013, and to
clean and disinfect the Hunting Preserve. It also contained a general Compliance
with Laws provision, which required the Brakkes to comply with all applicable
federal, state and local laws and regulations, including without limitation the
rules described in 571 Iowa Administrative Code section 115.10 related to the
maintenance of a
Page 4 IOWA DEPARTMENT OF NATURAL RESOURCES EMERGENCY ORDER ISSUED TO: TOM
AND RHONDA BRAKKE D/B/A PINE RIDGE HUNTING PRESERVE
quarantine on the Quarantined Premises and the prohibition of deer movement
in or out of the Quarantined Premises.
12. The Brakkes depopulated the Hunting Preserve, as specified in the
Agreement, from September 10, 2012 to January 31, 2013. As part of this effort,
the Brakkes, the staff and their customers killed 199 captive deer and nine
captive elk. The DNR obtained 170 CWD samples. (Samples were not taken from
fawns and one adult female who was killed in a manner that made sampling
impossible.) Of these 199 deer, two additional adult male deer tested positive
for CWD. Information provided by the Brakkes confirmed that these two additional
deer originated from the Brakke Breeding Facility.
13. DNR installed, with the Brakke's permission, an interior electric fence
on October 1 and 2, 2012.
14. The Brakkes cleaned and disinfected, under DNR supervision, the feeders
and ground surrounding the feeders on April 5, 2013.
15. On April 26, 2013, the Brakkes hand-delivered a notice to the DNR’s
Chief of Law Enforcement Bureau, notifying the DNR that they would no longer
operate a hunting preserve on the Quarantined Premises. The Brakkes did not
reveal any plans to remove the fence around the Quarantined Premises or to
remove the gates to and from the Quarantined Premises in this April 26, 2013
16. On June 3, 2013, DNR became aware that sections of the exterior fence
surrounding the Quarantined Premises had been removed and that some, if not all,
of the exterior gates to and from the Quarantined Premises were open.
17. On June 4, 2013, DNR received reports from the public in the area that
four wild deer were observed inside the Quarantined Premises.
18. On June 5, 2013, DNR conducted a fence inspection, after gaining
approval from surrounding landowners, and confirmed that the fenced had been cut
or removed in at least four separate locations; that the fence had degraded and
was failing to maintain the enclosure around the Quarantined Premises in at
least one area; that at least three gates had been opened; and that deer tracks
were visible in and around one of the open areas in the sand on both sides of
the fence, evidencing movement of deer into the Quarantined Premises.
IV. CONCLUSIONS OF LAW
Wednesday, August 21, 2013 IOWA DNR EMERGENCY CONSENT ORDER IN THE MATTER
OF TOM & LINDA BRAKKE D/B/A PINE RIDGE HUNTING LODGE UPDATE AUGUST 21, 2013
PLEASE STUDY THIS MAP !
SEE CWD MAP, RELATE TO DATES OF GAME FARM INFECTION, TO DATE OF INFECTION
RATE IN WILD, SURROUNDING SAID INFECTED GAME FARMS. ...TSS
*** Chronic Wasting Disease CWD CDC REPORT MARCH 2012 ***
Saturday, February 18, 2012
Occurrence, Transmission, and Zoonotic Potential of Chronic Wasting Disease
CDC Volume 18, Number 3—March 2012
Long-term effects of CWD on cervid populations and ecosystems remain
unclear as the disease continues to spread and prevalence increases. In captive
herds, CWD might persist at high levels and lead to complete herd destruction in
the absence of human culling. Epidemiologic modeling suggests the disease could
have severe effects on free-ranging deer populations, depending on hunting
policies and environmental persistence (8,9). CWD has been associated with large
decreases in free-ranging mule deer populations in an area of high CWD
prevalence (Boulder, Colorado, USA) (5).
CWD Zoonotic Potential, Species Barriers, and Strains
Current Understanding of the CWD Species Barrier
Strong evidence of zoonotic transmission of BSE to humans has led to
concerns about zoonotic transmission of CWD (2,3). As noted above, CWD prions
are present nearly ubiquitously throughout diseased hosts, including in muscle,
fat, various glands and organs, antler velvet, and peripheral and CNS tissue
(2,14,15). Thus, the potential for human exposure to CWD by handling and
consumption of infectious cervid material is substantial and increases with
increased disease prevalence.
Interspecies transmission of prion diseases often yields a species-barrier
effect, in which transmission is less efficient compared with intraspecies
transmission, as shown by lower attack rates and extended incubation periods
(3,28). The species barrier effect is associated with minor differences in PrPc
sequence and structure between the host and target species (3). Prion strain
(discussed below) and route of inoculation also affect the species barrier
(3,28). For instance, interspecies transmission by intracerebral inoculation is
often possible but oral challenge is completely ineffective (29).
Most epidemiologic studies and experimental work have suggested that the
potential for CWD transmission to humans is low, and such transmission has not
been documented through ongoing surveillance (2,3). In vitro prion replication
assays report a relatively low efficiency of CWD PrPSc-directed conversion of
human PrPc to PrPSc (30), and transgenic mice overexpressing human PrPc are
resistant to CWD infection (31); these findings indicate low zoonotic potential.
However, squirrel monkeys are susceptible to CWD by intracerebral and oral
inoculation (32). Cynomolgus macaques, which are evolutionarily closer to humans
than squirrel monkeys, are resistant to CWD infection (32). Regardless, the
finding that a primate is orally susceptible to CWD is of concern.
Interspecies transmission of CWD to noncervids has not been observed under
natural conditions. CWD infection of carcass scavengers such as raccoons,
opossums, and coyotes was not observed in a recent study in Wisconsin (22). In
addition, natural transmission of CWD to cattle has not been observed in
experimentally controlled natural exposure studies or targeted surveillance (2).
However, CWD has been experimentally transmitted to cattle, sheep, goats, mink,
ferrets, voles, and mice by intracerebral inoculation (2,29,33).
CWD is likely transmitted among mule, white-tailed deer, and elk without a
major species barrier (1), and other members of the cervid family, including
reindeer, caribou, and other species of deer worldwide, may be vulnerable to CWD
infection. Black-tailed deer (a subspecies of mule deer) and European red deer
(Cervus elaphus) are susceptible to CWD by natural routes of infection (1,34).
Fallow deer (Dama dama) are susceptible to CWD by intracerebral inoculation
(35). Continued study of CWD susceptibility in other cervids is of considerable
Reasons for Caution
There are several reasons for caution with respect to zoonotic and
interspecies CWD transmission. First, there is strong evidence that distinct CWD
strains exist (36). Prion strains are distinguished by varied incubation
periods, clinical symptoms, PrPSc conformations, and CNS PrPSc depositions
(3,32). Strains have been identified in other natural prion diseases, including
scrapie, BSE, and CJD (3). Intraspecies and interspecies transmission of prions
from CWD-positive deer and elk isolates resulted in identification of >2
strains of CWD in rodent models (36), indicating that CWD strains likely exist
in cervids. However, nothing is currently known about natural distribution and
prevalence of CWD strains. Currently, host range and pathogenicity vary with
prion strain (28,37). Therefore, zoonotic potential of CWD may also vary with
CWD strain. In addition, diversity in host (cervid) and target (e.g., human)
genotypes further complicates definitive findings of zoonotic and interspecies
transmission potentials of CWD.
Intraspecies and interspecies passage of the CWD agent may also increase
the risk for zoonotic CWD transmission. The CWD prion agent is undergoing serial
passage naturally as the disease continues to emerge. In vitro and in vivo
intraspecies transmission of the CWD agent yields PrPSc with an increased
capacity to convert human PrPc to PrPSc (30). Interspecies prion transmission
can alter CWD host range (38) and yield multiple novel prion strains (3,28). The
potential for interspecies CWD transmission (by cohabitating mammals) will only
increase as the disease spreads and CWD prions continue to be shed into the
environment. This environmental passage itself may alter CWD prions or exert
selective pressures on CWD strain mixtures by interactions with soil, which are
known to vary with prion strain (25), or exposure to environmental or gut
Given that prion disease in humans can be difficult to diagnose and the
asymptomatic incubation period can last decades, continued research,
epidemiologic surveillance, and caution in handling risky material remain
prudent as CWD continues to spread and the opportunity for interspecies
transmission increases. Otherwise, similar to what occurred in the United
Kingdom after detection of variant CJD and its subsequent link to BSE, years of
prevention could be lost if zoonotic transmission of CWD is subsequently
*** Chronic Wasting Disease CWD CDC REPORT MARCH 2012 ***
Saturday, February 18, 2012
Occurrence, Transmission, and Zoonotic Potential of Chronic Wasting Disease
CDC Volume 18, Number 3—March 2012
see much more here ;
recently, a report came out in the U.K., about risk factors from entry of
CWD from the USA.
I think you might find interest there ;
Friday, December 14, 2012 DEFRA U.K. What is the risk of Chronic Wasting
Disease CWD being introduced into Great Britain? A Qualitative Risk Assessment
In the USA, under the Food and Drug Administration’s BSE Feed Regulation
(21 CFR 589.2000) most material (exceptions include milk, tallow, and gelatin)
from deer and elk is prohibited for use in feed for ruminant animals. With
regards to feed for non-ruminant animals, under FDA law, CWD positive deer may
not be used for any animal feed or feed ingredients. For elk and deer considered
at high risk for CWD, the FDA recommends that these animals do not enter the
animal feed system. However, this recommendation is guidance and not a
requirement by law. Animals considered at high risk for CWD include:
1) animals from areas declared to be endemic for CWD and/or to be CWD
eradication zones and
2) deer and elk that at some time during the 60-month period prior to
slaughter were in a captive herd that contained a CWD-positive animal.
Therefore, in the USA, materials from cervids other than CWD positive
animals may be used in animal feed and feed ingredients for non-ruminants.
The amount of animal PAP that is of deer and/or elk origin imported from
the USA to GB can not be determined, however, as it is not specified in TRACES.
It may constitute a small percentage of the 8412 kilos of non-fish origin
processed animal proteins that were imported from US into GB in 2011. Overall,
therefore, it is considered there is a __greater than negligible risk___ that
(nonruminant) animal feed and pet food containing deer and/or elk protein is
imported into GB. There is uncertainty associated with this estimate given the
lack of data on the amount of deer and/or elk protein possibly being imported in
36% in 2007 (Almberg et al., 2011). In such areas, population declines of
deer of up to 30 to 50% have been observed (Almberg et al., 2011). In areas of
Colorado, the prevalence can be as high as 30% (EFSA, 2011). The clinical signs
of CWD in affected adults are weight loss and behavioural changes that can span
weeks or months (Williams, 2005). In addition, signs might include excessive
salivation, behavioural alterations including a fixed stare and changes in
interaction with other animals in the herd, and an altered stance (Williams,
2005). These signs are indistinguishable from cervids experimentally infected
with bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE). Given this, if CWD was to be
introduced into countries with BSE such as GB, for example, infected deer
populations would need to be tested to differentiate if they were infected with
CWD or BSE to minimise the risk of BSE entering the human food-chain via
The rate of transmission of CWD has been reported to be as high as 30% and
can approach 100% among captive animals in endemic areas (Safar et al., 2008).
In summary, in endemic areas, there is a medium probability that the soil
and surrounding environment is contaminated with CWD prions and in a
bioavailable form. In rural areas where CWD has not been reported and deer are
present, there is a greater than negligible risk the soil is contaminated with
In summary, given the volume of tourists, hunters and servicemen moving
between GB and North America, the probability of at least one person travelling
to/from a CWD affected area and, in doing so, contaminating their clothing,
footwear and/or equipment prior to arriving in GB is greater than negligible.
For deer hunters, specifically, the risk is likely to be greater given the
increased contact with deer and their environment. However, there is significant
uncertainty associated with these estimates.
Therefore, it is considered that farmed and park deer may have a higher
probability of exposure to CWD transferred to the environment than wild deer
given the restricted habitat range and higher frequency of contact with tourists
and returning GB residents. snip...
Friday, December 14, 2012
DEFRA U.K. What is the risk of Chronic Wasting Disease CWD being introduced
into Great Britain? A Qualitative Risk Assessment October 2012
Friday, November 22, 2013
Wasting disease is threat to the entire UK deer population (Chronic Wasting
Disease CWD TSE prion aka mad deer disease)
Wednesday, September 25, 2013
Inspections, Compliance, Enforcement, and Criminal Investigations BSE TSE
DOCKET-- 03D-0186 -- FDA Issues Draft Guidance on Use of Material From
Deer and Elk in Animal Feed; Availability
Date: Fri, 16 May 2003 11:47:37 –0500
EMC 1 Terry S. Singeltary Sr. Vol #: 1
PLEASE SEE FULL TEXT SUBMISSION ;
Thursday, October 03, 2013
TAHC ADOPTS CWD RULE THAT the amendments *remove* the requirement for a
specific fence height for captives
Texas Animal Health Commission (TAHC)
October 3, 2013
Friday, November 22, 2013
Wasting disease is threat to the entire UK deer population
Wednesday, September 25, 2013
USDA Officials: CWD Standards Going to Public Comment Soon
Sunday, November 3, 2013
*** Environmental Impact Statements; Availability, etc.: Animal Carcass
Management [Docket No. APHIS-2013-0044]
OLD HISTORY ON CWD AND GAME FARMS IN USA
CREUTZFELDT JAKOB DISEASE CJD IN HUMANS TSE PRION DISEASE
WHAT about the sporadic CJD TSE proteins ?
WE now know that some cases of sporadic CJD are linked to atypical BSE and
atypical Scrapie, so why are not MORE concerned about the sporadic CJD, and all
it’s sub-types $$$
snip...see full text and more here ;
Sunday, August 11, 2013
Creutzfeldt-Jakob Disease CJD cases rising North America updated report
Creutzfeldt-Jakob Disease CJD cases rising North America with Canada seeing
an extreme increase of 48% between 2008 and 2010
IATROGENIC TSE PRION DISEASE
all iatrogenic cjd is, is sporadic CJD, until route and source of the
iatrogenic event that took place, is detected, documented, placed in the
academic domain as fact, and recorded, which happens very seldom due to a lot of
factors, besides the incubation period, and that be mainly industry. kind of
like asbestos and tobacco and the industry there from, they knew in the early
1900’s that they both were killing, and they both had long incubation, and
somebody chose not to do anything about if for decades and decades. kind of like
what we have here with the TSE prion disease. $$$
> In 12 of 15 hospitals with neurosurgical incidents, a decision was
made to notify patients of their potential exposure.
SO, X number of patients, from 3 hospitals, where
''exposure to potentially CJD-contaminated instruments ''
took place on these patients, the final decision NOT to tell those folks
about the potential exposure to the CJD TSE prion
insane, thus, the TSE prion agent continues to spread. ...please see
further comments here ;
Saturday, November 16, 2013
Management of neurosurgical instruments and patients exposed to
creutzfeldt-jakob disease 2013 December
Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol.
Thursday, November 14, 2013
Prion diseases in humans: Oral and dental implications
Saturday, November 2, 2013
Recommendation of the Swiss Expert Committee for Biosafety on the
classification of activities using prion genes and prion protein January 2013
BONE GRINDING, POTENTIAL AEROSOLS TRANSMISSION, TSE PRION ???
Prion transmission is usually not considered to be airborne like influenza
or chicken pox. But we and others recently have found that prions can also be
efficiently transmitted to mice through aerosols , . Although
aerosol-transmitted prions have never been found under natural conditions, this
finding highlights the necessity of revising the current prion-related biosafety
guidelines and health standards in diagnostic and scientific laboratories being
potentially confronted with prion-infected materials.
Efficient mucosal transmission of CWD in deer has been demonstrated by
oral, nasal, aerosol, and indirect contact exposure.
Friday, November 29, 2013
Identification of Misfolded Proteins in Body Fluids for the Diagnosis of
International Journal of Cell Biology
Terry S. Singeltary Sr. P.O. Box 42 Bacliff, Texas USA 77518
MOM DOD 12/14/97 CONFIRMED HVCJD...just made a promise, never forget, and
never let them forget. ...TSS