Tuesday, April 29, 2014

CWD Herd Certification Program and Interstate Movement of Farmed or Captive Deer, Elk, and Moose FR Doc No: 2014-09714 April 29, 2014 UPDATE

Chronic Wasting Disease Herd Certification Program and Interstate Movement of Farmed or Captive Deer, Elk, and Moose FR Doc No: 2014-09714 April 29, 2014




7. Chronic Wasting Disease Herd Certification Program and Interstate Movement of Farmed or Captive Deer, Elk, and Moose Federal Register Volume 79, Number 82 (Tuesday, April 29, 2014) Rules and Regulations Pages 23887-23892 From the Federal Register Online via the Government Printing Office [www.gpo.gov] [FR Doc No: 2014-09714]




Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service


9 CFR Parts 55 and 81 Docket No. 00-108-11 RIN 0579-AB35


Chronic Wasting Disease Herd Certification Program and Interstate Movement of Farmed or Captive Deer, Elk, and Moose


AGENCY: Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service, USDA.


ACTION: Final rule.


SUMMARY: We are adopting as a final rule, with two miscellaneous changes, an interim final rule that established a herd certification program to control chronic wasting disease (CWD) in farmed or captive cervids in the United States. The interim final rule specifically requested comment on our policy that our CWD regulations set minimum requirements for the interstate movement of farmed or captive deer, elk, and moose but will not preempt State or local laws or regulations that are more restrictive than our regulations. This document responds to comments we received on that policy. The interim final rule was necessary to help to control the incidence of CWD in farmed or captive cervid herds and prevent its spread.


DATES: Effective on April 29, 2014, we are adopting as a final rule the interim final rule published at 77 FR 35542-35571 on June 13, 2012. The amendments in this final rule are also effective April 29, 2014.


FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Dr. Patrice Klein, Senior Staff Veterinarian, Sheep, Goat, Cervid & Equine Health Center, Surveillance, Preparedness, and Response Services, Veterinary Services, APHIS, 4700 River Road Unit 43, Riverdale, MD 20737-1231; (301) 851-3435.


Full text:





greetings, if I understand this correctly, in my opinion, having individual states and the cwd rules there from each state, if said cwd rules are stronger in any individual state, then the voluntarily and pro industry FR Doc No: 2014-09714 will NOT preempt these individual states cwd rules. if the FR Doc No: 2014-09714 would have been mandatory in every state, and not so pro-industry, I might have thought different. so, we will see which states really want to help end cwd, or the ones that want to continue to help spead it. until a live cwd test is validated and in full use, and or a vaccine is validated and in use, all we can do is stop the movement of cervids between states. it is the only logical solution in my opinion. ...TSS



Singeltary submission ;


Program Standards: Chronic Wasting Disease Herd Certification Program and Interstate Movement of Farmed or Captive Deer, Elk, and Moose


*** DOCUMENT ID: APHIS-2006-0118-0411



AD.12: Characterization of the first case of naturally occurring chronic wasting disease in a captive red deer (Cervus elaphus) in North America


Aaron D.Lehmkuhl.1 Bruce V. Thomsen,1 Katherine I. O'Rourke.3 Aru Balachandran,4 Justin J. Greenlee2 and Mark Hall1


'National Veterinary Services Laboratories; Ames,IA USA; 2National Animal Disease Center; Ames, IA USA; 3Animal Disease Research Unit; Pullman, WA USA; 4National and OIE Reference Laboratory for Scrapie and CWD; Ottawa, ON Canada


Chronic wasting disease (CWD) is a transmissible spongiform encephalopathy (TSE) affecting cervids that is caused by the accumulation of an abnormal prion protein. CWD has been diagnosed in captive and free-ranging elk (Cervus canadensis), mule deer (Odocoileus hemionus), white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) and moose (Alces aIces) in North America. This report describes the identification and characterization of the first case of CWD in a naturally infected, captive red deer in North America.





Thursday, August 08, 2013


*** Characterization of the first case of naturally occurring chronic wasting disease in a captive red deer (Cervus elaphus) in North America



Friday, May 25, 2012


Chronic Wasting Disease CWD found in a farmed red deer from Ramsey County Minnesota News Release


For immediate release: Friday, May 25, 2012



natural cases of CWD in eight Sika deer (Cervus nippon) and five Sika/red deer crossbreeds Korea and Experimental oral transmission to red deer (Cervus elaphus elaphus)




A Quarterly Newsletter from the Southeastern Cooperative Wildlife Disease Study College of Veterinary Medicine The University of Georgia Athens, Georgia 30602


Volume 27 January 2012 Number 4


Red deer susceptibility to CWD via oral inoculation was demonstrated in a study conducted by collaborators from the U.S. and Canada. Red deer developed clinical signs and had spongiform changes in the brain when euthanatized at 20 MPI. The CWD prion was detectable in neural and lymphoid tissues, endocrine organs, cardiac muscle, nasal mucosa, and other tissues. Although field cases of CWD in red deer have not been reported, results of this study indicate that it could occur, which is not surprising given that elk and red deer are subspecies of Cervus elaphus. The results of this study can be found in the Canadian Veterinary Journal 51: 169-178.


In addition, it was reported in May 2011 that natural cases of CWD were found in eight Sika deer (Cervus nippon) and five Sika/red deer crossbreeds during epidemiological investigations of CWD cases in captive elk in Korea.



May 2011


natural cases of CWD were found in eight Sika deer (Cervus nippon) and five Sika/red deer crossbreeds during epidemiological investigations of CWD cases in captive elk in Korea


Friday, May 13, 2011


Chronic Wasting Disease (CWD) outbreaks and surveillance program in the Republic of Korea Chronic Wasting Disease (CWD) outbreaks and surveillance program in the Republic of Korea


Hyun-Joo Sohn, Yoon-Hee Lee, Min-jeong Kim, Eun-Im Yun, Hyo-Jin Kim, Won-Yong Lee, Dong-Seob Tark, In- Soo Cho, Foreign Animal Disease Research Division, National Veterinary Research and Quarantine Service, Republic of Korea


Chronic wasting disease (CWD) has been recognized as an important prion disease in native North America deer and Rocky mountain elks. The disease is a unique member of the transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (TSEs), which naturally affects only a few species. CWD had been limited to USA and Canada until 2000.


On 28 December 2000, information from the Canadian government showed that a total of 95 elk had been exported from farms with CWD to Korea.


These consisted of 23 elk in 1994 originating from the so-called “source farm” in Canada, and 72 elk in 1997, which had been held in pre export quarantine at the “source farm”.Based on export information of CWD suspected elk from Canada to Korea, CWD surveillance program was initiated by the Ministry of Agriculture and Forestry (MAF) in 2001. All elks imported in 1997 were traced back, however elks imported in 1994 were impossible to identify. CWD control measures included stamping out of all animals in the affected farm, and thorough cleaning and disinfection of the premises. In addition, nationwide clinical surveillance of Korean native cervids, and improved measures to ensure reporting of CWD suspect cases were implemented.


Total of 9 elks were found to be affected. CWD was designated as a notifiable disease under the Act for Prevention of Livestock Epidemics in 2002. Additional CWD cases - 12 elks and 2 elks - were diagnosed in 2004 and 2005. Since February of 2005, when slaughtered elks were found to be positive, all slaughtered cervid for human consumption at abattoirs were designated as target of the CWD surveillance program. Currently, CWD laboratory testing is only conducted by National Reference Laboratory on CWD, which is the Foreign Animal Disease Division (FADD) of National Veterinary Research and Quarantine Service (NVRQS).


In July 2010, one out of 3 elks from Farm 1 which were slaughtered for the human consumption was confirmed as positive. Consequently, all cervid – 54 elks, 41 Sika deer and 5 Albino deer – were culled and one elk was found to be positive.


Epidemiological investigations were conducted by Veterinary Epidemiology Division (VED) of NVRQS in collaboration with provincial veterinary services. Epidemiologically related farms were found as 3 farms and all cervid at these farms were culled and subjected to CWD diagnosis.


*** Three elks and 5 crossbreeds (Red deer and Sika deer) were confirmed as positive at farm 2.


All cervids at Farm 3 and Farm 4 – 15 elks and 47 elks – were culled and confirmed as negative.


*** Further epidemiological investigations showed that these CWD outbreaks were linked to the importation of elks from Canada in 1994 based on circumstantial evidences.


*** In December 2010, one elk was confirmed as positive at Farm 5. Consequently, all cervid – 3 elks, 11 Manchurian Sika deer and 20 Sika deer – were culled and one Manchurian Sika deer and seven Sika deer were found to be positive.


This is the first report of CWD in these sub-species of deer.


Epidemiological investigations found that the owner of the Farm 2 in CWD outbreaks in July 2010 had co-owned the Farm 5.


In addition, it was newly revealed that one positive elk was introduced from Farm 6 of Jinju-si Gyeongsang Namdo.


All cervid – 19 elks, 15 crossbreed (species unknown) and 64 Sika deer – of Farm 6 were culled, but all confirmed as negative. : Corresponding author: Dr. Hyun-Joo Sohn (+82-31-467-1867, E-mail: shonhj@korea.kr)


2011 Pre-congress Workshop: TSEs in animals and their environment 5





Friday, May 13, 2011


Chronic Wasting Disease (CWD) outbreaks and surveillance program in the Republic of Korea





Title: Experimental oral transmission of chronic wasting disease to red deer (Cervus elaphus elaphus): Early detection and late stage distribution of protease-resistant prion protein




Balachandran, A - CANADIAN FOOD INSPCTN AG Harrington, Noel - CANADIAN FOOD INSPCTN AG Algire, James - CANADIAN FOOD INSPCTN AG Souyrine, Andre - CANADIAN FOOD INSPCTN AG Spraker, Terry - COLORADO ST UNIV Jeffrey, Martin - Gonzalez, Lorenzo - Orourke, Katherine


Submitted to: Canadian Veterinary Journal Publication Type: Peer Reviewed Journal Publication Acceptance Date: December 1, 2008 Publication Date: March 11, 2010 Repository URL: http://ddr.nal.usda.gov/dspace/bitstream/10113/40677/1/IND44334511.pdf Citation: Balachandran, A., Harrington, N., Algire, J., Souyrine, A., Spraker, T., Jeffrey, M., Gonzalez, L., Orourke, K.I. 2010. Experimental oral transmission of chronic wasting disease to red deer (Cervus elaphus elaphus): Early detection and late stage distribution of protease-resistant prion protein. Canadian Veterinary Journal. Canadian Veterinary Journal. 51:169-178.


Interpretive Summary: Farmed cervids may be exposed to the prion disorder chronic wasting disease through contact with free ranging or farmed infected Rocky Mountain elk, white tailed deer, mule deer, or moose. This is the first report of experimental transmission of chronic wasting disease to red deer, an economically important agricultural commodity in parts of North America. Brain tissue from infected Rocky Mountain elk was administered by the oral route of red deer. Deer were examined at 18 months after infection for evidence of abnormal prion protein, the marker for the disease. The abnormal protein was found throughout the brain, spinal cord and lymphoid tissues, with variable distribution in other organ systems. This finding confirms the potential susceptibility of this species to disease under natural conditions and the reliability of the current testing format for identifying the abnormal protein in the tissues routinely collected in surveillance programs. The widespread distribution of the abnormal protein in red deer indicates the potential for shedding of the agent into the environment. Technical Abstract: Chronic wasting disease CWD is the transmissible spongiform encephalopathy or prion disease of wild and farmed cervid ruminants, including Rocky Mountain elk (Cervus elaphus nelsoni), white tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus), mule deer (Odocoileus hemionus), or moose (Alces alces). Reliable data on the susceptibility of other farmed cervid species, the distribution of the abnormal prion protein marker in brain and lymphoid tissues collected in surveillance programs, and the role of prion genotype are necessary for design of control programs for CWD in farmed cervids. In this study, red deer (Cervus elaphus elaphus) were exposed to the prion agent by oral administration of brain homogenates from infected Rocky Mountain elk. Antemortem testing was performed at 7 months post infection and the deer were euthanized when clinical disease was observed at approximately 18 months after infection. The abnormal prion protein was assayed by immunohistochemistry, enzyme linked immunosorbent assay and western blot. Abnormal prion protein was found in the spinal cord, brainstem, cerebellum, midbrain, thalamus, and cerebrum in all 4 infected red deer. Most of the lymph nodes throughout the body were positive for abnormal prion proteins. Abnromal prion protein was observed in some additional peripheral tissues in some but not all of the deer. In particular, most areas of the gastrointestinal tract were positive for abnormal prions, although the salivary glands were rarely positive. This study demonstrates the potential for oral transmission of chronic wasting disease to red deer and confirms the usefulness of the current testing methods for post mortem diagnosis of the disease in this species.


Project Team Orourke, Katherine Knowles, Donald - Don White, Stephen Schneider, David


Publications Publications Related National Programs Animal Health (103)


Last Modified: 06/18/2012



*** please note ;


In the USA, under the Food and Drug Administration’s BSE Feed Regulation (21 CFR 589.2000) most material (exceptions include milk, tallow, and gelatin) from deer and elk is prohibited for use in feed for ruminant animals. With regards to feed for non-ruminant animals, under FDA law, CWD positive deer may not be used for any animal feed or feed ingredients. For elk and deer considered at high risk for CWD, the FDA recommends that these animals do not enter the animal feed system. However, this recommendation is guidance and not a requirement by law. Animals considered at high risk for CWD include: 1) animals from areas declared to be endemic for CWD and/or to be CWD eradication zones and 2) deer and elk that at some time during the 60-month period prior to slaughter were in a captive herd that contained a CWD-positive animal. Therefore, in the USA, materials from cervids other than CWD positive animals may be used in animal feed and feed ingredients for non-ruminants. The amount of animal PAP that is of deer and/or elk origin imported from the USA to GB can not be determined, however, as it is not specified in TRACES. It may constitute a small percentage of the 8412 kilos of non-fish origin processed animal proteins that were imported from US into GB in 2011. Overall, therefore, it is considered there is a greater than negligible risk that (nonruminant) animal feed and pet food containing deer and/or elk protein is imported into GB. There is uncertainty associated with this estimate given the lack of data on the amount of deer and/or elk protein possibly being imported in these products.





8420-20.5% Antler Developer For Deer and Game in the wild Guaranteed Analysis Ingredients / Products Feeding Directions snip...


_animal protein_



Oral transmission and early lymphoid tropism of chronic wasting disease PrPres in mule deer fawns (Odocoileus hemionus )


Christina J. Sigurdson1, Elizabeth S. Williams2, Michael W. Miller3, Terry R. Spraker1,4, Katherine I. O'Rourke5 and Edward A. Hoover1


Department of Pathology, College of Veterinary Medicine and Biomedical Sciences, Colorado State University, Fort Collins, CO 80523- 1671, USA1 Department of Veterinary Sciences, University of Wyoming, 1174 Snowy Range Road, University of Wyoming, Laramie, WY 82070, USA 2 Colorado Division of Wildlife, Wildlife Research Center, 317 West Prospect Road, Fort Collins, CO 80526-2097, USA3 Colorado State University Veterinary Diagnostic Laboratory, 300 West Drake Road, Fort Collins, CO 80523-1671, USA4 Animal Disease Research Unit, Agricultural Research Service, US Department of Agriculture, 337 Bustad Hall, Washington State University, Pullman, WA 99164-7030, USA5


Author for correspondence: Edward Hoover.Fax +1 970 491 0523. e-mail ehoover@lamar.colostate.edu


Mule deer fawns (Odocoileus hemionus) were inoculated orally with a brain homogenate prepared from mule deer with naturally occurring chronic wasting disease (CWD), a prion-induced transmissible spongiform encephalopathy. Fawns were necropsied and examined for PrP res, the abnormal prion protein isoform, at 10, 42, 53, 77, 78 and 80 days post-inoculation (p.i.) using an immunohistochemistry assay modified to enhance sensitivity. PrPres was detected in alimentary-tract-associated lymphoid tissues (one or more of the following: retropharyngeal lymph node, tonsil, Peyer's patch and ileocaecal lymph node) as early as 42 days p.i. and in all fawns examined thereafter (53 to 80 days p.i.). No PrPres staining was detected in lymphoid tissue of three control fawns receiving a control brain inoculum, nor was PrPres detectable in neural tissue of any fawn. PrPres-specific staining was markedly enhanced by sequential tissue treatment with formic acid, proteinase K and hydrated autoclaving prior to immunohistochemical staining with monoclonal antibody F89/160.1.5. These results indicate that CWD PrP res can be detected in lymphoid tissues draining the alimentary tract within a few weeks after oral exposure to infectious prions and may reflect the initial pathway of CWD infection in deer. The rapid infection of deer fawns following exposure by the most plausible natural route is consistent with the efficient horizontal transmission of CWD in nature and enables accelerated studies of transmission and pathogenesis in the native species.




These results indicate that mule deer fawns develop detectable PrP res after oral exposure to an inoculum containing CWD prions. In the earliest post-exposure period, CWD PrPres was traced to the lymphoid tissues draining the oral and intestinal mucosa (i.e. the retropharyngeal lymph nodes, tonsil, ileal Peyer's patches and ileocaecal lymph nodes), which probably received the highest initial exposure to the inoculum. Hadlow et al. (1982) demonstrated scrapie agent in the tonsil, retropharyngeal and mesenteric lymph nodes, ileum and spleen in a 10-month-old naturally infected lamb by mouse bioassay. Eight of nine sheep had infectivity in the retropharyngeal lymph node. He concluded that the tissue distribution suggested primary infection via the gastrointestinal tract. The tissue distribution of PrPres in the early stages of infection in the fawns is strikingly similar to that seen in naturally infected sheep with scrapie. These findings support oral exposure as a natural route of CWD infection in deer and support oral inoculation as a reasonable exposure route for experimental studies of CWD.





DOCKET-- 03D-0186 -- FDA Issues Draft Guidance on Use of Material From Deer and Elk in Animal Feed; Availability


Date: Fri, 16 May 2003 11:47:37 –0500


EMC 1 Terry S. Singeltary Sr. Vol #: 1





OAI 2012-2013


OAI (Official Action Indicated) when inspectors find significant objectionable conditions or practices and believe that regulatory sanctions are warranted to address the establishment’s lack of compliance with the regulation. An example of an OAI classification would be findings of manufacturing procedures insufficient to ensure that ruminant feed is not contaminated with prohibited material. Inspectors will promptly re-inspect facilities classified OAI after regulatory sanctions have been applied to determine whether the corrective actions are adequate to address the objectionable conditions.


ATL-DO 1035703 Newberry Feed & Farm Ctr, Inc. 2431 Vincent St. Newberry SC 29108-0714 OPR DR, FL, FR, TH HP 9/9/2013 OAI Y


DET-DO 1824979 Hubbard Feeds, Inc. 135 Main, P.O. Box 156 Shipshewana IN 46565-0156 OPR DR, FL, OF DP 8/29/2013 OAI Y


ATL-DO 3001460882 Talley Farms Feed Mill Inc 6309 Talley Rd Stanfield NC 28163-7617 OPR FL, TH NP 7/17/2013 OAI N


NYK-DO 3010260624 Sherry Sammons 612 Stoner Trail Rd Fonda NY 12068-5007 OPR FR, OF NP 7/16/2013 OAI Y


DEN-DO 3008575486 Rocky Ford Pet Foods 21693 Highway 50 East Rocky Ford CO 81067 OPR RE, TH HP 2/27/2013 OAI N


CHI-DO 3007091297 Rancho Cantera 2866 N Sunnyside Rd Kent IL 61044-9605 OPR FR, OF HP 11/26/2012 OAI Y


*** DEN-DO 1713202 Weld County Bi Products, Inc. 1138 N 11th Ave Greeley CO 80631-9501 OPR RE, TH HP 10/12/2012 OAI N


Ruminant Feed Inspections Firms Inventory (excel format)



PLEASE NOTE, the VAI violations were so numerous, and unorganized in dates posted, as in numerical order, you will have to sift through them for yourselves. ...tss


snip...see full text ;


Sunday, December 15, 2013





Saturday, December 15, 2012


Bovine spongiform encephalopathy: the effect of oral exposure dose on attack rate and incubation period in cattle -- an update 5 December 2012



Sunday, February 2, 2014


The Presence of Disease-Associated Prion Protein in Skeletal Muscle of Cattle Infected with Classical Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy


NOTE Pathology



Saturday, December 21, 2013


**** Complementary studies detecting classical bovine spongiform encephalopathy infectivity in jejunum, ileum and ileocaecal junction in incubating cattle ****





Summary Report BSE 2012


Executive Summary



Saturday, August 4, 2012


*** Final Feed Investigation Summary - California BSE Case - July 2012 ***



Saturday, August 14, 2010


BSE Case Associated with Prion Protein Gene Mutation (g-h-BSEalabama) and VPSPr PRIONPATHY


(see mad cow feed in COMMERCE IN ALABAMA...TSS)




Research Project: Mitigating the Risk of Transmission and Environmental Contamination of Transmissible Spongiform Encephalopathies Location: Animal Diseases Research


Title: Diagnostic accuracy of rectal mucosa biopsy testing for chronic wasting disease within white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) herds in North America:Effects of age,sex,polymorphism at PRNP codon 96,and disease progression Authors


item Thomsen, Bruce - item Schneider, David item O'Rourke, Katherine item Gidlewski, Thomas - item Mclane, James - item Allen, Robert - item Mcisaac, Alex - item Mitchell, Gordon - item Keane, Delwyn - item Spraker, Terry - item Balachandran, Aru -


Submitted to: J Vet Diagn Invest Publication Type: Peer Reviewed Journal Publication Acceptance Date: May 26, 2012 Publication Date: September 1, 2012 Citation: Thomsen, B.V., Schneider, D.A., O'Rourke, K., Gidlewski, T., Mclane, J., Allen, R.W., Mcisaac, A.A., Mitchell, G.B., Keane, D.P., Spraker, T., Balachandran, A. 2012. Diagnostic accuracy of rectal mucosa biopsy testing for chronic wasting disease within white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) herds in North America:Effects of age,sex,polymorphism at PRNP codon 96,and disease progression. J Vet Diagn Invest. 24(5):878-87.


Interpretive Summary: Control of prion diseases such as scrapie disease and chronic wasting disease (CWD) relies upon the use of accurate diagnostic testing methods. Biopsy of the rectal mucosa has proven to be an acceptable method of obtaining samples from live animals for the accurate diagnosis of scrapie in sheep and CWD in elk, and has shown promise for similar use in deer. The present study was a multi-national inter-agency effort to determine the diagnostic accuracy of testing based on samples obtained through biopsy of the rectal mucosa of deer and includes evaluation of over 600 white-tailed deer from 4 North American herds that were experiencing natural, subclinical CWD infection. Despite some limitation on sensitivity associated with early stage infection and with certain prion protein genotypes, it is concluded that selective use will provide regulatory veterinarians a useful live-animal method for investigating herds suspected of having subclinical CWD and with the potential of reducing the investigative costs based on current protocols. Technical Abstract: An effective live animal diagnostic test is needed to assist in the control of chronic wasting disease (CWD), which has spread through captive and wild herds of white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) in Canada and the United States. In the present study, the diagnostic accuracy of rectal mucosa biopsy sample testing was determined in white-tailed deer from 4 CWD-infected captive herds. Specifically, the current study compared the immunohistochemical detection of disease-associated prion protein in postmortem rectal mucosa biopsy samples to the CWD status of each deer as determined by immunodiagnostic evaluations of the brainstem at the obex, the medial retropharyngeal lymph node, and the palatine tonsil. The effects of age, sex, genotype, and disease progression were also evaluated. Diagnostic sensitivity on rectal biopsy samples for CWD in white-tailed deer ranged from 63% to 100%; the pooled estimate of sensitivity was 68% with 95% confidence limits (95% CLs) of 49% and 82%. However, diagnostic sensitivity was dependent on genotype at prion protein gene (PRNP) codon 96 and on disease progression as assessed by obex grade. Diagnostic sensitivity was 76% (95% CLs: 49%, 91%) for 96GG deer but only 42% (95% CLs: 13%, 79%) for 96GS deer. Furthermore, diagnostic sensitivity was only 36% for deer in the earliest stage of disease (obex grade 0) but was 100% for deer in the last 2 stages of preclinical disease (obex grades 3 and 4). The overall diagnostic specificity was 99.8%. Selective use of antemortem rectal biopsy sample testing would provide valuable information during disease investigations of CWD-suspect deer herds.



 Sunday, August 11, 2013


Development of an oral vaccine for chronic wasting disease


AD.24: Development of an oral vaccine for chronic wasting disease


Ryan Taschuk1,3 Kristen Marciniuk,1,2 Suresh Tikoo,1,3 Philip Griebel,1 Andrew Potter,1 Neil Cashman5 and Scott Napper1,2


1University of Saskatchewan; VIDO-lnterVac; Saskatoon, SK Canada; 2Department of Biochemistry; University of Saskatchewan; Saskatoon, SK Canada; 3School of Public Health; University of Saskatchewan; Saskatoon, SK Canada; 4Brain Research Centre; University of British Columbia; Vancouver, BC Canada; 5Brain Research Center; University of British Columbia; Vancouver, BC Canada


The prion protein is well conserved across mammals, and the misfolded protein is the causative agent in many animal-specific prion diseases, including chronic wasting disease (CWD) in deer and elk. Prion diseases are caused by misfolding of endogenously expressed prion protein from the native and homeostatic Prpc conformation to the infectious and pathogenic PrPsc conformation. Transmissible spongiform encephalopathies are of great interest for many reasons: the onset of disease inevitably leads to neurodegeneration and death, the potential of interference with food production through transmission both within and between agricultural species can have severe economic impacts, and the potential exists for zoonotic transmission. Our group has hypothesized that immunotherapeutic targeting of the PrPSc conformation would clear the infectious agent / infected cell while sparing native PrP, and vaccines may have potential application in prevention of CWD transmission or therapeutic treatment of disease.


Our research has focused upon identifying and optimizing three components of a potential CWD vaccine: a CWD-disease specific epitope (DSE) that induces antibody responses, a carrier protein to increase the magnitude and duration of antibody responses toward DSEs, and identification of delivery systems for oral delivery of the above DSE-carrier protein ro cervids. We have developed and optimized DSEs from three distinct regions of PrPc. Vaccination trials using iterations of these DSEs elicit high titers of epitope-specific serum antibody. A second generation carrier protein has increased both the duration and magnitude of antibody responses when compared with our previous carrier protein. Lastly, two delivery systems were effective in inducing antibody responses when administered orally to white-tailed deer. We have identified the vaccine components necessary for delivering a CWD vaccine to wild cervids. These findings will direct our final CWD vaccine formulation and delivery system.





Wednesday, September 04, 2013


*** cwd - cervid captive livestock escapes, loose and on the run in the wild ***



15. On April 26, 2013, the Brakkes hand-delivered a notice to the DNR’s Chief of Law Enforcement Bureau, notifying the DNR that they would no longer operate a hunting preserve on the Quarantined Premises. The Brakkes did not reveal any plans to remove the fence around the Quarantined Premises or to remove the gates to and from the Quarantined Premises in this April 26, 2013 letter.


16. On June 3, 2013, DNR became aware that sections of the exterior fence surrounding the Quarantined Premises had been removed and that some, if not all, of the exterior gates to and from the Quarantined Premises were open.


17. On June 4, 2013, DNR received reports from the public in the area that four wild deer were observed inside the Quarantined Premises.


18. On June 5, 2013, DNR conducted a fence inspection, after gaining approval from surrounding landowners, and confirmed that the fenced had been cut or removed in at least four separate locations; that the fence had degraded and was failing to maintain the enclosure around the Quarantined Premises in at least one area; that at least three gates had been opened; and that deer tracks were visible in and around one of the open areas in the sand on both sides of the fence, evidencing movement of deer into the Quarantined Premises.






Wednesday, August 21, 2013





Sunday, March 02, 2014





Game Farm, CWD Concerns Rise at Boone and Crockett Club


Friday, March 28, 2014 Concerned about captive deer operations transmitting diseases to wild herds, the Boone and Crockett Club now officially supports state bans on commercial import and export of deer or elk.


The Club also opposes efforts to relax regulation of captive cervid breeding operations or to remove management authority over such operations from state wildlife agencies.


A full position statement, posted here, was passed at the Club’s December meeting.


The Club’s concerns were reinforced at the recent Whitetail Summit hosted by the Quality Deer Management Association (QDMA), the first summit to focus on key issues and challenges facing free-ranging white-tailed deer.


“Of all the presentations, seminars and findings, I was most pleased to see the attention given to the connections between chronic wasting disease (CWD) and the game farming industry. This has been on our radar, and on the radar of QDMA, other conservation groups, state agencies and sportsmen for quite some time,” said Richard Hale, chairman of the Club’s Records Committee.


Hale added, “Congratulations to QDMA on one of the most impressive and well-run summits I’ve had the pleasure of attending and for keeping this issue front and center.”


CWD is a degenerative brain disease that affects elk, mule deer, white-tailed deer, and moose. The disease can be transmitted by direct animal-to-animal contact through saliva, feces and urine, and indirectly through environmental contamination. CWD is fatal in deer, elk and moose, but there is no evidence that CWD can be transmitted to humans, according to the CDC and The World Health Organization.


Documented cases of CWD have been found in captive and/or wild deer and elk in 22 states and two Canadian provinces. In some, but not all, cases where the disease has been found in wild populations, the disease is present in captive populations within these regions.


In 2002, the Boone and Crockett Club, Rocky Mountain Elk Foundation and the Mule Deer Foundation formed the CWD Alliance. Its purpose was to pool resources, share information and collaborate on ways to positively address the CWD issue. Other organizations have since joined the Alliance, including QDMA and the Wildlife Management Institute, which now administers the Alliance website www.cwd-info.org.


“Evidence strongly suggests that captive animals infected with CWD can serve as the source for the spread of the disease to other captive animals, and between captive animals and wild populations,” said Hale. “To reduce the risk to wild deer populations, several states passed laws prohibiting game farming or live captive deer and elk importation, but now they are fighting efforts to expand captive deer and elk breeding and shooting operations within their jurisdictions. The captive cervid industry is persistent in proposing new legislations to overturn these laws, or transfer the authority of captive deer and elk from state fish and game agencies to their respective departments of agriculture.”


No vaccine or treatment is available for animals infected with CWD and once established in a population, culling or complete depopulation to eradicate CWD has provided only marginal results. In fact, the prevalence of CWD is rising at an alarming rate in some infected wild deer populations. Prevention is the only truly effective technique for managing diseases in free-ranging wildlife populations. Consequently, what can be done is minimizing the spread of CWD by restricting intra- and interstate transportation captive, privately owned wildlife, which frequently occurs in game farming.



boone and crockett club position statement


REGULATION OF GAME FARMS First Adopted December 7, 2013 - Updated December 7, 2013


Situational Overview


The captive cervid industry, also referred to as game farming, uses artificial means to breed captive deer, elk, and other cervids for sale in shooting preserve operations. These game farms commonly transport captive deer and elk to other shooting preserves in a state or in other states.


Transportation of captive, game farm animals has been shown to increase the risk of spreading parasites and infectious, diseases, such as chronic wasting disease (CWD) and bovine tuberculosis, to other captive and wild cervids in new locations. There is currently no way of testing live animals for CWD, and infected animals show no signs for at least 16-18 months post-infection. There is no vaccine, and despite fenced enclosures, captive animals often come in contact with wild populations thereby spreading diseases. Once CWD is present, the area cannot be decontaminated even if infected animals are removed. As a result, many states have banned or are attempting to ban the importation of captive cervids (as well as intact carcasses of hunter-killed, wild cervids) to lower the risk of spreading CWD and other infectious diseases.




The Boone and Crockett Club supports state bans on importing or exporting captive deer and elk by game farming operations in order to protect the health of native populations. The Club opposes any legislation aimed at relaxing regulations governing captive cervid breeding operations or removing management authority over such operations from state wildlife agencies. The Club does not oppose the transportation of wild cervids by state agencies and non-governmental organizations for the purpose of re-establishing wild game animals to their historic, open ranges.


The breeding of captive deer, elk, and other cervids for profit to create abnormally large “trophy” animals for fenced shoots under non-fair chase conditions are addressed in the Boone and Crockett Club’s positions on “Genetic Manipulation of Game” and “Canned Shoots.”



Saturday, March 29, 2014


Game Farm, CWD Concerns Rise at Boone and Crockett Club



Sunday, April 06, 2014


The Conservation Federation of Missouri is Opposed to the Transfer of Captive White-tailed Deer Management



Sunday, April 27, 2014


Indiana State Senate chief David Long calls for study of trophy deer industry's disease risks



The New Hornographers: The Fight Over the Future of Texas Deer, Captive shooting pens, and the CWD TSE prion disease



Tuesday, July 02, 2013


National Rifle Association and the Unified Sportsman of Florida support a Florida ban on the importation of captive deer and cervids into Florida



Friday, March 07, 2014


37th Annual Southeast Deer Study Group Meeting in Athens, Georgia (CWD TSE Prion abstracts)



Monday, March 03, 2014


*** APHIS to Offer Indemnity for CWD Positive Herds as Part of Its Cervid Health Activities ???



Singeltary submission ;


Saturday, February 04, 2012


*** Wisconsin 16 age limit on testing dead deer Game Farm CWD Testing Protocol Needs To Be Revised


Approximately 4,200 fawns, defined as deer under 1 year of age, were sampled from the eradication zone over the last year. The majority of fawns sampled were between the ages of 5 to 9 months, though some were as young as 1 month.


*** Two of the six fawns with CWD detected were 5 to 6 months old.


All six of the positive fawns were taken from the core area of the CWD eradication zone where the highest numbers of positive deer have been identified.



Sunday, September 01, 2013


*** hunting over gut piles and CWD TSE prion disease



Sunday, April 13, 2014


Mineral licks: motivational factors for visitation and accompanying disease risk at communal use sites of elk and deer


Environmental Geochemistry and Health



Saturday, March 15, 2014


Potential role of soil properties in the spread of CWD in western Canada



New studies on the heat resistance of hamster-adapted scrapie agent: Threshold survival after ashing at 600°C suggests an inorganic template of replication



Prion Infected Meat-and-Bone Meal Is Still Infectious after Biodiesel Production



Detection of protease-resistant cervid prion protein in water from a CWD-endemic area



A Quantitative Assessment of the Amount of Prion Diverted to Category 1 Materials and Wastewater During Processing



Rapid assessment of bovine spongiform encephalopathy prion inactivation by heat treatment in yellow grease produced in the industrial manufacturing process of meat and bone meals





Survival and Limited Spread of TSE Infectivity after Burial














Saturday, April 19, 2014


*** Exploring the zoonotic potential of animal prion diseases: In vivo and in vitro approaches ***


*** These results would seem to suggest that CWD does indeed have zoonotic potential, at least as judged by the compatibility of CWD prions and their human PrPC target. Furthermore, extrapolation from this simple in vitro assay suggests that if zoonotic CWD occurred, it would most likely effect those of the PRNP codon 129-MM genotype and that the PrPres type would be similar to that found in the most common subtype of sCJD (MM1).




Elk CWD spreading on game farms


Elk & game farming in other states

Utah Fish and Game Dept

The state of Utah has little experience with big game farming. In an effort to understand elk and game farming, the Division has contacted other states that allow elk farming. The following are some of the problems other states associate with elk farming reported to the Division:


Karen Zachiem with Montana Parks and Wildlife reported that Montana allows game farming. Initial regulations were inadequate to protect the state's wildlife resources. The state has tried to tighten up regulations related to game farming, resulting in a series of lawsuits against the state from elk ranchers. Zachiem reported that the tightening of regulations was in response to the discovery of TB in wildlife (elk, deer, and coyotes) surrounding a TB infected game farm. TB has been found on several game farms in Montana. Also, they have had problems with wildlife entering game farms as well as game farm animals escaping the farms. Finally, there has been a growth in shooting ranches in Montana. Game farmers allow hunters to come into enclosures to kill trophy game farm animals, raising the issues of fair chase and hunting ethics.


Rolph Johnson with the Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife, reported that Washington allows game farming, but it is strictly regulated to safeguard wildlife. Washington opposed the law when first proposed for the following reasons: introduction of disease and parasites; hybridization of wildlife species; habitat loss; health risks to humans, wildlife, and livestock; and state responsibility to recover or destroy escaped elk. Game farming is not cost effective due to the restrictions needed to prevent these problems.


Jerry Macacchini, with New Mexico Game and Fish, reported that New Mexico has problems with game farming and a moratorium on elk and game farming has been imposed by the state at the request of its citizens. Problems identified in the moratorium were: escaped game farm animals; theft of native elk herds; and disease.


Dan Edwards, with Oregon Fish and Wildlife, reported that Oregon has very little elk farming and is now prohibited by regulation. The elk farms that are in operation existed prior to the adoption of game farm regulations. Individuals who want to elk farm, must buy out an existing elk farm owner. Elk farms are no longer permitted due to, "...current and imminent threats to Oregon's native deer and elk herds and social and economic values.'' Oregon has documented numerous game farm animals that have escapeed from private game farms. Concerns about elk farming arose during public elk management meetings. The impacts of privately held cervids on publicly owned wildlife were a recurring issue throughout the elk management process. Key issues included: disease and parasites; escape and interbreeding of domestic animals with native wildlife; illegal kills for meat; and theft of public wildlife.


Harry Harju, assistant wildlife chief with Wyoming Fish and Game, reported that elk or game farming is now prohibited in Wyoming. Only one game ranch exists in Wyoming, which was operating before the passage of the law. The state of Wyoming was sued by several game breeders associations for not allowing elk farming. The game breeders lost their suit in the United States Court of Appeals, Tenth Circuit. The court maintained that the state had authority to regulate commerce and protect wildlife. Wyoming has had problems with big game farming originating in surrounding states. Wyoming has documented the harvest of red deer and their hybrids during elk hunts on the Snowy Mountain range that borders Colorado. Wyoming speculates that the red deer were escapees from Colorado game farms. Hybridization is viewed as threat to the genetic integrity of Wyoming's wild elk population.

In a public hearing, the public voted against game farms in the state of Wyoming. Wyoming's Cattlemen's Association and Department of Agriculture opposed elk and big game farms, as well, particularly due to disease risks. Brucellosis is a major problem for wildlife and livestock in the Yellowstone Basin.


Nevada reports that big game farms are allowed in Nevada. Nevada has not had any problems as a result of big game farms. However, Nevada has only one big game farm in the entire state and it is a reindeer farm.


Wildlife Chief Tom Rienecker reported that Idaho Fish and Game once regulated elk farming in their state, but lost jurisdiction of elk farming to the Department of Agriculture as a result of pressure from elk farmers. Idaho has 20-30 big game ranches. Idaho has had problems with escapes and several law enforcement cases have been filed against suspects who have taken calves out of the wild for elk farming purposes. Disease has not been a problem for Idaho.


John Seidel, with Colorado Division of Wildlife, reported that the Division used to regulate big game farming until the big game breeders association petitioned for the Department of Agriculture to assume authority over big game farming because too many citations were issued to elk farms for violations. Colorado experienced numerous poaching incidents with elk calves from the wild and theft of whole herds of wild elk captured in private farms. Seidel reported that some of the larger "elk shooting ranches" have been investigated and charged with capturing wild herds of elk within the shooting preserve fences. Seidel reported that there have been documented problems with disease (TB); escaped hybrids and exotics; intrusion of rutting wild elk into game farms; massive recapture efforts for escapees and intruders; and loss of huge tracts of land fenced for shooting preserves/ranches. Based on their experiences, the Colorado Division of Wildlife wishes they did not have big game farms in Colorado. Seidel believes that CEBA would fight hard to open Utah to elk farming to provide a market for breeding stock in Utah ($3,000 & up for a bull and $8,000 & up for a breeding cow).


The Arizona Game and Fish Department reports that elk farming is legal in Arizona but the agency would not allow it if they had to do it all over again. Arizona reported the loss of huge blocks of land to fencing and some disease problems.


Alberta has allowed elk farming for a number of years. To date, Alberta has spent $10,000,000 and destroyed 2,000 elk in an unsuccessful attempt to control the spread of tuberculosis. Based upon the game farming experiences of these states, their recommendation to Utah was not to allow elk farming.


The Division has contacted several state and federal veterinarians. The opinions of some agricultural veterinarians differed from wildlife veterinarians. Some veterinarians endorsed elk farming with the right regulatory safeguards. Other veterinarians opposed elk farming due to the risks to wildlife and livestock. This issue needs a more comprehensive review. The Division also contacted a Special Agent with the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service who conducted a covert investigation in Colorado to gather intelligence on elk farming and detect poaching activity of wild elk. Although poaching was not detected, the agent described his experience with pyramid schemes in elk sales; lack of a meat market; falsification of veterinarian records for farmed elk; escapes and intrusions between wild and captive elk; inadequate inspections by brand inspectors; transportation of TB infected elk; and the temperament of the elk themselves. The Colorado Elk Breeders Association (CEBA) told the Division that CEBA did not approve of elk poaching and has turned in fellow elk farmers for poaching live elk calves from the wild.

CEBA told Utah legislators that the Colorado Division of Wildlife did not like elk ranching at first, but has come to see that elk farming is not as bad as they originally thought it would be. The Colorado Division of Wildlife disagreed with CEBA's perception of their relationship.

snip...see more ;




CWD game meat from USA and Canada: lack of import controls

1,500 elk destroyed in hopes of eradicating CWD infection

Hunt farms voted out of Montana

Game farm rules argued pro and con in Montana

Big game, big business

Montana hunters blast game farms







Terry S. Singeltary Sr.




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