Wednesday, April 30, 2014

IOWA DNR to heavily test deer around Harpers Ferry for CWD, asks for public assistance

CWD Focus of Three Meetings in Allamakee, Clayton Counties Posted: 04/15/2014


The Iowa Department of Natural Resources is hosting three public meetings in Allamakee and Clayton counties to update the public on chronic wasting disease and seek public input on partnering with hunters, taxidermists and lockers to increase surveillance on the area’s deer herd.


The meetings are scheduled April 22, 6-8 p.m., at the Monona Community Center, 104 South Egbert Street, in Monona; April 23, 9:30-11:30 a.m., at the Harpers Ferry Community Center, 238 North Fourth Street, in Harpers Ferry, and from 6-8 p.m., at the Waukon Banquet Center, 612 Rossville Road, in Waukon.


The DNR has begun collecting samples from road-killed deer in the area. At the meeting, attendees will identify other ways the public can help, like reporting sick deer to conservation officers or wildlife staff and working with DNR staff to obtain additional samples from deer taken in the area this fall.





*** These results would seem to suggest that CWD does indeed have zoonotic potential, at least as judged by the compatibility of CWD prions and their human PrPC target. Furthermore, extrapolation from this simple in vitro assay suggests that if zoonotic CWD occurred, it would most likely effect those of the PRNP codon 129-MM genotype and that the PrPres type would be similar to that found in the most common subtype of sCJD (MM1).



Saturday, April 19, 2014


*** Exploring the zoonotic potential of animal prion diseases: In vivo and in vitro approaches



*** PPo3-7: Prion Transmission from Cervids to Humans is Strain-dependent


*** Here we report that a human prion strain that had adopted the cervid prion protein (PrP) sequence through passage in cervidized transgenic mice efficiently infected transgenic mice expressing human PrP,


*** indicating that the species barrier from cervid to humans is prion strain-dependent and humans can be vulnerable to novel cervid prion strains.




Generation of a Novel form of Human PrPSc by Inter-species Transmission of Cervid Prions


*** Our findings suggest that CWD prions have the capability to infect humans, and that this ability depends on CWD strain adaptation, implying that the risk for human health progressively increases with the spread of CWD among cervids.




Biochemical and Biophysical Characterization of Different CWD Isolates


*** The data presented here substantiate and expand previous reports on the existence of different CWD strains.





Pathological Prion Protein (PrPTSE) in Skeletal Muscles of Farmed and Free Ranging White-Tailed Deer Infected with Chronic Wasting Disease


***The presence and seeding activity of PrPTSE in skeletal muscle from CWD-infected cervids suggests prevention of such tissue in the human diet as a precautionary measure for food safety, pending on further clarification of whether CWD may be transmissible to humans.







Transmissible Spongiform Encephalopathy TSE PRION update January 2, 2014


Wednesday, January 01, 2014


Molecular Barriers to Zoonotic Transmission of Prions


*** chronic wasting disease, there was no absolute barrier to conversion of the human prion protein.


*** Furthermore, the form of human PrPres produced in this in vitro assay when seeded with CWD, resembles that found in the most common human prion disease, namely sCJD of the MM1 subtype.






Sunday, August 25, 2013


HD.13: CWD infection in the spleen of humanized transgenic mice


***These results indicate that the CWD prion may have the potential to infect human peripheral lymphoid tissues.


Oral.15: Molecular barriers to zoonotic prion transmission: Comparison of the ability of sheep, cattle and deer prion disease isolates to convert normal human prion protein to its pathological isoform in a cell-free system ***However, they also show that there is no absolute barrier ro conversion of human prion protein in the case of chronic wasting disease.




Sunday, August 25, 2013


***Chronic Wasting Disease CWD risk factors, humans, domestic cats, blood, and mother to offspring transmission



Friday, November 09, 2012


*** Chronic Wasting Disease CWD in cervidae and transmission to other species



there is in fact evidence that the potential for cwd transmission to humans can NOT be ruled out.


I thought your readers and hunters and those that consume the venison, should have all the scientific facts, personally, I don’t care what you eat, but if it effects me and my family down the road, it should then concern everyone, and the potential of iatrogenic transmission of the TSE prion is real i.e. ‘friendly fire’, medical, surgical, dental, blood, tissue, and or products there deer antler velvet and TSE prions and nutritional supplements there from, all a potential risk factor that should not be ignored or silenced. ...


the prion gods at the cdc state that there is ;


''no strong evidence''


but let's see exactly what the authors of this cwd to human at the cdc state ;


now, let’s see what the authors said about this casual link, personal communications years ago. see where it is stated NO STRONG evidence. so, does this mean there IS casual evidence ????


“Our conclusion stating that we found no strong evidence of CWD transmission to humans”


From: TSS (




Date: September 30, 2002 at 7:06 am PST


From: "Belay, Ermias"




Cc: "Race, Richard (NIH)" ; ; "Belay, Ermias"


Sent: Monday, September 30, 2002 9:22 AM




Dear Sir/Madam,


In the Archives of Neurology you quoted (the abstract of which was attached to your email), we did not say CWD in humans will present like variant CJD.


That assumption would be wrong. I encourage you to read the whole article and call me if you have questions or need more clarification (phone: 404-639-3091). Also, we do not claim that "no-one has ever been infected with prion disease from eating venison." Our conclusion stating that we found no strong evidence of CWD transmission to humans in the article you quoted or in any other forum is limited to the patients we investigated.


Ermias Belay, M.D. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention


-----Original Message-----




Sent: Sunday, September 29, 2002 10:15 AM


To:;; ebb8@CDC.GOV




Sunday, November 10, 2002 6:26 PM ......snip........end..............TSS


Thursday, April 03, 2008


A prion disease of cervids: Chronic wasting disease


2008 1: Vet Res. 2008 Apr 3;39(4):41


A prion disease of cervids: Chronic wasting disease


Sigurdson CJ.




*** twenty-seven CJD patients who regularly consumed venison were reported to the Surveillance Center***,




full text ;





***********CJD REPORT 1994 increased risk for consumption of veal and venison and lamb***********




Consumption of venison and veal was much less widespread among both cases and controls. For both of these meats there was evidence of a trend with increasing frequency of consumption being associated with increasing risk of CJD. (not nvCJD, but sporadic CJD...tss)


These associations were largely unchanged when attention was restricted to pairs with data obtained from relatives. ...


Table 9 presents the results of an analysis of these data.


There is STRONG evidence of an association between ‘’regular’’ veal eating and risk of CJD (p = .0.01).


Individuals reported to eat veal on average at least once a year appear to be at 13 TIMES THE RISK of individuals who have never eaten veal.


There is, however, a very wide confidence interval around this estimate. There is no strong evidence that eating veal less than once per year is associated with increased risk of CJD (p = 0.51).


The association between venison eating and risk of CJD shows similar pattern, with regular venison eating associated with a 9 FOLD INCREASE IN RISK OF CJD (p = 0.04).


There is some evidence that risk of CJD INCREASES WITH INCREASING FREQUENCY OF LAMB EATING (p = 0.02).


The evidence for such an association between beef eating and CJD is weaker (p = 0.14). When only controls for whom a relative was interviewed are included, this evidence becomes a little STRONGER (p = 0.08).




It was found that when veal was included in the model with another exposure, the association between veal and CJD remained statistically significant (p = < 0.05 for all exposures), while the other exposures ceased to be statistically significant (p = > 0.05).




In conclusion, an analysis of dietary histories revealed statistical associations between various meats/animal products and INCREASED RISK OF CJD. When some account was taken of possible confounding, the association between VEAL EATING AND RISK OF CJD EMERGED AS THE STRONGEST OF THESE ASSOCIATIONS STATISTICALLY. ...




In the study in the USA, a range of foodstuffs were associated with an increased risk of CJD, including liver consumption which was associated with an apparent SIX-FOLD INCREASE IN THE RISK OF CJD. By comparing the data from 3 studies in relation to this particular dietary factor, the risk of liver consumption became non-significant with an odds ratio of 1.2 (PERSONAL COMMUNICATION, PROFESSOR A. HOFMAN. ERASMUS UNIVERSITY, ROTTERDAM). (???...TSS)


snip...see full report ;



Thursday, October 10, 2013


*************CJD REPORT 1994 increased risk for consumption of veal and venison and lamb**************





October 1994


Mr R.N. Elmhirst Chairman British Deer Farmers Association Holly Lodge Spencers Lane BerksWell Coventry CV7 7BZ


Dear Mr Elmhirst,




Thank you for your recent letter concerning the publication of the third annual report from the CJD Surveillance Unit. I am sorry that you are dissatisfied with the way in which this report was published.


The Surveillance Unit is a completely independant outside body and the Department of Health is committed to publishing their reports as soon as they become available. In the circumstances it is not the practice to circulate the report for comment since the findings of the report would not be amended. In future we can ensure that the British Deer Farmers Association receives a copy of the report in advance of publication.


The Chief Medical Officer has undertaken to keep the public fully informed of the results of any research in respect of CJD. This report was entirely the work of the unit and was produced completely independantly of the the Department.


The statistical results reqarding the consumption of venison was put into perspective in the body of the report and was not mentioned at all in the press release. Media attention regarding this report was low key but gave a realistic presentation of the statistical findings of the Unit. This approach to publication was successful in that consumption of venison was highlighted only once by the media ie. in the News at one television proqramme.


I believe that a further statement about the report, or indeed statistical links between CJD and consumption of venison, would increase, and quite possibly give damaging credence, to the whole issue. From the low key media reports of which I am aware it seems unlikely that venison consumption will suffer adversely, if at all.



Chronic Wasting Disease Detected for First Time in Wild Iowa Deer


Posted: 04/09/2014 The first case of chronic wasting disease (CWD) in a wild Iowa deer has been confirmed.


The deer was reported as harvested in Allamakee County during the first shotgun season in early December. The Iowa Department of Natural Resources is currently working to obtain as much information as possible about the infected deer to implement its CWD response plan.


“We have been testing for CWD in Iowa’s deer herd for more than a decade and are optimistic, given the extensive data we have collected, that we have caught this early,” said Chuck Gipp, DNR director.


“The next step will be to focus our monitoring efforts in the area where the animal was harvested and work closely with local landowners and hunters to gather more information.” said Gipp.


CWD is a neurological disease affecting primarily deer and elk. It is caused by an abnormal protein, called a prion that attacks the brains of infected animals, causing them to lose weight, display abnormal behavior and lose bodily functions. Signs include excessive salivation, thirst and urination, loss of appetite, progressive weight loss, listlessness and drooping ears and head. The only reliable test for CWD requires testing of lymph nodes or brain material.


There is currently no evidence that humans can contract CWD by eating venison. However, the National Institute of Health and the Center for Disease Control and Prevention recommends that hunters do not eat the brain, eyeballs or spinal cord of deer and that hunters wear protective gloves while field dressing game and boning out meat for consumption.


Prior to the positive detection in Iowa, CWD had been detected in every bordering state.


“With CWD in all the states around us, we have understood the possibility of a positive detection in the wild deer herd for some time” said Gipp.


Since 2002, the DNR has collected more than 650 samples of deer from within a five-mile radius of where the deer is believed to have been harvested.


Media contact: Kevin Baskins, Iowa Department of Natural Resources, at 515-281-8395.



Wednesday, April 09, 2014


Iowa : Chronic Wasting Disease Detected for First Time in Wild Iowa Deer



Wednesday, March 05, 2014


Iowa Brakke Family Wins DNR Legal Case



Sunday, December 08, 2013


IOWA DNR to Continue Surveillance for Chronic Wasting Disease CWD TSE PRION DISEASE



Wednesday, August 21, 2013






5. On July 16, 2012, DNR received a notice from the Texas Veterinary Medical Diagnostic Lab ("Texas Vet Lab”) that a sample from an adult male deer killed at Pine Ridge tested presumptively positive for CWD. (DNR has an agreement with the Texas Vet Lab to run these preliminary tests.) Because the Texas Vet Lab found this presumptive positive result, protocols required the sample to be sent to the National Veterinary Services Laboratory ("National Lab”) in Ames, Iowa for final confirmation. On July 18, 2012, the National Lab confirmed the positive CWD result in the deer.


6. On July 19, 2012, DNR notified the Brakkes of the positive test by phone. Mr. Brakke was out of state.




12. The Brakkes depopulated the Hunting Preserve, as specified in the Agreement, from September 10, 2012 to January 31, 2013. As part of this effort, the Brakkes, the staff and their customers killed 199 captive deer and nine captive elk. The DNR obtained 170 CWD samples. (Samples were not taken from fawns and one adult female who was killed in a manner that made sampling impossible.) Of these 199 deer, two additional adult male deer tested positive for CWD. Information provided by the Brakkes confirmed that these two additional deer originated from the Brakke Breeding Facility.


13. DNR installed, with the Brakke's permission, an interior electric fence on October 1 and 2, 2012.


14. The Brakkes cleaned and disinfected, under DNR supervision, the feeders and ground surrounding the feeders on April 5, 2013.


15. On April 26, 2013, the Brakkes hand-delivered a notice to the DNR’s Chief of Law Enforcement Bureau, notifying the DNR that they would no longer operate a hunting preserve on the Quarantined Premises. The Brakkes did not reveal any plans to remove the fence around the Quarantined Premises or to remove the gates to and from the Quarantined Premises in this April 26, 2013 letter.


16. On June 3, 2013, DNR became aware that sections of the exterior fence surrounding the Quarantined Premises had been removed and that some, if not all, of the exterior gates to and from the Quarantined Premises were open.


17. On June 4, 2013, DNR received reports from the public in the area that four wild deer were observed inside the Quarantined Premises.


18. On June 5, 2013, DNR conducted a fence inspection, after gaining approval from surrounding landowners, and confirmed that the fenced had been cut or removed in at least four separate locations; that the fence had degraded and was failing to maintain the enclosure around the Quarantined Premises in at least one area; that at least three gates had been opened; and that deer tracks were visible in and around one of the open areas in the sand on both sides of the fence, evidencing movement of deer into the Quarantined Premises.






Wednesday, August 21, 2013





Wednesday, July 31, 2013


Iowa Brakke Family Farmed CWD livestock update July 3, 2013



Friday, December 14, 2012


IOWA Second Deer Positive for CWD at Davis County Hunting Preserve Captive Shooting Pen



Friday, September 21, 2012


Chronic Wasting Disease CWD raises concerns about deer farms in Iowa



Tuesday, September 11, 2012


Agreement Reached with Owner to De-Populate CWD Deer at Davis County Hunting Preserve Iowa



Wednesday, September 05, 2012


Additional Facility in Pottawatamie County Iowa Under Quarantine for CWD after 5 deer test positive



Friday, July 20, 2012


CWD found for first time in Iowa at hunting preserve



Game Farm, CWD Concerns Rise at Boone and Crockett Club


Friday, March 28, 2014 Concerned about captive deer operations transmitting diseases to wild herds, the Boone and Crockett Club now officially supports state bans on commercial import and export of deer or elk.


The Club also opposes efforts to relax regulation of captive cervid breeding operations or to remove management authority over such operations from state wildlife agencies.


A full position statement, posted here, was passed at the Club’s December meeting.


The Club’s concerns were reinforced at the recent Whitetail Summit hosted by the Quality Deer Management Association (QDMA), the first summit to focus on key issues and challenges facing free-ranging white-tailed deer.


“Of all the presentations, seminars and findings, I was most pleased to see the attention given to the connections between chronic wasting disease (CWD) and the game farming industry. This has been on our radar, and on the radar of QDMA, other conservation groups, state agencies and sportsmen for quite some time,” said Richard Hale, chairman of the Club’s Records Committee.


Hale added, “Congratulations to QDMA on one of the most impressive and well-run summits I’ve had the pleasure of attending and for keeping this issue front and center.”


CWD is a degenerative brain disease that affects elk, mule deer, white-tailed deer, and moose. The disease can be transmitted by direct animal-to-animal contact through saliva, feces and urine, and indirectly through environmental contamination. CWD is fatal in deer, elk and moose, but there is no evidence that CWD can be transmitted to humans, according to the CDC and The World Health Organization.


Documented cases of CWD have been found in captive and/or wild deer and elk in 22 states and two Canadian provinces. In some, but not all, cases where the disease has been found in wild populations, the disease is present in captive populations within these regions.


In 2002, the Boone and Crockett Club, Rocky Mountain Elk Foundation and the Mule Deer Foundation formed the CWD Alliance. Its purpose was to pool resources, share information and collaborate on ways to positively address the CWD issue. Other organizations have since joined the Alliance, including QDMA and the Wildlife Management Institute, which now administers the Alliance website


“Evidence strongly suggests that captive animals infected with CWD can serve as the source for the spread of the disease to other captive animals, and between captive animals and wild populations,” said Hale. “To reduce the risk to wild deer populations, several states passed laws prohibiting game farming or live captive deer and elk importation, but now they are fighting efforts to expand captive deer and elk breeding and shooting operations within their jurisdictions. The captive cervid industry is persistent in proposing new legislations to overturn these laws, or transfer the authority of captive deer and elk from state fish and game agencies to their respective departments of agriculture.”


No vaccine or treatment is available for animals infected with CWD and once established in a population, culling or complete depopulation to eradicate CWD has provided only marginal results. In fact, the prevalence of CWD is rising at an alarming rate in some infected wild deer populations. Prevention is the only truly effective technique for managing diseases in free-ranging wildlife populations. Consequently, what can be done is minimizing the spread of CWD by restricting intra- and interstate transportation captive, privately owned wildlife, which frequently occurs in game farming.



boone and crockett club position statement


REGULATION OF GAME FARMS First Adopted December 7, 2013 - Updated December 7, 2013


Situational Overview


The captive cervid industry, also referred to as game farming, uses artificial means to breed captive deer, elk, and other cervids for sale in shooting preserve operations. These game farms commonly transport captive deer and elk to other shooting preserves in a state or in other states.


Transportation of captive, game farm animals has been shown to increase the risk of spreading parasites and infectious, diseases, such as chronic wasting disease (CWD) and bovine tuberculosis, to other captive and wild cervids in new locations. There is currently no way of testing live animals for CWD, and infected animals show no signs for at least 16-18 months post-infection. There is no vaccine, and despite fenced enclosures, captive animals often come in contact with wild populations thereby spreading diseases. Once CWD is present, the area cannot be decontaminated even if infected animals are removed. As a result, many states have banned or are attempting to ban the importation of captive cervids (as well as intact carcasses of hunter-killed, wild cervids) to lower the risk of spreading CWD and other infectious diseases.




The Boone and Crockett Club supports state bans on importing or exporting captive deer and elk by game farming operations in order to protect the health of native populations. The Club opposes any legislation aimed at relaxing regulations governing captive cervid breeding operations or removing management authority over such operations from state wildlife agencies. The Club does not oppose the transportation of wild cervids by state agencies and non-governmental organizations for the purpose of re-establishing wild game animals to their historic, open ranges.


The breeding of captive deer, elk, and other cervids for profit to create abnormally large “trophy” animals for fenced shoots under non-fair chase conditions are addressed in the Boone and Crockett Club’s positions on “Genetic Manipulation of Game” and “Canned Shoots.”



THE LANCET Infectious Diseases Vol 3 August 2003


Tracking spongiform encephalopathies in North America



Friday, December 14, 2012


DEFRA U.K. What is the risk of Chronic Wasting Disease CWD being introduced into Great Britain? A Qualitative Risk Assessment October 2012




In the USA, under the Food and Drug Administration’s BSE Feed Regulation (21 CFR 589.2000) most material (exceptions include milk, tallow, and gelatin) from deer and elk is prohibited for use in feed for ruminant animals. With regards to feed for non-ruminant animals, under FDA law, CWD positive deer may not be used for any animal feed or feed ingredients. For elk and deer considered at high risk for CWD, the FDA recommends that these animals do not enter the animal feed system. However, this recommendation is guidance and not a requirement by law.


Animals considered at high risk for CWD include:


1) animals from areas declared to be endemic for CWD and/or to be CWD eradication zones and


2) deer and elk that at some time during the 60-month period prior to slaughter were in a captive herd that contained a CWD-positive animal.


Therefore, in the USA, materials from cervids other than CWD positive animals may be used in animal feed and feed ingredients for non-ruminants.


The amount of animal PAP that is of deer and/or elk origin imported from the USA to GB can not be determined, however, as it is not specified in TRACES. It may constitute a small percentage of the 8412 kilos of non-fish origin processed animal proteins that were imported from US into GB in 2011.


Overall, therefore, it is considered there is a __greater than negligible risk___ that (nonruminant) animal feed and pet food containing deer and/or elk protein is imported into GB.


There is uncertainty associated with this estimate given the lack of data on the amount of deer and/or elk protein possibly being imported in these products.




36% in 2007 (Almberg et al., 2011). In such areas, population declines of deer of up to 30 to 50% have been observed (Almberg et al., 2011). In areas of Colorado, the prevalence can be as high as 30% (EFSA, 2011).


The clinical signs of CWD in affected adults are weight loss and behavioural changes that can span weeks or months (Williams, 2005). In addition, signs might include excessive salivation, behavioural alterations including a fixed stare and changes in interaction with other animals in the herd, and an altered stance (Williams, 2005). These signs are indistinguishable from cervids experimentally infected with bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE).


Given this, if CWD was to be introduced into countries with BSE such as GB, for example, infected deer populations would need to be tested to differentiate if they were infected with CWD or BSE to minimise the risk of BSE entering the human food-chain via affected venison.




The rate of transmission of CWD has been reported to be as high as 30% and can approach 100% among captive animals in endemic areas (Safar et al., 2008).




In summary, in endemic areas, there is a medium probability that the soil and surrounding environment is contaminated with CWD prions and in a bioavailable form. In rural areas where CWD has not been reported and deer are present, there is a greater than negligible risk the soil is contaminated with CWD prion.




In summary, given the volume of tourists, hunters and servicemen moving between GB and North America, the probability of at least one person travelling to/from a CWD affected area and, in doing so, contaminating their clothing, footwear and/or equipment prior to arriving in GB is greater than negligible. For deer hunters, specifically, the risk is likely to be greater given the increased contact with deer and their environment. However, there is significant uncertainty associated with these estimates.




Therefore, it is considered that farmed and park deer may have a higher probability of exposure to CWD transferred to the environment than wild deer given the restricted habitat range and higher frequency of contact with tourists and returning GB residents.





Singeltary submission ;


Program Standards: Chronic Wasting Disease Herd Certification Program and Interstate Movement of Farmed or Captive Deer, Elk, and Moose


*** DOCUMENT ID: APHIS-2006-0118-0411



Saturday, March 29, 2014


Game Farm, CWD Concerns Rise at Boone and Crockett Club



Sunday, April 06, 2014


The Conservation Federation of Missouri is Opposed to the Transfer of Captive White-tailed Deer Management



Tuesday, April 08, 2014


Pennsylvania Chronic wasting disease found in another deer in state



Wednesday, September 04, 2013


*** cwd - cervid captive livestock escapes, loose and on the run in the wild



*** Spraker suggested an interesting explanation for the occurrence of CWD. The deer pens at the Foot Hills Campus were built some 30-40 years ago by a Dr. Bob Davis. At or abut that time, allegedly, some scrapie work was conducted at this site. When deer were introduced to the pens they occupied ground that had previously been occupied by sheep. ...


also, see where even decades back, the USDA had the same thought as they do today with CWD, not their problem...see page 27 below as well, where USDA stated back then, the same thing they stated in the state of Pennsylvania, not their damn business, once they escape, and they said the same thing about CWD in general back then ;


”The occurrence of CWD must be viewed against the contest of the locations in which it occurred. It was an incidental and unwelcome complication of the respective wildlife research programmes. Despite it’s subsequent recognition as a new disease of cervids, therefore justifying direct investigation, no specific research funding was forthcoming. The USDA veiwed it as a wildlife problem and consequently not their province!” 26.



”The occurrence of CWD must be viewed against the contest of the locations in which it occurred. It was an incidental and unwelcome complication of the respective wildlife research programmes. Despite it’s subsequent recognition as a new disease of cervids, therefore justifying direct investigation, no specific research funding was forthcoming. The USDA veiwed it as a wildlife problem and consequently not their province!” 26.


sound familiar $$$


Sunday, January 06, 2013




*** "it‘s no longer its business.”



Saturday, June 29, 2013





Tuesday, May 28, 2013


Chronic Wasting Disease CWD quarantine Louisiana via CWD index herd Pennsylvania Update May 28, 2013


*** 6 doe from Pennsylvania CWD index herd still on the loose in Louisiana, quarantine began on October 18, 2012, still ongoing, Lake Charles premises.



Thursday, October 03, 2013


*** TAHC ADOPTS CWD RULE THAT the amendments REMOVE the requirement for a specific fence height for captives


Texas Animal Health Commission (TAHC)




October 3, 2013



Monday, March 03, 2014


*** APHIS to Offer Indemnity for CWD Positive Herds as Part of Its Cervid Health Activities ???



Saturday, February 04, 2012


*** Wisconsin 16 age limit on testing dead deer Game Farm CWD Testing Protocol Needs To Be Revised



Sunday, November 3, 2013


*** Environmental Impact Statements; Availability, etc.: Animal Carcass Management [Docket No. APHIS-2013-0044]



Sunday, September 01, 2013


*** hunting over gut piles and CWD TSE prion disease



Monday, October 07, 2013


The importance of localized culling in stabilizing chronic wasting disease prevalence in white-tailed deer populations



Friday, March 07, 2014


37th Annual Southeast Deer Study Group Meeting in Athens, Georgia (CWD TSE Prion abstracts)



Saturday, March 15, 2014


Potential role of soil properties in the spread of CWD in western Canada



Inactivation of the TSE Prion disease


Chronic Wasting Disease CWD, and other TSE prion disease, these TSE prions know no borders.


these TSE prions know no age restrictions.


The TSE prion disease survives ashing to 600 degrees celsius, that’s around 1112 degrees farenheit.


you cannot cook the TSE prion disease out of meat.


you can take the ash and mix it with saline and inject that ash into a mouse, and the mouse will go down with TSE.


Prion Infected Meat-and-Bone Meal Is Still Infectious after Biodiesel Production as well.


the TSE prion agent also survives Simulated Wastewater Treatment Processes.


IN fact, you should also know that the TSE Prion agent will survive in the environment for years, if not decades.


you can bury it and it will not go away.


The TSE agent is capable of infected your water table i.e. Detection of protease-resistant cervid prion protein in water from a CWD-endemic area.


it’s not your ordinary pathogen you can just cook it out and be done with. that’s what’s so worrisome about Iatrogenic mode of transmission, a simple autoclave will not kill this TSE prion agent.


Sunday, March 30, 2014


*** Chronic Wasting Disease Agents in Nonhuman Primates ***



*** our results raise the possibility that CJD cases classified as VV1 may include cases caused by iatrogenic transmission of sCJD-MM1 prions or food-borne infection by type 1 prions from animals, e.g., chronic wasting disease prions in cervid. In fact, two CJD-VV1 patients who hunted deer or consumed venison have been reported (40, 41). The results of the present study emphasize the need for traceback studies and careful re-examination of the biochemical properties of sCJD-VV1 prions. ***



Thursday, January 2, 2014


*** CWD TSE Prion in cervids to hTGmice, Heidenhain Variant Creutzfeldt-Jacob Disease MM1 genotype, and iatrogenic CJD ??? ***





*** Spraker suggested an interesting explanation for the occurrence of CWD. The deer pens at the Foot Hills Campus were built some 30-40 years ago by a Dr. Bob Davis. At or abut that time, allegedly, some scrapie work was conducted at this site. When deer were introduced to the pens they occupied ground that had previously been occupied by sheep. ... also, see where even decades back, the USDA had the same thought as they do today with CWD, not their problem...see page 27 below as well, where USDA stated back then, the same thing they stated in the state of Pennsylvania, not their damn business, once they escape, and they said the same thing about CWD in general back then ; ”The occurrence of CWD must be viewed against the contest of the locations in which it occurred. It was an incidental and unwelcome complication of the respective wildlife research programmes. Despite it’s subsequent recognition as a new disease of cervids, therefore justifying direct investigation, no specific research funding was forthcoming.


***The USDA veiwed it as a wildlife problem and consequently not their province!” 26.



”The occurrence of CWD must be viewed against the contest of the locations in which it occurred. It was an incidental and unwelcome complication of the respective wildlife research programmes. Despite it’s subsequent recognition as a new disease of cervids, therefore justifying direct investigation, no specific research funding was forthcoming. The USDA veiwed it as a wildlife problem and consequently not their province!” 26.


sound familiar $$$


Sunday, January 06, 2013


USDA TO PGC ONCE CAPTIVES ESCAPE *** "it‘s no longer its business.”



spreading cwd around...tss


Between 1996 and 2002, chronic wasting disease was diagnosed in 39 herds of farmed elk in Saskatchewan in a single epidemic. All of these herds were depopulated as part of the Canadian Food Inspection Agency’s (CFIA) disease eradication program. Animals, primarily over 12 mo of age, were tested for the presence CWD prions following euthanasia. Twenty-one of the herds were linked through movements of live animals with latent CWD from a single infected source herd in Saskatchewan, 17 through movements of animals from 7 of the secondarily infected herds.


***The source herd is believed to have become infected via importation of animals from a game farm in South Dakota where CWD was subsequently diagnosed (7,4). A wide range in herd prevalence of CWD at the time of herd depopulation of these herds was observed. Within-herd transmission was observed on some farms, while the disease remained confined to the introduced animals on other farms.



spreading cwd around...tss


Friday, May 13, 2011


Chronic Wasting Disease (CWD) outbreaks and surveillance program in the Republic of Korea Chronic Wasting Disease (CWD) outbreaks and surveillance program in the Republic of Korea


Hyun-Joo Sohn, Yoon-Hee Lee, Min-jeong Kim, Eun-Im Yun, Hyo-Jin Kim, Won-Yong Lee, Dong-Seob Tark, In- Soo Cho, Foreign Animal Disease Research Division, National Veterinary Research and Quarantine Service, Republic of Korea


Chronic wasting disease (CWD) has been recognized as an important prion disease in native North America deer and Rocky mountain elks. The disease is a unique member of the transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (TSEs), which naturally affects only a few species. CWD had been limited to USA and Canada until 2000.


On 28 December 2000, information from the Canadian government showed that a total of 95 elk had been exported from farms with CWD to Korea. These consisted of 23 elk in 1994 originating from the so-called “source farm” in Canada, and 72 elk in 1997, which had been held in pre export quarantine at the “source farm”.Based on export information of CWD suspected elk from Canada to Korea, CWD surveillance program was initiated by the Ministry of Agriculture and Forestry (MAF) in 2001.


All elks imported in 1997 were traced back, however elks imported in 1994 were impossible to identify. CWD control measures included stamping out of all animals in the affected farm, and thorough cleaning and disinfection of the premises. In addition, nationwide clinical surveillance of Korean native cervids, and improved measures to ensure reporting of CWD suspect cases were implemented.


Total of 9 elks were found to be affected. CWD was designated as a notifiable disease under the Act for Prevention of Livestock Epidemics in 2002.


Additional CWD cases - 12 elks and 2 elks - were diagnosed in 2004 and 2005.


Since February of 2005, when slaughtered elks were found to be positive, all slaughtered cervid for human consumption at abattoirs were designated as target of the CWD surveillance program. Currently, CWD laboratory testing is only conducted by National Reference Laboratory on CWD, which is the Foreign Animal Disease Division (FADD) of National Veterinary Research and Quarantine Service (NVRQS).


In July 2010, one out of 3 elks from Farm 1 which were slaughtered for the human consumption was confirmed as positive. Consequently, all cervid – 54 elks, 41 Sika deer and 5 Albino deer – were culled and one elk was found to be positive. Epidemiological investigations were conducted by Veterinary Epidemiology Division (VED) of NVRQS in collaboration with provincial veterinary services.


Epidemiologically related farms were found as 3 farms and all cervid at these farms were culled and subjected to CWD diagnosis. Three elks and 5 crossbreeds (Red deer and Sika deer) were confirmed as positive at farm 2.


All cervids at Farm 3 and Farm 4 – 15 elks and 47 elks – were culled and confirmed as negative.


Further epidemiological investigations showed that these CWD outbreaks were linked to the importation of elks from Canada in 1994 based on circumstantial evidences.


In December 2010, one elk was confirmed as positive at Farm 5. Consequently, all cervid – 3 elks, 11 Manchurian Sika deer and 20 Sika deer – were culled and one Manchurian Sika deer and seven Sika deer were found to be positive. This is the first report of CWD in these sub-species of deer. Epidemiological investigations found that the owner of the Farm 2 in CWD outbreaks in July 2010 had co-owned the Farm 5.


In addition, it was newly revealed that one positive elk was introduced from Farm 6 of Jinju-si Gyeongsang Namdo. All cervid – 19 elks, 15 crossbreed (species unknown) and 64 Sika deer – of Farm 6 were culled, but all confirmed as negative.


: Corresponding author: Dr. Hyun-Joo Sohn (+82-31-467-1867, E-mail: 2011 Pre-congress Workshop: TSEs in animals and their environment 5





Friday, May 13, 2011


Chronic Wasting Disease (CWD) outbreaks and surveillance program in the Republic of Korea



how many states have $465,000., and can quarantine and purchase there from, each cwd said infected farm, but how many states can afford this for all the cwd infected cervid game ranch type farms ???


Tuesday, December 20, 2011




*** The CWD infection rate was nearly 80%, the highest ever in a North American captive herd.


*** RECOMMENDATION: That the Board approve the purchase of 80 acres of land for $465,000 for the Statewide Wildlife Habitat Program in Portage County and approve the restrictions on public use of the site.






Tuesday, April 29, 2014


*** CWD Herd Certification Program and Interstate Movement of Farmed or Captive Deer, Elk, and Moose FR Doc No: 2014-09714 April 29, 2014 UPDATE ***





Elk CWD spreading on game farms



Elk & game farming in other states


Utah Fish and Game Dept


The state of Utah has little experience with big game farming. In an effort to understand elk and game farming, the Division has contacted other states that allow elk farming. The following are some of the problems other states associate with elk farming reported to the Division:




Karen Zachiem with Montana Parks and Wildlife reported that Montana allows game farming. Initial regulations were inadequate to protect the state's wildlife resources. The state has tried to tighten up regulations related to game farming, resulting in a series of lawsuits against the state from elk ranchers. Zachiem reported that the tightening of regulations was in response to the discovery of TB in wildlife (elk, deer, and coyotes) surrounding a TB infected game farm. TB has been found on several game farms in Montana. Also, they have had problems with wildlife entering game farms as well as game farm animals escaping the farms. Finally, there has been a growth in shooting ranches in Montana. Game farmers allow hunters to come into enclosures to kill trophy game farm animals, raising the issues of fair chase and hunting ethics.




Rolph Johnson with the Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife, reported that Washington allows game farming, but it is strictly regulated to safeguard wildlife. Washington opposed the law when first proposed for the following reasons: introduction of disease and parasites; hybridization of wildlife species; habitat loss; health risks to humans, wildlife, and livestock; and state responsibility to recover or destroy escaped elk. Game farming is not cost effective due to the restrictions needed to prevent these problems.




Jerry Macacchini, with New Mexico Game and Fish, reported that New Mexico has problems with game farming and a moratorium on elk and game farming has been imposed by the state at the request of its citizens. Problems identified in the moratorium were: escaped game farm animals; theft of native elk herds; and disease.




Dan Edwards, with Oregon Fish and Wildlife, reported that Oregon has very little elk farming and is now prohibited by regulation. The elk farms that are in operation existed prior to the adoption of game farm regulations. Individuals who want to elk farm, must buy out an existing elk farm owner. Elk farms are no longer permitted due to, "...current and imminent threats to Oregon's native deer and elk herds and social and economic values.'' Oregon has documented numerous game farm animals that have escapeed from private game farms. Concerns about elk farming arose during public elk management meetings. The impacts of privately held cervids on publicly owned wildlife were a recurring issue throughout the elk management process. Key issues included: disease and parasites; escape and interbreeding of domestic animals with native wildlife; illegal kills for meat; and theft of public wildlife.




Harry Harju, assistant wildlife chief with Wyoming Fish and Game, reported that elk or game farming is now prohibited in Wyoming. Only one game ranch exists in Wyoming, which was operating before the passage of the law. The state of Wyoming was sued by several game breeders associations for not allowing elk farming. The game breeders lost their suit in the United States Court of Appeals, Tenth Circuit. The court maintained that the state had authority to regulate commerce and protect wildlife. Wyoming has had problems with big game farming originating in surrounding states. Wyoming has documented the harvest of red deer and their hybrids during elk hunts on the Snowy Mountain range that borders Colorado. Wyoming speculates that the red deer were escapees from Colorado game farms. Hybridization is viewed as threat to the genetic integrity of Wyoming's wild elk population.


In a public hearing, the public voted against game farms in the state of Wyoming. Wyoming's Cattlemen's Association and Department of Agriculture opposed elk and big game farms, as well, particularly due to disease risks. Brucellosis is a major problem for wildlife and livestock in the Yellowstone Basin.




Nevada reports that big game farms are allowed in Nevada. Nevada has not had any problems as a result of big game farms. However, Nevada has only one big game farm in the entire state and it is a reindeer farm.




Wildlife Chief Tom Rienecker reported that Idaho Fish and Game once regulated elk farming in their state, but lost jurisdiction of elk farming to the Department of Agriculture as a result of pressure from elk farmers. Idaho has 20-30 big game ranches. Idaho has had problems with escapes and several law enforcement cases have been filed against suspects who have taken calves out of the wild for elk farming purposes. Disease has not been a problem for Idaho.




John Seidel, with Colorado Division of Wildlife, reported that the Division used to regulate big game farming until the big game breeders association petitioned for the Department of Agriculture to assume authority over big game farming because too many citations were issued to elk farms for violations. Colorado experienced numerous poaching incidents with elk calves from the wild and theft of whole herds of wild elk captured in private farms. Seidel reported that some of the larger "elk shooting ranches" have been investigated and charged with capturing wild herds of elk within the shooting preserve fences. Seidel reported that there have been documented problems with disease (TB); escaped hybrids and exotics; intrusion of rutting wild elk into game farms; massive recapture efforts for escapees and intruders; and loss of huge tracts of land fenced for shooting preserves/ranches. Based on their experiences, the Colorado Division of Wildlife wishes they did not have big game farms in Colorado. Seidel believes that CEBA would fight hard to open Utah to elk farming to provide a market for breeding stock in Utah ($3,000 & up for a bull and $8,000 & up for a breeding cow).




The Arizona Game and Fish Department reports that elk farming is legal in Arizona but the agency would not allow it if they had to do it all over again. Arizona reported the loss of huge blocks of land to fencing and some disease problems.




Alberta has allowed elk farming for a number of years. To date, Alberta has spent $10,000,000 and destroyed 2,000 elk in an unsuccessful attempt to control the spread of tuberculosis. Based upon the game farming experiences of these states, their recommendation to Utah was not to allow elk farming.




The Division has contacted several state and federal veterinarians. The opinions of some agricultural veterinarians differed from wildlife veterinarians. Some veterinarians endorsed elk farming with the right regulatory safeguards. Other veterinarians opposed elk farming due to the risks to wildlife and livestock. This issue needs a more comprehensive review. The Division also contacted a Special Agent with the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service who conducted a covert investigation in Colorado to gather intelligence on elk farming and detect poaching activity of wild elk. Although poaching was not detected, the agent described his experience with pyramid schemes in elk sales; lack of a meat market; falsification of veterinarian records for farmed elk; escapes and intrusions between wild and captive elk; inadequate inspections by brand inspectors; transportation of TB infected elk; and the temperament of the elk themselves. The Colorado Elk Breeders Association (CEBA) told the Division that CEBA did not approve of elk poaching and has turned in fellow elk farmers for poaching live elk calves from the wild.


CEBA told Utah legislators that the Colorado Division of Wildlife did not like elk ranching at first, but has come to see that elk farming is not as bad as they originally thought it would be. The Colorado Division of Wildlife disagreed with CEBA's perception of their relationship.


snip...see more ;





CWD game meat from USA and Canada: lack of import controls


1,500 elk destroyed in hopes of eradicating CWD infection


Hunt farms voted out of Montana


Game farm rules argued pro and con in Montana


Big game, big business


Montana hunters blast game farms







Terry S. Singeltary Sr.


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