Sunday, March 09, 2014

ACA Council Reviews Comment Period Procedure, Border Closings, Iowa Legal Case, & Committee Recommendations

ACA Reviews Border Closings, Negative Articles & Comment Period March 5, 2014


ACA Council Reviews Comment Period Procedure, Border Closings, Iowa Legal Case, & Committee Recommendations


AYR, NE- The American Cervid Alliance Leadership Council met earlier this week to organize efforts for the Federal Chronic Wasting Disease Program Standards comment period and discuss other industry concerns.


The council had already distributed its outline of remaining concerns from the Version 23 standards to serve as a guide for member associations. Cervid producers and the general public will be able to post comments regarding concerns until the comment period ends March 31. After the comment period ends, the USDA/APHIS will consider all comments and publish the final document which will become the new Program Standards for the cervid industry’s Chronic Wasting Disease program. It was noted that all comments should include positive elements of this document as well as those that are detrimental to our industry.


The council made it very clear that the federal program will have an accompanying standards document. There has been some misconception that the federal rule could be left in place without program standards. Travis Lowe, representing the Kansas Cervid Breeders Association, told the council that since there is a Federal Rule there will be a set of standards to serve as the companion document and encouraged utilization of the comment period in a professional manner . “We have been trying for over a year to make the standards document better and this comment period will be our last opportunity for improvement. Once USDA/APHIS publishes the final version, the ACA can then meet to see what changes have been made and if they are acceptable.” This has been the ACA’s intention. Clint Patty, the ACA’s attorney, told the council there are several legal options in the event the final version of the standards is still unacceptable. These options would have no impact on the federal rule itself.


Another thoroughly discussed topic was the ACA’s response to the damaging article written by columnist Pat Durkin entitled “New chronic wasting disease rules enhance risks”. The article featured several negative quotes from Dr. John Fischer of the University of Georgia. Cervid industry leaders believe several statements made, by Dr. Fischer, in this article, were biased and not based on science. Dr Fischer is a member of the USDA/APHIS Chronic Wasting Disease Program Standards Working Group, as a wildlife representative and a member of the new USAHA Farmed Cervid Subcommittee. The ACA Media Review Committee, chaired by Charly Seale, was flooded with requests from deer and elk farmers encouraging a response. After council discussion, a motion was made by Tim Condict, councilman representing the Deer Breeders Corp, to have ACA Attorney, Clint Patty, draft and send a letter objecting to Dr Fischer’s remarks and request that any future statements be based on the best know science. Condict’s motion also included sending a letter to the United States Animals Health Association’s Executive Committee citing Dr Fischer’s public bias and asking them to reconsider his membership on the Farmed Cervid Subcommittee.


Clint Patty answered questions from the council regarding the commerce clause research and the letter sent to the Missouri Conservation Department Commissioners. Mr. Patty told the council the commissioners were now in receipt of the letter. Currently there is only talk and not an actual proposal to close the Missouri borders.


Warren Bluntzer, chairman of the ACA’s Terminology Committee, presented several terms and ideas the council should consider and then discuss at a future meeting.


The council also received an update from Rhonda Brakke regarding the news of their recent legal victory regarding their suit against the Iowa Department of Natural Resources.


Angie Kerry, ACA Councilwoman for the New York Deer & Elk Farmers Association, provided an update on their border closure and said their association would welcome any financial support. The ACA Council also reviewed and approved the monthly financial statement.



37th Annual Southeast Deer Study Group Meeting in Athens, Georgia (CWD TSE Prion abstracts)


Greetings, lot of good info from this study group I did not post. I only posted on cwd. see the pdf file link to see all abstracts.


37th Annual Southeast Deer Study Group Meeting in Athens, Georgia




The Southeast Deer Study Group was formed as a subcommittee of the Forest Game Committee of the Southeastern Section of The Wildlife Society. The Southeast Deer Study Group Meeting is hosted with the support of the directors of the Southeastern Association of Fish and Wildlife Agencies. The first meeting was held as a joint Northeast-Southeast Meeting at Fort Pickett, Virginia, on September 6-8, 1977. Appreciating the economic, aesthetic, and biological value of the white-tailed deer in the southeastern United States, the desirability of conducting an annual Southeast Deer Study Group Meeting was recognized and urged by the participants. Since February 1979, these meetings have been held annually for the purpose of bringing together managers, researchers, administrators, and users of this vitally important renewable natural resource. A list of the meetings, their location, and theme are listed below. These meetings provide an important forum for the sharing of research results, management strategies, and discussions that can facilitate the timely identification of, and solutions to, problems relative to the management of white-tailed deer in our region. The Deer Subcommittee was given full committee status in November 1985 at the Southeastern Section of The Wildlife Society’s annual business meeting. In 2006, Delaware was approved as a member.




The 37th Annual Southeast Deer Study Group meeting can be counted as contact hours for Professional Development/Certification. Each hour of actual meeting time counts as one credit hour (no social time credit). For more information about professional development, visit The Wildlife Society web site,




Abstracts in the Proceedings and presentations at the Southeast Deer Study Group meeting often contain preliminary data and conclusions that have not undergone the peer-review process. This information is provided to foster communication and interaction among researchers, biologists and deer managers. Commercial use of any of the information presented in conjunction with the Southeast Deer Study Group Annual Meeting is prohibited without written consent of the author(s).


Participation of any vendor/donor/exhibitor with the Southeast Deer Study Group Annual Meeting does not constitute nor imply endorsement by the Southeast Deer Study Group, the SE Section of The Wildlife Society Deer Committee, the host state, or meeting participants.




Gassett – Wildlife Management Institute


ABSTRACT: Currently, one of the greatest challenges facing state fish and wildlife agencies is the shift from a science-based management approach to one more driven by public opinion and political pressures. State fish and wildlife agencies are becoming increasingly politicized, with Directors being replaced at an unprecedented rate, state legislatures increasing their scrutiny in wildlife agency decision-making, and increasing involvement and input by outside entities (state agriculture departments, federal agencies, production-oriented industries, insurance companies, etc.). This has resulted in decreased stability of agencies and a subsequent decrease in their ability to make informed decisions based on science. One of the seven tenets of the North American Model for Wildlife Management is the use of “best science” in the management of our resources, and that tenet is under a direct attack by these influences. The motivating factors behind this push presents mid and upper-level managers with increasing levels of risk and uncertainty. State agencies must adapt to these rapid shifts in pressure to successfully blend science, policy, and common sense in order to reduce this threat to the North American Model to an acceptable level.




Monday, 1:40 PM




Kip Adams – Quality Deer Management Association; Brian Murphy – Quality Deer Management Association; Matt Ross – Quality Deer Management Association


ABSTRACT: A key component of the North American Model of Wildlife Conservation is that wildlife are public trust resources managed by state agencies. We surveyed all 37 state wildlife agencies in the Midwest, Northeast and Southeast to determine their level and means for engaging the public on deer management issues. Only 18 of 37 states had a published deer management plan. All allowed the public to provide input to it and 11 of 14 allowed the public to serve on the plans’ steering committees. Twenty-seven of 31 states were required to provide public involvement in regulatory changes involving deer. Only 3 of 33 states rated their agency’s effectiveness at communicating with the public as excellent. Excluding Texas, states averaged 2.3 active deer staff, and this number remained stable in 26 of 37 states during the last five years. On a scale of 1 to10, science ranked 7.0 and public desire ranked 5.7 for their impact on deer hunting regulations. Nine of 30 states reported public desire outranked science in these decisions. The most popular means for gauging public sentiment or accepting public comments on deer management/regulatory issues were public meetings (35 of 37 states), email (31 of 37), and traditional mail (30 of 37). Sportsmen and women are becoming increasingly engaged in their states’ deer management program. This is important as white-tailed deer are the most popular big game animal in the United States, and whitetail hunters are the foundation of the $87 billion hunting industry.




Monday 9:00 AM




John R. Fischer - Southeastern Cooperative Wildlife Disease Study, College of Veterinary Medicine, University of Georgia


ABSTRACT: Chronic wasting disease (CWD) is a fatal transmissible spongiform encephalopathy that naturally affects white-tailed deer, mule deer, elk, moose, red deer, and sika deer. CWD was known to occur in wild cervids in a portion of Colorado and Wyoming from the 1980s until 1996, when it first was found in captive elk in Saskatchewan, in 1997, when it was detected in captive elk herds in South Dakota, and in 2001, when it first was found in captive white-tailed deer. CWD was regarded as a ‘western disease’ until it was confirmed in wild deer in Wisconsin in 2002. To date, CWD has been found in wild cervids in 16 states, Alberta, and Saskatchewan, and in captive cervids in 13 states, Alberta, Saskatchewan, and the Republic of Korea. CWD management is confounded by several epidemiological unknowns, as well as by long incubations periods that may vary with host genotype, and by environmental persistence of the disease agent. A national CWD management plan for wild and captive cervids was published in 2002, and USDA-APHIS-Veterinary Services published a Proposed Rule for a national CWD Herd Certification Program and Interstate Movement of Farmed or Captive Deer, Elk, and Moose in 2003. The Interim Final Rule and accompanying CWD Program Standards were implemented in 2012, and a revised version of the CWD Program Standards is available for public comment through March 2014. Deer managers and their agencies should scrutinize the revised standards and provide comments that promote adequate disease control measures.




Monday, 11:30 AM




Jacob M. Haus – University of Delaware; Jacob L. Bowman – University of Delaware; Brian Eyler – Maryland Department of Natural Resources


ABSTRACT Previous research has reported negative hunter attitudes towards CWD and disease related regulations that may limit participation, reduce harvest, and generally complicate management. We surveyed 1,519 Maryland deer hunters from 3 counties of varying proximity to the disease management area (CWDMA) regarding behavioral changes due to CWD. We linked responses to each individual’s 5 year harvest history to examine hunter retention, estimate the reductions in harvest attributable to CWD, and determine the degree to which distance from the disease affected behavior. Overall, 1.1% of respondents claimed to have stopped hunting because of CWD; however 47.1% of those respondents continued to register deer after disease discovery, resulting in a true decrease in retention of no > 0.6%. In the county containing the CWDMA, we observed the greatest percentage of hunters with negative attitudes (22.6%) and the largest reduction in harvest attributable to CWD (7.0%). In the county adjacent to the CWDMA and another county 170 miles southeast of the CWDMA, we observed a decrease in negative attitudes (14.1-16.8%) and no reduction in harvest due to the disease. Negative hunter attitude did not directly correlate with behavior. Behavioral shifts due to CWD were highly localized and had no more impact on annual harvest than normal year to year stochastic variability. Upon initial detection of CWD, we recommend managers implement necessary protocols for disease reduction and containment with the understanding that negative hunter attitude will have negligible impact on harvest.


* Student Presenter




Tuesday, 4:30 PM




Steve Demarais – Mississippi State University; B.K. Strickland – Department of Wildlife, Fisheries, and Aquaculture, Mississippi State University; S. Webb – Samuel Roberts Noble Foundation; C. McDonald – Mississippi Department of Wildlife, Fisheries, and Parks; T. Smith – Department of Animal and Dairy Sciences, Mississippi State University


ABSTRACT: Development of large antlers in penned deer, combined with other social influences, has increased interest in releasing pen-raised deer to “improve genetic composition of wild deer populations.” We modeled impact of such releases on average antler size using a livestock model with no ingress/egress to represent a fenced property (Fenced Model) and a model developed at the MSU Deer Lab that includes 10% dispersal/immigration to represent a free-ranging population (Free Model). We modeled release of fawns from pens with an antler distribution averaging 200 gross Boone and Crockett score at five intensities relative to the total population (1%, 5%, 10%, 25% and 50% replacement of the existing native population). After recruitment, we maintained a population of 2,000 animals by removing individuals using natural and harvest mortality. We report the results ten years after release. The impact of releasing pen-raised deer into native populations of white-tailed deer is limited below the 25% release rate (replacing 25% of the native population). Replacing 5% of a free-ranging population with 100 pen-raised deer in a free-ranging population increased B&C score by only 0.8 inch. Replacing 25% of free-ranging population with 500 pen-raised deer improved the score by 12 inches. Releasing pen-raised deer into a fenced property is twice as effective as releasing them into a fenced property; a replacement of only 10% (200 deer) accomplished a 12-inch impact. Assuming a cost of $2,792 per fawn, the cost to produce a one-inch increase in B&C score was $115,000 in a free-ranging population and $56,000 in a fenced property. The increases in B&C score produced by releasing pen-raised deer will not be maintained without intensive management and/or continued release of pen-raised deer.





Saturday, February 22, 2014


New chronic wasting disease rules enhance risks professor John Fischer of the University of Georgia told the 37th meeting of the Southeast Deer Study Group



thanks to the Southeast Deer Study Group !


some additional information on cwd, for those interested. ...tss




Transmissible Spongiform Encephalopathy TSE PRION update January 2, 2014


*** chronic wasting disease, there was no absolute barrier to conversion of the human prion protein.


*** Furthermore, the form of human PrPres produced in this in vitro assay when seeded with CWD, resembles that found in the most common human prion disease, namely sCJD of the MM1 subtype.


Wednesday, January 01, 2014


Molecular Barriers to Zoonotic Transmission of Prions


*** chronic wasting disease, there was no absolute barrier to conversion of the human prion protein.


*** Furthermore, the form of human PrPres produced in this in vitro assay when seeded with CWD, resembles that found in the most common human prion disease, namely sCJD of the MM1 subtype.




Monday, March 03, 2014


*** APHIS to Offer Indemnity for CWD Positive Herds as Part of Its Cervid Health Activities ***



Monday, December 02, 2013





Tuesday, February 11, 2014


Wisconsin tracks 81 deer from game farm with CWD buck to seven other states



Tuesday, February 25, 2014


Test results provide current snapshot of CWD in south-central Wisconsin Dane and Eastern Iowa counties Prevalence has increased in all categories



Thursday, October 03, 2013


*** TAHC ADOPTS CWD RULE THAT the amendments **REMOVE** the requirement for a specific fence height for captives


Texas Animal Health Commission (TAHC) ANNOUNCEMENT October 3, 2013




Wednesday, September 04, 2013


*** cwd - cervid captive livestock escapes, loose and on the run in the wild



Saturday, February 22, 2014


New chronic wasting disease rules enhance risks professor John Fischer of the University of Georgia told the 37th meeting of the Southeast Deer Study Group



Wednesday, March 05, 2014


Iowa Brakke Family Wins DNR Legal Case



Wednesday, August 21, 2013






5. On July 16, 2012, DNR received a notice from the Texas Veterinary Medical Diagnostic Lab ("Texas Vet Lab”) that a sample from an adult male deer killed at Pine Ridge tested presumptively positive for CWD. (DNR has an agreement with the Texas Vet Lab to run these preliminary tests.) Because the Texas Vet Lab found this presumptive positive result, protocols required the sample to be sent to the National Veterinary Services Laboratory ("National Lab”) in Ames, Iowa for final confirmation. On July 18, 2012, the National Lab confirmed the positive CWD result in the deer.


6. On July 19, 2012, DNR notified the Brakkes of the positive test by phone. Mr. Brakke was out of state.




12. The Brakkes depopulated the Hunting Preserve, as specified in the Agreement, from September 10, 2012 to January 31, 2013. As part of this effort, the Brakkes, the staff and their customers killed 199 captive deer and nine captive elk. The DNR obtained 170 CWD samples. (Samples were not taken from fawns and one adult female who was killed in a manner that made sampling impossible.) Of these 199 deer, two additional adult male deer tested positive for CWD. Information provided by the Brakkes confirmed that these two additional deer originated from the Brakke Breeding Facility.


13. DNR installed, with the Brakke's permission, an interior electric fence on October 1 and 2, 2012.


14. The Brakkes cleaned and disinfected, under DNR supervision, the feeders and ground surrounding the feeders on April 5, 2013.


15. On April 26, 2013, the Brakkes hand-delivered a notice to the DNR’s Chief of Law Enforcement Bureau, notifying the DNR that they would no longer operate a hunting preserve on the Quarantined Premises. The Brakkes did not reveal any plans to remove the fence around the Quarantined Premises or to remove the gates to and from the Quarantined Premises in this April 26, 2013 letter.


16. On June 3, 2013, DNR became aware that sections of the exterior fence surrounding the Quarantined Premises had been removed and that some, if not all, of the exterior gates to and from the Quarantined Premises were open.


17. On June 4, 2013, DNR received reports from the public in the area that four wild deer were observed inside the Quarantined Premises.


18. On June 5, 2013, DNR conducted a fence inspection, after gaining approval from surrounding landowners, and confirmed that the fenced had been cut or removed in at least four separate locations; that the fence had degraded and was failing to maintain the enclosure around the Quarantined Premises in at least one area; that at least three gates had been opened; and that deer tracks were visible in and around one of the open areas in the sand on both sides of the fence, evidencing movement of deer into the Quarantined Premises.






Wednesday, August 21, 2013





Wednesday, July 31, 2013


Iowa Brakke Family Farmed CWD livestock update July 3, 2013



Friday, December 14, 2012


IOWA Second Deer Positive for CWD at Davis County Hunting Preserve Captive Shooting Pen



Friday, September 21, 2012


Chronic Wasting Disease CWD raises concerns about deer farms in Iowa



Tuesday, September 11, 2012


Agreement Reached with Owner to De-Populate CWD Deer at Davis County Hunting Preserve Iowa



Wednesday, September 05, 2012


Additional Facility in Pottawatamie County Iowa Under Quarantine for CWD after 5 deer test positive



Friday, July 20, 2012


CWD found for first time in Iowa at hunting preserve



Update: The quarantine placed on the property in Davis County, which resulted from the positive CWD tests described above, was recently violated. Attached below are the Emergency Order DNR issued and the Emergency Consent Order DNR entered into in response to that violation. The case is currently pending a hearing, which is scheduled for November of 2013. DNR’s attorneys are working with the Attorney General’s Office and our staff to defend the DNR in this case and we look forward to a resolution on this matter that will support our efforts in Iowa to have a CWD-free deer population.


DNR Emergency Order, issued June 6, 2013



DNR Emergency Consent Order, agreed upon July 3, 2013



Monday, March 03, 2014


$$$ APHIS to Offer Indemnity for CWD Positive Herds as Part of Its Cervid Health Activities $$$





Survival and Limited Spread of TSE Infectivity after Burial


Karen Fernie, Allister Smith and Robert A. Somerville The Roslin Institute and R(D)SVS; University of Edinburgh; Roslin, Scotland UK


***Risk assessments should take into account the likely long survival rate when infected material has been buried.


The authors gratefully acknowledge funding from DEFRA.



In summary, in endemic areas, there is a medium probability that the soil and surrounding environment is contaminated with CWD prions and in a bioavailable form. In rural areas where CWD has not been reported and deer are present, there is a greater than negligible risk the soil is contaminated with CWD prion.




The BSE Inquiry / Statement No 19B (supplementary) Dr Alan Colchester Issued 06/08/1999 (not scheduled to give oral evidence) SECOND STATEMENT TO THE BSE INQUIRY Dr A Colchester BA BM BCh PhD FRCP Reader in Neurosciences & Computing, University of Kent at Canterbury; Consultant Neurologist, Guy’s Hospital London and William Harvey Hospital Ashford April 1999




88. Natural decay: Infectivity persists for a long time in the environment. A study by Palsson in 1979 showed how scrapie was contracted by healthy sheep, after they had grazed on land which had previously been grazed by scrapie-infected sheep, even though the land had lain fallow for three years before the healthy sheep were introduced. Brown also quoted an early experiment of his own (1991), where he had buried scrapie-infected hamster brain and found that he could still detect substantial infectivity three years later near where the material had been placed. 89. Potential environmental routes of infection: Brown discusses the various possible scenarios, including surface or subsurface deposits of TSE-contaminated material, which would lead to a build-up of long-lasting infectivity.





Infectivity surviving ashing to 600*C is (in my opinion) degradable but infective. based on Bown & Gajdusek, (1991), landfill and burial may be assumed to have a reduction factor of 98% (i.e. a factor of 50) over 3 years. CJD-infected brain-tissue remained infectious after storing at room-temperature for 22 months (Tateishi et al, 1988). Scrapie agent is known to remain viable after at least 30 months of desiccation (Wilson et al, 1950). and pastures that had been grazed by scrapie-infected sheep still appeared to be contaminated with scrapie agent three years after they were last occupied by sheep (Palsson, 1979).






More here:




[PDF] BSE INQUIRY Statement of behalf of the Environment Agency ... his Statement of March 1998 to the BSE Inquiry ... systems subject to regular or intermittent contamination by rapid movement of recharge water ...





Statement of behalf of the Environment Agency Concerning Thruxted Mill By Mr C. P. Young Principal Hydrogeologist, Soil Waste and Groundwater Group WRc plc; Medmenham, Bucks




Scrapie Agent (Strain 263K) Can Transmit Disease via the Oral Route after Persistence in Soil over Years Published: May 9, 2007 Discussion


The results of this research project show for the first time that the scrapie strain 263K remains persistent in soil over a period of at least 29 months and remains highly infectious after oral application to Syrian hamsters. It has to be pointed out that the key results of our time-course study on the fate of PrPSc in soil have been validated, in part by examining blinded samples, at independent laboratories.



Some unofficial information from a source on the inside looking out -




As early as 1992-3 there had been long studies conducted on small pastures containing scrapie infected sheep at the sheep research station associated with the Neuropathogenesis Unit in Edinburgh, Scotland. Whether these are documented...I don't know. But personal recounts both heard and recorded in a daily journal indicate that leaving the pastures free and replacing the topsoil completely at least 2 feet of thickness each year for SEVEN years....and then when very clean (proven scrapie free) sheep were placed on these small pastures.... the new sheep also broke out with scrapie and passed it to offspring. I am not sure that TSE contaminated ground could ever be free of the agent!! A very frightening revelation!!!


---end personal email---




PO-039: A comparison of scrapie and chronic wasting disease in white-tailed deer




After a natural route of exposure, 100% of WTD were susceptible to scrapie. ...This work demonstrates that WTD are highly susceptible to sheep scrapie, but on first passage, scrapie in WTD is differentiable from CWD.





*** After a natural route of exposure, 100% of white-tailed deer were susceptible to scrapie.



Research Project: Virus and Prion Research Unit 2011 Annual Report


In Objective 1, Assess cross-species transmissibility of transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (TSEs) in livestock and wildlife, numerous experiments assessing the susceptibility of various TSEs in different host species were conducted.


Most notable is deer inoculated with scrapie, which exhibits similarities to chronic wasting disease (CWD) in deer suggestive of sheep scrapie as an origin of CWD.


This work conducted by ARS scientists at the National Animal Disease Center, Ames, IA suggests that an interspecies transmission of sheep scrapie to deer may have been the origin of CWD. This is important for husbandry practices with both captive deer, elk and sheep for farmers and ranchers attempting to keep their herds and flocks free of CWD and scrapie.



White-tailed Deer are Susceptible to Scrapie by Natural Route of Infection




This work demonstrates for the first time that white-tailed deer are susceptible to sheep scrapie by potential natural routes of inoculation. In-depth analysis of tissues will be done to determine similarities between scrapie in deer after intracranial and oral/intranasal inoculation and chronic wasting disease resulting from similar routes of inoculation.


see full text ;




Prevalence of clinical or subclinical CWD infection as detected by immunohistochemistry (IHC) of lymphoid tissue or brain in captive herds varies considerably from ,1% in some farmed herds with recent introduction of the disease to essentially 100% in CWD endemic research facilities.111,117,157 Likewise, prevalence varies widely in free-ranging populations from ,1% in deer and elk to ;30% in some local populations of deer103 (W. Cook, personal communication; Wyoming Game and Fish Department and Colorado Division of Wildlife, unpublished data). Prevalence of CWD in elk is lower than in sympatric deer.101





Sunday, December 06, 2009


Detection of Sub-Clinical CWD Infection in Conventional Test-Negative Deer Long after Oral Exposure to Urine and Feces from CWD+ Deer


Detection of Sub-Clinical CWD Infection in Conventional Test-Negative Deer Long after Oral Exposure to Urine and Feces from CWD+ Deer


Nicholas J. Haley1, Candace K. Mathiason1, Mark D. Zabel1, Glenn C. Telling2, Edward A. Hoover1*


1 Department of Microbiology, Immunology, and Pathology, College of Veterinary Medicine and Biomedical Sciences, Colorado State University, Fort Collins, Colorado, United States of America, 2 Department of Molecular Biology and Genetics, University of Kentucky, Lexington, Kentucky, United States of America


Abstract Top Background Chronic wasting disease (CWD) of cervids is a prion disease distinguished by high levels of transmissibility, wherein bodily fluids and excretions are thought to play an important role. Using cervid bioassay and established CWD detection methods, we have previously identified infectious prions in saliva and blood but not urine or feces of CWD+ donors. More recently, we identified very low concentrations of CWD prions in urine of deer by cervid PrP transgenic (Tg[CerPrP]) mouse bioassay and serial protein misfolding cyclic amplification (sPMCA). This finding led us to examine further our initial cervid bioassay experiments using sPMCA.


Objectives We sought to investigate whether conventional test-negative deer, previously exposed orally to urine and feces from CWD+ sources, may be harboring low level CWD infection not evident in the 19 month observation period. We further attempted to determine the peripheral PrPCWD distribution in these animals.


Methods Various neural and lymphoid tissues from conventional test-negative deer were reanalyzed for CWD prions by sPMCA and cervid transgenic mouse bioassay in parallel with appropriate tissue-matched positive and negative controls.


Results PrPCWD was detected in the tissues of orally exposed deer by both sPMCA and Tg[CerPrP] mouse bioassay; each assay revealed very low levels of CWD prions previously undetectable by western blot, ELISA, or IHC. Serial PMCA analysis of individual tissues identified that obex alone was positive in 4 of 5 urine/feces exposed deer. PrPCWD was amplified from both lymphoid and neural tissues of positive control deer but not from identical tissues of negative control deer.


Discussion Detection of subclinical infection in deer orally exposed to urine and feces (1) suggests that a prolonged subclinical state can exist, necessitating observation periods in excess of two years to detect CWD infection, and (2) illustrates the sensitive and specific application of sPMCA in the diagnosis of low-level prion infection. Based on these results, it is possible that low doses of prions, e.g. following oral exposure to urine and saliva of CWD-infected deer, bypass significant amplification in the LRS, perhaps utilizing a neural conduit between the alimentary tract and CNS, as has been demonstrated in some other prion diseases.


Citation: Haley NJ, Mathiason CK, Zabel MD, Telling GC, Hoover EA (2009) Detection of Sub-Clinical CWD Infection in Conventional Test-Negative Deer Long after Oral Exposure to Urine and Feces from CWD+ Deer. PLoS ONE 4(11): e7990. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0007990


Editor: Jiyan Ma, Ohio State University, United States of America


Received: September 29, 2009; Accepted: October 29, 2009; Published: November 24, 2009


Copyright: © 2009 Haley et al. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.


Funding: This work was supported by NIH/NCRR Ruth L. Kirschstein Institutional T32 R07072-03 and NIH/NIAID NO1-AI-25491-02 (EAH, GCT). The funders had no role in study design, data collection and analysis, decision to publish, or preparation of the manuscript.


Competing interests: The authors have declared that no competing interests exist.


* E-mail:




In summary, we provide evidence for the presence of infectious prions in the brains of conventional prion-assay-negative deer orally exposed 19 months earlier to urine and feces from CWD-infected donor deer. This apparent low level of prion infection was amplified by sPMCA, confirmed by Tg[CerPrP] mouse bioassay, and detected only in the obex region of the brain. These results demonstrate the potential for CWD prion transmission via urine and/or feces, and highlight the application of more sensitive assays such as sPMCA in identification of CWD infection, pathogenesis, and prevalence.






I suppose one of the most disturbing studies I have ever read, was the one of Gibbs et al, way back, with electrodes that caused CJD, again, and again.


I am not posting this to scare folks, so be it if it does, but I am posting this for you to see what you are dealing with. ...this study still amazes me. read it more than once.


please see ;


1: J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry 1994 Jun;57(6):757-8


*** Transmission of Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease to a chimpanzee by electrodes contaminated during neurosurgery.


Gibbs CJ Jr, Asher DM, Kobrine A, Amyx HL, Sulima MP, Gajdusek DC.


Laboratory of Central Nervous System Studies, National Institute of


Neurological Disorders and Stroke, National Institutes of Health,


Bethesda, MD 20892.


*** Stereotactic multicontact electrodes used to probe the cerebral cortex of a middle aged woman with progressive dementia were previously implicated in the accidental transmission of Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (CJD) to two younger patients. The diagnoses of CJD have been confirmed for all three cases. More than two years after their last use in humans, after three cleanings and repeated sterilisation in ethanol and formaldehyde vapour, the electrodes were implanted in the cortex of a chimpanzee. Eighteen months later the animal became ill with CJD. This finding serves to re-emphasise the potential danger posed by reuse of instruments contaminated with the agents of spongiform encephalopathies, even after scrupulous attempts to clean them.


PMID: 8006664 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]




New studies on the heat resistance of hamster-adapted scrapie agent: Threshold survival after ashing at 600°C suggests an inorganic template of replication




Prion Infected Meat-and-Bone Meal Is Still Infectious after Biodiesel Production




Detection of protease-resistant cervid prion protein in water from a CWD-endemic area




A Quantitative Assessment of the Amount of Prion Diverted to Category 1 Materials and Wastewater During Processing




Rapid assessment of bovine spongiform encephalopathy prion inactivation by heat treatment in yellow grease produced in the industrial manufacturing process of meat and bone meals






Survival and Limited Spread of TSE Infectivity after Burial




I am not one that wants the feds in bed with everything I do, and yet, I am not one that thinks the states have the better ideas all the time, over the feds. it’s a fine line to cross either way. but I do know, sometimes, folks can’t think for themselves when blinded by the almighty dollar. sometimes you just can’t fix stupid. but in this case, we turn a blind eye to CWD, as has been done here. we all loose, while the shooting pens laugh all the way to the bank. for now. ...tss


*** Spraker suggested an interesting explanation for the occurrence of CWD. The deer pens at the Foot Hills Campus were built some 30-40 years ago by a Dr. Bob Davis. At or abut that time, allegedly, some scrapie work was conducted at this site. When deer were introduced to the pens they occupied ground that had previously been occupied by sheep. ...


also, see where even decades back, the USDA had the same thought as they do today with CWD, not their problem...see page 27 below as well, where USDA stated back then, the same thing they stated in the state of Pennsylvania, not their damn business, once they escape, and they said the same thing about CWD in general back then ;


”The occurrence of CWD must be viewed against the contest of the locations in which it occurred. It was an incidental and unwelcome complication of the respective wildlife research programmes. Despite it’s subsequent recognition as a new disease of cervids, therefore justifying direct investigation, no specific research funding was forthcoming. The USDA veiwed it as a wildlife problem and consequently not their province!” 26.



”The occurrence of CWD must be viewed against the contest of the locations in which it occurred. It was an incidental and unwelcome complication of the respective wildlife research programmes. Despite it’s subsequent recognition as a new disease of cervids, therefore justifying direct investigation, no specific research funding was forthcoming. The USDA veiwed it as a wildlife problem and consequently not their province!” 26.


sound familiar $$$


Sunday, January 06, 2013




*** "it‘s no longer its business.”



According to Wisconsin’s White-Tailed Deer Trustee Dr. James Kroll, people who call for more public hunting opportunities are “pining for socialism.”


He further states, “(Public) Game management is the last bastion of communism.”


“Game Management,” says James Kroll, driving to his high-fenced, two-hundred-acre spread near Nacogdoches, “is the last bastion of communism.”


Kroll, also known as Dr. Deer, is the director of the Forestry Resources Institute of Texas at Stephen F. Austin State University, and the “management” he is referring to is the sort practiced by the State of Texas.


The 55-year-old Kroll is the leading light in the field of private deer management as a means to add value to the land. His belief is so absolute that some detractors refer to him as Dr. Dough, implying that his eye is on the bottom line more than on the natural world.


Kroll, who has been the foremost proponent of deer ranching in Texas for more than thirty years, doesn’t mind the controversy and certainly doesn’t fade in the heat. People who call for more public lands are “cocktail conservationists,” he says, who are really pining for socialism. He calls national parks “wildlife ghettos” and flatly accuses the government of gross mismanagement. He argues that his relatively tiny acreage, marked by eight-foot fences and posted signs warning off would-be poachers, is a better model for keeping what’s natural natural while making money off the land.




What does this all mean?


My initial reaction, which is one that I predicted when Kroll was named to the state’s deer trustee position, is that his team’s final recommendations — if implemented — will be heavily skewed toward the state’s larger landowners (500+ acres) and folks who own small parcels in areas comprised mostly of private land. It is also my prediction that the final recommendations (again, if implemented) will do little, if anything, to improve deer herds and deer hunting on Wisconsin’s 5.7 million acres of public land. Where does this leave the public-land hunter? “It will suck to be you,” said one deer manager who asked to remain anonymous out of fear for his job. “The resources and efforts will go toward improving the private land sector. This is all about turning deer hunting away from the Public Land Doctrine and more toward a European-style of management — like they have in Texas.”



Friday, June 01, 2012





Monday, February 11, 2013


TEXAS CHRONIC WASTING DISEASE CWD Four New Positives Found in Trans Pecos



Wednesday, September 04, 2013


*** cwd - cervid captive livestock escapes, loose and on the run in the wild



Thursday, August 08, 2013


Characterization of the first case of naturally occurring chronic wasting disease in a captive red deer (Cervus elaphus) in North America



Wednesday, February 12, 2014


Louisiana business, 3 men accused of smuggling deer into Mississippi



Tuesday, May 28, 2013


Chronic Wasting Disease CWD quarantine Louisiana via CWD index herd Pennsylvania Update May 28, 2013


6 doe from Pennsylvania CWD index herd still on the loose in Louisiana, quarantine began on October 18, 2012, still ongoing, Lake Charles premises.



Monday, June 24, 2013


The Effects of Chronic Wasting Disease on the Pennsylvania Cervid Industry Following its Discovery



Monday, June 11, 2012


OHIO Captive deer escapees and non-reporting



Sunday, January 27, 2013


Indiana 6 deer missing from farm pose health risk to state herds INDIANA



how many states have $465,000., and can quarantine and purchase there from, each cwd said infected farm, but how many states can afford this for all the cwd infected cervid game ranch type farms ???


Tuesday, December 20, 2011




The CWD infection rate was nearly 80%, the highest ever in a North American captive herd. RECOMMENDATION: That the Board approve the purchase of 80 acres of land for $465,000 for the Statewide Wildlife Habitat Program in Portage County and approve the restrictions on public use of the site.





shooting pens and their cwd testing program is a sham, when they do NOT test all deer. all cervids, of all ages, must be tested for CWD, at least once a year. the excuse of not having a validated cwd test, is just that, an excuse, one that does not hold water with me anymore. same with scrapie and bse. ...tss


Saturday, February 04, 2012


*** Wisconsin 16 age limit on testing dead deer Game Farm CWD Testing Protocol Needs To Be Revised ***



Friday, November 22, 2013


*** Wasting disease is threat to the entire UK deer population CWD TSE PRION disease in cervids SINGELTARY SUBMISSION


The Scottish Parliament’s Rural Affairs, Climate Change and Environment Committee has been looking into deer management, as you can see from the following press release, ***and your email has been forwarded to the committee for information:




Sunday, July 21, 2013


Welsh Government and Food Standards Agency Wales Joint Public Consultation on the Proposed Transmissible Spongiform Encephalopathies (Wales) Regulations 2013 Singeltary Submission WG18417



Friday, December 14, 2012


DEFRA U.K. What is the risk of Chronic Wasting Disease CWD being introduced into Great Britain? A Qualitative Risk Assessment October 2012



Saturday, June 09, 2012


USDA Establishes a Herd Certification Program for Chronic Wasting Disease in the United States



Wednesday, September 25, 2013


USDA Officials: CWD Standards Going to Public Comment Soon



Friday, March 07, 2014


37th Annual Southeast Deer Study Group Meeting in Athens, Georgia (CWD TSE Prion abstracts)



Monday, March 03, 2014


APHIS to Offer Indemnity for CWD Positive Herds as Part of Its Cervid Health Activities



Sunday, March 09, 2014


*** Lesion Profiling and Subcellular Prion Localization of Cervid Chronic Wasting Disease in Domestic Cats



Sunday, November 3, 2013


*** Environmental Impact Statements; Availability, etc.: Animal Carcass Management [Docket No. APHIS-2013-0044]



Wednesday, January 01, 2014


APHIS-2006-0118-0100 Chronic Wasting Disease Herd Certification Program and Interstate Movement of Farmed or Captive Deer, Elk, and Moose



*** The potential impact of prion diseases on human health was greatly magnified by the recognition that interspecies transfer of BSE to humans by beef ingestion resulted in vCJD. While changes in animal feed constituents and slaughter practices appear to have curtailed vCJD, there is concern that CWD of free-ranging deer and elk in the U.S. might also cross the species barrier. Thus, consuming venison could be a source of human prion disease. Whether BSE and CWD represent interspecies scrapie transfer or are newly arisen prion diseases is unknown. Therefore, the possibility of transmission of prion disease through other food animals cannot be ruled out. There is evidence that vCJD can be transmitted through blood transfusion. There is likely a pool of unknown size of asymptomatic individuals infected with vCJD, and there may be asymptomatic individuals infected with the CWD equivalent. These circumstances represent a potential threat to blood, blood products, and plasma supplies.



Thursday, January 2, 2014


*** CWD TSE Prion in cervids to hTGmice, Heidenhain Variant Creutzfeldt-Jacob Disease MM1 genotype, and iatrogenic CJD ??? ***



***However, they also show that there is no absolute barrier ro conversion of human prion protein in the case of chronic wasting disease.




Sunday, August 25, 2013


***Chronic Wasting Disease CWD risk factors, humans, domestic cats, blood, and mother to offspring transmission



Transmissible Spongiform Encephalopathy TSE PRION update January 2, 2014


*** chronic wasting disease, there was no absolute barrier to conversion of the human prion protein.


*** Furthermore, the form of human PrPres produced in this in vitro assay when seeded with CWD, resembles that found in the most common human prion disease, namely sCJD of the MM1 subtype.





Wednesday, January 15, 2014















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